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398106 A 

Copyright,  1893,  by 

All  rights  reserved. 

RAHWAY,   N.   J 


It  is  a  trite  tiling  to  say  of  a  book  that  it  "  meets  a  long  felt 
want";  but  when  tliat  is  so  absolutely  the  case  as  with  Cassell's 
"  New  Biogi-aphical  Dictionary,"  it  is  almost  impossible  to  abstain 
from  using  the  phrase.  Biographical  dictionaries  are  no  new 
thing  ;  tliere  are  many  and  excellent  ones  in  existence  ;  but  they 
are  all  more  or  less  bulky  and  consequently  expensive.  The  aim 
of  the  publishers  in  making  this  book  has  been  to  make  it  first  a 
thorou2:hlv  reliable  book  of  reference  ;  then  to  make  it  concise, 
convenient  to  refer  to,  and  inexpensive.  That  the\^  have  fulfilled 
this  aim  there  can  be  no  doubt.  In  the  words  of  one  eminently 
fitted  to  judge,  this  Dictionary  is  "a  thoroughly  reliable  woik  of 
reference,  giving  particulars  of  the  world's  celebrities,  whether 
living  or  dead,  from  the  earliest  times  up  to  the  present  date.  It 
also  gives  the  noms  de  plume  of  popular  writers,  with  their  real 
names.  So  carefully  has  it  been  edited  that  so  recent  an  event 
as  the  death  of  Lord  Tennyson  is  noted."  While  the  details  are 
necessarily  brief,  all  the  important  facts  are  there.  To  the 
student  and  the  man  of  letters,  or  to  the  busy  man  of  affaii's,  this 
will  be  found  a  most  valuable  book  of  reference,  and  one  that  once 
used  will  never  be  dispensed  with. 



Aagard,  Christian  {b.  1616,  d.  1664),  Danish 
writer  of  Latin  poetry  ;  his  compositions 
will  be  found  collected  in  Eostgaard's 
Lelicice  Quorundum  Poetarum  Banoriim. 

Aali  or  All,  Mustapha  Ben  Achmed  {d. 
1597),  Turkish  historian,  whose  principal 
work  was  a  universal  history. 

A'ali  or  Ali,  Pacha,  Mehemet  Emin 
(h.  1815,  d.  1871),  a  distinguished  statesman 
of  the  Ottoman  empire,  was  employed 
diplomatically  at  the  courts  of  Austria  and 
England,  and  finally,  returning  to  Con- 
stantinople, was  five  times  appointed  grand 

Aaron,  son  of  Amram  and  Jochehed,  of 
the  tribe  of  Levi,  and  the  elder  brother  of 
Moses  and  Miriam.  He  appeared  with 
Moses  before  Pharaoh,  and  was  the  ftrst 
high  priest  of  Israel,  his  sons  being  also 
consecrated  to  the  priesthood.  He  shared 
the  sin  of  Moses  at  Meribah,  as  well  as  its 
punishment,  his  death  taking  place  shortly 
afterwards  on  Mount  Hor. 

Aaron,  Saint,  the  reputed  foimder,  in  the 
sixth  century,  of  the  first  monastery  in 

Aarsens,  Francis  van  (6.  1572,  d.  1641), 
Dutch  politician  and  diplomatist  of  dis- 
tinction, was  ambassador  at  several  courts, 
notably  France ;  the  execution  of  Barneveldt 
was  mainly  due  to  his  influence. 

Aarshot,  Philippe  {d.  1595),  second  Duke 
of  Croi,  a  Flemish  noble,  commander  of 
the  forces  sent  against  the  Duke  of  Cleves. 
In  the  Spanish  war  of  the  Low  Countries  he 
first  espoused  the  cause  of  Philip  II.,  and 
was  made  president  of  the  coimcil ;  after- 
wards siding  with  the  States,  he  became 
governor  of  Flanders,  and  in  the  rising  of 
Ghent  was  seized  by  the  mob  and  imprisoned. 
On  his  release  he  took  refuge  in  Venice. 

Aartsen  or  Aertsen,  Pieter  (6.  1519,  d. 
1566),  historical  painter,  son  of  a  stocking 
weaver  of  Amsterdam. 

Abad  I.,  Aboul  Cacem  Mohammed  [d. 
1042),  the  founder  of  the  dynasty  of  Abad- 
tydes,  and  first  Moorish  king  of  Seville. 

Abad  IL  (6.  1012,  d.  1069),  a  prince  ol 
great  ability  and  ambition,  succeeded  to  the 
above  and  added  largely  to  his  dominions. 
He  was  fond  of  literature  and  poetry,  but 
was  voluptuous,  cruel,  and  superstitious. 

Abad  III.,  Abou  Cacem  Mohammed  al 
Mohammed  Billah  {h.  1039,  d.  1095),  son  of 
the  above,  completed  the  conquest  of  the 
kingdom  of  Malaga,  but  w\as  finally  defeated 
by  Yousuf-ben  Taschfyn,  and  carried  cap- 
tive to  Africa,  where  he  died. 

Abaka  Khan  (cl.  1222),  a  Persian  emperor, 
eighth  of  the  Jhengis  dynasty,  married  the 
daughter  of  Michael  Palseologus,  and  is 
supposed  to  have  been  a  convert  to  Chris- 

Abamonti,  Giuseppe  (6.  1759,  d.  1818), 
Neapolitan  statesman,  who  took  an  active 
part  in  the  revolutionary  movement.  In 
1799  he  was  arrested  and  condemned  to 
death,  but  was  pardoned,  and  he  retired  to 
Milan,  returning  to  Xaples  in  1805. 

Abancourt,  Charles  Xavier  Joseph  Fran- 
queville  {b.  1758,  d.  1792),  appointed  minis- 
ter of  war  in  1792  by  Louis  XVI.,  was 
afterwards  denounced  as  an  aristocrat  by 
Thuriot,  and  put  to  death  as  a  sop  to  the 
popular  party. 

Abano,  Pietro  [b.  1246,  d.  1320),  a  na 
tive  of  Padua,  celebrated  for  his  skill  in 
alchemy  and  medicine. 

Abascal,  Jose  Fernando  (b.  1763,  d. 
1821),  Viceroy  of  Peru  during  several  years 
of  the  South  American  war  of  independ- 

Abati  or  Abbati,  Niccolo  {b.  1512,  d. 
1572),  Italian  painter,  a  native  of  Modena, 
princiimlly  known  for  the  frescoes  which  he 
painted  at  Fontainebleau,  of  which,  hoAV- 
ever,  the  greater  part  have  been  destroyed. 

Abauzit,  Firmiu  {b.  1679,  d.  1767),  theo> 
logian,  mathematician,  antiquarian,  and 
historian.  A  native  of  Uzes  in  Languedoc, 
he  was  of  Arabian  desceut,  and  travelled 
through  Germany,  Holland,  and  Eugland, 
and  w^as  honoured  with  the  friendship  of 
Voltaire,  Rousseau,  and  Newton. 




Abbas  I.,  Shah  (6. 1557,  d.  1628),  ascended 
the  throne  of  Persia  in  1585,  and  after 
defeating  the  f  zbegs  Avas  able,  with  the 
assistance  of  Sir  Anthony  and  Sir  Kobert 
Shirley  from  England,  to  overthrow  the 
Turks,  regaining  all  his  lost  provinces.     ' 

Abbas,  Mirza  [b.  1795,  d.  1833),  Prince 
Koyal  of  Persia,  an  enlightened  reformer  of 
his  country.  He  sent  several  youths  to 
England  to  be  educated,  and  established  the 
first  printing  press  in  Persia  at  Tabritz. 

Abbas,  Pacha  {b.  1813,  d.  1854),  eldest 
son  of  Mehemet  AH,  succeeded  his  uncle, 
Ibrahim  Pacha,  in  the  viceroyalty  of 
Egypt,  1834. 

Abbassatl  {d.  1634),  appointed  Pacha  of 
Erzerum  by  the  Aga  of  the  Janissaries, 
twice  revolted  against  Murad  IV. ,  by  whom 
he  was  finally  put  to  death. 

Abbey,  Edwin  Austin  [b.  1852),  a  well- 
known  American  artist  in  black  and  white, 
educated  at  the  Peusylvanian  Academy. 
His  water-colour  drawings  also  have  at- 
tracted attention  both  in  America  and  in 

Abbey,  Henry  {h.  1842),  American  author, 
was  educated  at  Kingston  Academy  and  the 
Hudson  Eiver  Institute. 

Abbot,  Ezra,  LL.D.,  D.D.  {b.  1819,  d. 
1884),  American  critic,  very  precocious  as  a 
child,  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College,  and 
settled  at  Cambridge,  gaining  considerable 
reputation  as  a  biblical  critic.  He  contri- 
buted to  periodicals,  and  also  wrote  several 
critical  Avorks,  and  in  support  of  Unitarian- 
ism  ;  the  best  known  is  that  on  The  Author- 
ity of  the  Fourth  Gospel. 

Abbot,  George  {b.  1562,  d.  1633),  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  the  son  of  a  cloth- 
worker  of  Guildford.  He  early  became  a 
popular  preacher  and  author,  and  his  efforts 
to  establish  episcopacy  in  Scotland  and  a 
pamphlet  he  wrote  upon  the  conviction  of 
George  Sprot,  brought  him  into  favour  with 
James  I.  He  was  first  appointed  Bishop  of 
Loudon,  and  then  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 
Later,  his  action  with  respect  to  the  mar- 
riage of  the  Earl  of  Essex,  his  Calvinistic 
views,  the  growing  influence  of  Laud,  and 
his  accidental  shooting  of  a  keeper,  brought 
him  into  disfavour,  and  though  he  attended 
James's  death-bed,  and  crowned  Charles  I., 
he  was  soon  placed  under  confinement.  The 
almshouses  he  founded  at  Guildford  still 

Abbot,  Henry  Larcom  {b.  1831),  Ameri- 
can engineer,  graduated  at  West  Point, 
and  entered  the  topographical  engineers. 
During  the  Civil  war  he  rose  to  be  lieutenant- 
colonel,  and  after  the  close  of  the  war 
war,  actively  engaged  ou  various  matters, 

notably  the  invention  and  development  of 
the  U.S.  system  of  marine  mines  for  coast 
and  river  defence. 

Abbot,  Joel  {b.  1793,  d.  1855),  American 
naval  officer  ;  during  the  second  American 
war  A\*ith  England  his  bravery  and  self- 
devotion  were  conspicuous.  The  latter  part 
of  his  life  was  spent  in  China,  where,  as 
flag-oificer,  he  discharged  delicate  diplo- 
matic duties  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  hia 

Abbot,  Lemuel  [b.  1762,  d.  1803),  an 
English  portrait  painter  of  naval  heroes. 

Abbot,  Samuel  {d.  1839),  American  lawyer, 
invented  the  method  of  obtaining  starch 
from  the  potato  ;^he  was  burnt  to  death  in 
his  factory. 

Abbott,  Benjamin  Vaughan  {b.  Boston, 
I  1830),  has  produced  several  works  conjointly 
I  with  his  brother  and  partner,  Austin,  aud 

also  many  separately.  He  was  appointed 
j  to  revise  the  statutes  of  the  United  States, 

and  compiled  important  "digests"  of  de- 
;  cisions,  etc. 

I  Abbot,  Charles  Conrad  (h.  1843),  Ameri- 
can naturalist,  educated  at  Trenton,  and 
Pennsylvania,  graduated  in  medicine  in 
1863.  His  investigations  concerning  pre- 
historic man  are  valuable  and  interesting. 

t  Abbt,  Thomas  {b.  1738,  d.  1766),  a  learned 
German  educated  at  Ulm  and  Halle.  In- 
tended for  the  church,  his  inclinations  led 
him  to  philosophy,  mathematics,  aud  modern 
languages ;  he  was  professor  of  philosophy  at 
Erankfort-on-the-Oder  and  of  mathematics 
at  Rinteln.     He  died  at  Bucksberg. 

!  Abdallab  {d.  1818),  the  fourth  and  last 
Scherif  of  the  Wahabites,  succeeded  his 
father  in  1814,  but  was  taken  prisoner  by 

I  Mehemet  Ali  and  beheaded  by  the  Sultan. 

I      Abdallatif   {b.    1162,    d.   1231),  Arabian 
;  physician  and  philosopher,  and  author  of 
several  books,  notably  on  Egypt. 

Abdal  Wahab  {b.  1692,  d.  1787),  an  Ara- 
bian religious  reformer,  and  founder  of  the 
sect  of  Wahabites. 

Abd-el-Kader,  Sidi-el-Hadjo-Ouled  Mah- 
iddin  {b.  near  Mascara,  1807,  d.  1883),  dis- 
tinguished Algerian  commander,  led  the 
native  tribes  against  the  French  when  thp 
latter  had  taken  possession  of  Algeria.  Eor 
fourteen  years  he  kept  them  at  bay,  and 
secured  to  himself  .the  virtual  sovereignty  of 
Oran.  Finally  he  surrendered  to  General 
Lamoriciere,  and  was  restored  to  freedom  by 
Napoleon  III.  upon  undertaking  not  to  take 
up  arms  against  the  French.  In  1860  he 
defended  the  Christians  against  the  Druses 
in  the  massacre  at  Damascus. 

Abd-er-rahman    I.     {,b.    731,    d.    787), 




founder  of  the  royal  race  of  the  Ommeyades, 
Emirs  of  Cordova,  lauding  iu  Grauada 
755,  and  reported  introducer  of  the  palm- 
ti-ee,  pomegranate,  apricot,  and  peach  into 

Abd-er-rahman  II.  [h.  788,  d.  852),  the 
fourth  Emir  of  Cordova  of  tlie  Ommeyade 
line,  and  called  "  Ab  Mutrif,"  or  "The  vic- 
torious," from  his  successes  over  the  native 
Spanish  kings. 

Abd-er-rahman  III.  {b.  891,  d.  961), 
"  Prince  of  the  Faithful,"  was  eighth  Emir 
of  the  race,  and  first  to  assume  the  title  of 
Caliph.  He  reigned  for  forty-nine  years  in 
prosperity  and  splendour,  having  defeated 
his  enemies,  and  built  the  magnificent 
palace  and  city  of  Azzahrah. 

Abd-er-rhaman  [b.  1778,  d.  1859),  Em- 
peror of  Morocco  and  Fez.  He  was  involved 
in  troubles  with  several  of  the  European 
powers,  especially  France,  which  took 
Algiers  and  attacked  Taugiers,  while  his 
attempts  to  annex  Oran  were  rendered  futile 
by  the  opposition  of  Abd-el-Kader. 

Abdul-aziz  Khan  [b.  1830,  d.  1876), 
Sultan  of  the  Ottoman  Emjiire,  succeeded 
his  brother,  Abdul  Medjid,  in  1861.  Brought 
up  under  a  French  tutor,  he  imbibed  many 
European  ideas,  introduced  improvements 
in  agriculture,  reforaied  the  courts  of  jus- 
tice, and  personally  discarded  polygamy-. 
In  1862  he  conquered  the  Montenegrins, 
and  visited  England  in  1867.  An  insurrec- 
in  Herzegovina  was  settled  by  European 
intervention  (1876),  but  th^  extravagance 
and  despotism  of  the  Sultan  rendered  him  so 
unpopular  as  to  provoke  his  deposition, 
•which  was  quickly  followed  by  his  suicide 
or  murder. 

Abdul  Hamid  [b.  1725,  d.  1789)  suc- 
ceeded to  the  Ottoman  throne  in  1773.  In 
1774  he  concluded  peace  with  Kussia  by  the 
Treaty  of  Kainardji,  but  three  years  later 
war  again  broke  out,  the  battle  of  Kinburu 
was  lost,  and  finally  Russia  took  all  the 
provinces  north  of  the  Danube. 

Abdul  Hamid  II.  {b.  1842),  reigning  Sultan 
of  Turkey,  succeeded  his  brother,  Murad  V. 
(deposed  on  account  of  alleged  insanity),  in 
August,  1876.  Abdul  Hamid's  rule,  ushered 
in  by  the  famous  Bulgarian  atrocities,  has 
been  marked  by  disturbances  in  every  por- 
tion of  his  dominions.  His  government  is 
autocratic,  even  insignificant  departmental 
measures  requiring  his  approval.  His 
ministers  are  frequently  deposed  at  a  mo- 
ment's notice.  Of  a  morbidly  nervous 
disposition,  he  is  extremely  sensitive  to 
hostile  reflections  on  Turkish  matters  in  the 
press,  over  which  his  officials  liave  to  exer- 
cise a  very  severe  censorship.  He  has 
brought  the  Turkish  army  to  a  great  state 
of  perfection  with  the  aid  of  numerous 

German  officers.  He  is  held  in  great  awe 
by  his  subjects,  but  in  his  intercourse  with 
foreign  envoys  and  visitors  his  manners  are 
gracious  and  engaging. 

Abdullah  ben  Zobair  {b.  622,  d.  692), 
sovereign  of  Mecca,  was  one  of  the  most 
eminent  personages  in  the  early  times  of 

Abdul  Medjid  Khan  (/;.  1823,  d.  1861), 
Sultan  of  Turkey,  succeeded  his  father  1839. 
The  empire  was  then  in  a  most  critical  state, 
but  the  treaty  of  1840  between  England, 
Russia,  Austria,  and  Prussia,  followed  by 
the  taking  of  Acre  and  the  bombardment  of 
BejTout,  saved  Turkey  from  Ibrahim. 
Early  in  his  reign  the  young  Sultan  issued 
the  great  "Tanzimat,"  or  Magna  Charta  of 
Turkey  ;  he  re -organised  the  army  and  the 
penal  code,  formed  a  postal  system,  and 
erected  telegraphs.  Troubles  with  Servia, 
Albania,  Syria,  Bosnia,  and  Montenegro, 
culminated  m  war  with  Russia  in  1854,  but 
the  intervention  of  England,  France,  and 
Sardinia  resulted  in  the  taking  of  Sebasto- 
pol,  1854,  and  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  1S56. 

Abel,  the  second  son  of  Adam,  slain  by  his 
brother  Cain. 

Abel  {d.  1252),  King  of  Denmark,  1241 ; 
was  slain  in  battle  with  his  Frisian  subjects, 

Abel,  Clarke  (b.  1780,  d.  1826),  doctor  of 
medicine  and  naturalist,  accompanied  Lord 
Amherst  to  China  in  1816,  and  gave  the 
name  Abelia  to  a  species  of  plant  brought 
back  with  him. 

Abel,  Johann  Joseph  {b.  1768,  d.  1818), 
Austrian  painter.  He  studied  in  Vienna 
and  Rome. 

Abel,  Karl  Friedrich  {b.  1725.  d.  1787), 
a  native  of  Anhalt,  musician  and  composer. 
He  gave  iu  England  a  series  of  concerts  in 
conjunction  with  Bach. 

Abel,  Niels  Henrik  (/>.  1802,  d.  1829), 
mathematician,  born  at  Findoe,  in  Norway.^ 
He  especially  investigated  the  theory  of 
elliptic  functions. 

Abelard  or  Abailard,  Pierre  (b.  1079,  d. 
1142),  studied  philosophy  under  Cham- 
peaux,  and  divinity  under  Anselm,  to  such 
effect  that  in  each  case  he  excelled  his 
master,  and  his  reputation  spread  through 
Europe.  While  teacher  of  a  school  of 
rhetoric  at  Paris  he  conceived  a.  violent 
passion  for  the  eautiful  and  accomplished 
Heloise,  and  tk  story  of  their  love  is  well 
known.  Helois.  took  the  veil  and  Abelard 
became  a  monk  the  Abbey  of  St.  Denis, 
where  his  lecture'  attracted  crowds,  but  his 
writings  were  .nounced  as  heretical. 
Condemned  in  his  bsence  by  the  Council 
of  Soissons,  he  withcdrew  to  the  banks  of  the 
Ardisson.     Persecution  followed  him   here 




and  elsewhere,  aud  he  died  at  the  Priory  of 
St.  Marcellus,  Chulous.  His  remaius  aud 
those  of  Hcloise  uow  rest  in  Pere-la-Chaise. 

Abelin,  Johann  Philipp  {'L  circa  1G4C),  a 
prohfic  German  author. 

Abenezra  or  Hezra  {h.  1119,  d.  1174),  a 
celebrated  rabbi  and  expositor  of  the  Bible ; 
born  at  Toledo. 

Abercrombie,  John,  M.D.  {b.  1781,  d. 
1844),  a  native  of  Aberdeen  and  distin- 
guisiied  member  of  the  medical  profession 
in  Edinburgh,  esteemed  both  for  his  pro- 
fessional skill  aud  his  philosophical  attain- 
ments. His  best  knoA\Ti  work  is  his  In- 
quiries concerning  the  Intellectual  Powers. 

Abercromby,  Sir  Ralph  {b.  1734,  d.  1801), 
a  distinguished  British  general,  a  native  of 
Clackmannanshire.  After  studying  law  at 
Edinburgh  and  Leipsic  he  entered  the  anny, 
aud  in  1793  accompanied  the  Duke  of  York 
into  Holland  as  lieutenant-general.  His 
abilities  won  for  him  high  commendation, 
and  his  career  in  the  "West  Indies,  whither  he 
went  in  1795  as  commander-in-chief,  was  a 
brilliant  success.  He  afterward  served  in 
Ireland,  in  Hollaud  against  Helder,  and  was 
sent  to  Egjqit  against  the  French.  Land- 
ing at  Aboukir,  he  won  the  sanguinary  and 
obstinate  battle  of  Alexandria,  but  received 
a  mortal  wound. 

Aberdeen,  George  Hamilton  Gordon,  4th 
Earl  of  {h.  1784,  d.  1860),  statesman,  an 
accomplished  scholar  and  man  of  taste,  edu- 
cated at  Harrow  and  Cambridge.  He  was 
early  chosen  a,i'epreseutativepeer  of  Scotland 
and  rewarded  for  important  political  services 
b}'  being  made  a  British  peer,  with  the  title 
of  Lord  Gordon.  Under  Tory  administration 
he  occupied  successively  the  office  of  Foreign 
Secretary  and  of  Secretary  to  the  Colonies, 
aud  while  in  the  latter  post  established 
the  entente  cordinJe  between  England  aud 
France.  In  1852,  as  head  of  the  Peel  Party, 
he  became  Prime  Minister.  The  Eastern 
question  came  into  prominence.  Lord  Pal- 
merston  retired  from  the  Ministry,  and  Lord 
Aberdeen  allowed  the  country  to  "drift" 
into  the  Crimean  war.  The  war  was  mis- 
managed, and  he  resigned  upon  what  was 
practically  a  vote  of  want  of  couhdence,  aud 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  retirement. 

Abemethy,  John  [b.  1680,  d.  1740),  an 
Irish  dissenting  minister,  educated  in  Scot- 
land. He  agitated  for  the  repeal  of  the 
Test  Act. 

Abernethy,  John  {b.  1765,  d.  1831), 
grandson  of  the  preceding,  and  professedly 
an  Irishman  :  he  studied  medicnie  at  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital,  London,  and  rapidly 
rose  to  be  one  of  the  first  surgeons  of  the 
day,  and  a  lecturer  of  great  power.     He 

was  Professor  of  Anatomy  and  Siu-gery  to 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  and  his  pro- 
fessional writings  are  still  standard  works. 

Abigail,  a  sister  of  David. 

Abigail,  the  mfe  of  Nabal,  and  after- 
wards of  David. 

Abildgaard,  Peter  Christian  {b.  1740,  d. 
18U8),  noted  Danish  physician  and  natu- 
ralist, aud  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Veter- 
inary College  of  Copenhagen. 

Abimelech,  the  name  of  various  kings  of 

Abinger,  James  Scarlett,  Lord  {b.  1769, 
d.  1844),  eminent  English  banister,  pos- 
sessed of  marvellous  influence  over  both 
judge  and  jury.  In  1816  he  entered  Par- 
liament as  a  Whig,  but  afterwards  joined 
the  amalgamation  of  parties  under  Canning, 
and  held  the  office  of  Attorney  General  till 
his  retirement  on  the  accession  of  William 
IV.  Under  Peel's  ministry  in  1834  he  was 
appointed  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer, 
aud  the  folio-wing  year  made  Baron  Abinger. 

Abington,  Frances  {b.  1731,  d.  1815),  popu- 
lar English  actress  ;  the  first  Lady  Teazle. 

Abisbal,  Enrique  O'Donnell,  Count  of 
{b.  1770,  d.  1834),  Spanish  geuei'al  of  Irish 
descent,  who  commanded  the  army  in 
Catalonia,  and  defeated  the  French  at 
Abisbal,  from  which  he  took  his  title.  He 
afterwards  made  himself  master  of  Madrid, 
but  on  the  restoration  of  Ferdinand  retired 
to  France,  where  he  died. 

Ablancourt,  Nicholas  Perrot  d'  (b.  1606, 
f/.  1664),  translator  of  repute,  aud  member 
of  the  Academy ;  he  found  patrons  in  both 
England  and  France. 

Abner,  the  son  of  Ner,  and  consequently 
cousin  to  Saul,  whose  army  he  commanded. 

About,  Edmond  Francois  Valentin  {b. 
1828,  d.  1885),  unsuccessful  as  a  dramatist, 
he  obtained  a  great  reputation  as  a  novelist 
and  essayist.  Les  Mariages  de  Frovince 
and  La  Qicestion  Romaine  are  his  most 
remarkable  works.  He  acted  as  corre- 
spondent for  LeSoir  in  the  Franco-Prussian 
war.  A  work  entitled  Alsace,  which  he 
wrote  after  the  peace  when  living  in  the 
newly-annexed  provinces,  and  in  which  he 
attacked  the  Prussians,  was  the  cause  of  his 
being  temporarily  imprisoned. 

Aboville,  Francois  Maret  {b.  1730,  d. 
1819),  French  general  of  artillery  who  served 
under  Marshal  Saxe,  and  under  Napoleon 
became  a  senator,  and  member  of  the 
Legion  of  Honour,  while  Louis  XVIII- 
made  him  a  peer. 

Abradates,  King  of  Susa,  at  first  fought 




agaiust  Cyrus  with  the  Assyrians,  but  after- 
wards, joiuiug  Cyrus,  t'eil  in  battle  with  the 

Abraham,  the  sou  of  Terah,  and  pro- 
genitor of  the  Jews. 

Abrantes,  Don  Jose  Maria,  Marquis  of 
{k  1784,  d.  1827),  Portuguese  nobleman, 
detained  by  Napoleon  as  a  hostage.  He 
afterwards  assisted  Miguel  in  the  revolution 
of  1823,  but  for  his  coniphcity  in  the  murder 
of  the  Marquis  of  Soule  he  was  banished, 
and  went  lirst  to  Italy,  then  to  London, 
where  he  died. 

Absalom,  the  third  son  of  David,  by 
Maachah,  daughter  of  Talmai,  King  of 

Abt,  Franz  {b.  1819,  d.  1885),  German 
composer,  educated  originally  for  the 
Church,  but  devoted  himself  to  music. 
Became  kapellmeister  at  Ziuich,  and  after- 
wards at  Brunswick,  but,  though  he  wrote 
many  light  pieces  for  the  jiianoforte,  is  best 
known  by  his  numerous  and  graceful  songs. 

Abu-bekr  (b.  oil,  d.  634).  This  name 
(Father  of  the  Virgin)  was  assumed  by 
Abd-ul-Kabah  on  the  marriage  of  Mahomet 
with  his  daughter.  He  proved  a  faithful 
ally  to  his  son-in-law,  whom  he  survived. 

Abu-1-Fazl  {d.  1600),  the  wise  and  en- 
lightened minister  of  Akbar,  celebrated  for 
his  learning  and  justice.  He  was  attacked 
by  rebels  and  slain. 

Abu-1-Feda,  Ismail,  suraamed  "The  Vic- 
torious" {!).  127-3,  r/.  1331),  King  or  Governor 
of  Hammah  in  S^ni-ia,  and  a  man  of  great 
bravery  and  learning.  He  left  many  works, 
the  chief  being  An  Abridgment  of  the  His- 
tory of  ALankind. 

Abu-1-Kasim  or  Albucasis,  the  most 
famous  Arabic  writer  on  surgery,  born  at 
Cordova  in  the  eleventh  century.  His  great 
work  is  At  Tas-srif,  or  Book  of  the  Theory 
and  Fractice  of  Jfe'dicine. 

Abu-Said,  ninth  of  the  Persian  kings  of 
the  dynasty  of  Hulaku.  He  succeeded  his 
father  in  1317,  and  won  the  surname  of 
Bahadiu-  (the  Valiant)  by  his  prowess  in 
battle  when  only  17. 

Abu-Teman  {b.  805,  d.  845),  celebrated 
Arabian  poet,  born  at  Damascus.  He  com- 
piled a  biography  of  the  best  poets,  and  a 
selection  from  their  writings. 

Abu-Yakub  Yusuf  {b.  1139,  d.  1184), 
third  Sultan  of  Africa  and  Spain,  of  the 
dynast}'  of  Almohades.  Defeated  and  slain 
by  the  Spaniards  at  Sautarem. 

Abu-Yakub  Yusuf  {b.  1160,  d.  1189),  sou 
of  the  precediug,  routed  the  Christians  at 

Alarcos,  aud  conquered  a  large  portion  of 

Acarie,  Madame  Barbe  (/>.  Pai-is  1565, 
d.  1618),  religious  enthusiast,  who,  aided 
by  Cardinal  de  Berulle,  set  herself  to  ref onu 
the  monasteries  in  France. 

Acciajuoli,  Niccolo  [b.  1310,  d.  1366), 
Florentine  statesman,  prominently  engaged 
in  the  political  affairs  of  Naples  during  the 
reign  of  Joauna  and  Luis,  to  whom  he  ren- 
dered many  important  services,  both  civil 
and  military.  He  was  a  patron  of  literaiy 
men  aud  the  friend  of  Petrarch  and  Strada, 
and  spent  his  great  wealth  in  works  of 
charity  aud  utility. 

Accius  or  Attius,  Lucius,  the  gi-eatest  of 
the  early  tragic  poets  of  Rome,  born  about 
B.C.  17o.  His  style  is  based  on  that  of 

Accum,  Friedrich  (b.  1769,  d.  1838), 
German  chemist,  who,  in  conjunction  with 
Ackermann,  applied  himself  to  the  subject 
of  gas  lighting ;  to  their  exertions  was  due 
the  adoption  of  gas  lights  in  Loudon.  He 
also  wrote  several  treatises  on  chemical 
subjects,  notably  Chemical  lieagenta  and 
Culinary  Chemistry. 

Acevedo,  Christobal,  a  highly  esteemed 
historical  painter  of  Murcia  in  the  16th 
century,  a  pupil  of  Carducci. 

Acevedo,  Felix  Alvarez  {d.  1820),  a  pro- 
minent personage  in  the  Spanish  revolution 
of  1820.  He  routed  the  Royahsts  at  Minho, 
but  w'as  shot  by  them  while  addressing  the 
militia  at  Zaderueto. 

Achaeus,  of  Eretria  {b.  B.C.  484),  a  tragic 
poet,  who  contended  imsuccessfully  with 

Acbard,  Franz  Karl  {b.  1753,  d.  1821), 
a  chemist  of  Berlin,  who  made  numerous 
aud  valuable  coutributions  to  science,  and 
especially  directed  his  attention  to  the 
method  of  extractiug  sugar  from  beetroot. 

Acbarius,  Eric  {J>.  1757,  d.  1819),  Swe- 
dish botanist  and  physician,  and  pupil  of 
Linnaeus.  He  devoted  himself  chiefly  to 
the  study  of  lichens  and  has  left  many 
valuable  works,  of  which  the  principal  is 
Lichenographia  Universalis.  The  genus 
Ach  aria  was  named  in  his  honour. 

Achates,  a  companion  of  ^neas  in  his 
journey iugs  after  the  fall  of  Troy.  In  the 
^neid  he  is  always  designated  "fidus"= 

Achates,  Leouardus,  a  German  priuter, 
who  introduced  the  art  of  priutiug  into 
Italy  towards  the  end  of  the  15th  cen- 
tury, aud  published  at  Padua,  Venice  and 




Achen,  Hans  van  {h.  loriG,  d.  1621),  a 
painter  Avho  studied  at  Venice  under  the 
celebrated  Gn^pard  Rems,  and  afterwards 
visited  Eome,  .Munich  and  Prague.  Sixteen 
of  his  works  aj-  3  in  the  Gallery  at  Vienna. 

Achenbach,  Andre  (Z»,  1815),  German 
]iainter  of  repute,  a  member  of  the  Academies 
of  Berlin,  Amsterdam,  and  Antwerp.  His 
})ictures  are  chiefly  landscape  and  marine 
pieces,  and  his  earlier  works  are  after  the 
Dusseldorf  school.  The  best  collection  of  his 
works  is  at  Munich. 

AchenweU,  Gottfried  {h.  1719,  d.  1772), 
German  political  economist,  who  may  be 
considered  the  founder  of  the  science  of 
statistics.  He  held  a  professorship  at  the 
University  of  Gottiugen  from  1748,  and  also 
lectured  on  international  law. 

Achilles,  the  son  of  Peleus,  king  of  the 
Myrmidones,  and  the  hero  of  the  Iliad.  His 
history,  much  of  which  is  fabulous  and 
traditionary,  is  gathered  from  ancient 
poems,  in  which  he  is  described  as  a  partisan 
of  the  Greeks  before  Troy,  performing  pro- 
digies of  valour,  aiid  finally  killing  Hector 
and  being  slain  himself  by  Paris  and  buried 
on  the  shores  of  the  Hellespont, 

Ackermann,  Conrad  Ernst  {b.  1710, 
d.  1771),  celebrated  Gennan  comedian, 
who  may  be  considered  the  founder  of  the 
modern  stage  of  Germany. 

Ackermann,  Eudolph  {b.  1764),  at  first 
a  coachbuilder,  then  a  seller  and  publisher 
of  prints  in  Loudon ;  it  was  he  who,  in 
conjunction  with  Accum,  introduced  gas- 
lighting,  and  to  him  is  also  due  the  credit  of 
introducing  lithography  into  England. 

Acoluth,  Andreas  {Jj.  1654,  d.  1704),  one 
of  the  greatest  linguists  of  his  age,  conver- 
sant with  both  Eastern  and  European 
languages.  He  was  appointed  preacher  at 
Breslau,  and  Professor  of  Hebrew  at  the 
Elizabethan  GjTiinasium.  His  Avorks  are 
still  of  great  value  to  students  of  Oriental 

Aconzio,  James  [b.  1492,  d.  1566),  philo- 
sopher and  theologian,  whose  work  on 
method,  entitled  i)e  Methodo.,  hoc  est,  de 
recta  investigandarnm  tradcndarumque  srien- 
tiarum  ratione,  is  remarkable  as  antici- 
pating portions  of  Bacon's  philosoj^hy.  He 
was  pensioned  by  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Acoris,  King  of  Egyjit,  and  ally  of  Eva- 
goras  against  Artaxerxes,  B.C.  385. 

Acosta,  Joaquim  (b.  1799,  d.  1852),  one  of 
the  most  distinguished  historians  and  geo- 
graphers of  South  America.  He  early 
entered  the  army,  in  which  he  attained 
eventually  to  the  rank  of  colonel.  He  ex- 
plored the  valleys  of  the  Socorro  and 
Magdalena,  and,  besides  his  valuable  his- 
tory of  the  discovery  and  colonisation  of 

New  Granada,  he  contributed  important 
geographical  and  archceological  papers  to 
the  Geographical  Society  of  Paris. 

Acquaviva,  a  noble  family  of  Xaples, 
distinguished  for  their  love  of  learning. 

Acropolita,  Georgius  {b.  Constantinople, 
1220,  d.  1282),  an  historian  of  repute,  and 
"logotheta,"  or  controller  of  the  revenue, 
to  Michael  Palseologus. 

Acropolita,  Constantius,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, an  historian  and  "logotheta"  to 

Acton,  Sir  John  Francis  Edward  (b. 
1736,  d.  ISll),  entered  the  Tuscan  navy 
and  took  part  in  the  expedition  against 
Algiers.  Being  appointed  to  reorganise  the 
Xeapolitan  navy  in  1779,  he  contrived  to 
render  himself  exceedingly  powerful  in  that 
state,  and  held  successively  the  offices  of 
Minister  of  Finance  and  Prime  Minister. 
The  intervention  of  France  in  1799  caused 
his  removal  from  power,  and  he  finally  took 
refuge  Avith  the  Court  in  Sicily,  where  he 

Acuna,  Antonio  d"  {b.  1459,  d.  1526), 
Bishop  of  Zamora.  He  headed  the  insur- 
rection^of  Castile  against  Charles  V.,  with 
a  following  of  over  5,000  men,  but  was  de- 
feated by  the  Conde  de  Haro,  and  finally 
captui'ed,  imprisoned  and  killed. 

Acuna,  Don  Pedro  Bravo  d',  Spanish 
Governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands  under 
Philip  II.  He  distinguished  himself  at 
!  Cadiz  on  the  occasion  of  Drake's  attack, 
and  succeeded  in  re-conquering  the  Moluccas 
from  the  Dutch  in  1005. 

Adair,  Et,  Hon.  Sir  Eobert,  G.CB.  {b. 
1763,  d.  1855),  was  educated  at  Westminster 
and  Gottiugen,  and  entered  Parliament  in 
1802.  He  was  soon  employed  diplomatically 
at  Vienna  and  Constantinople,  and  acquii'ed 
a  high  reputatien.  It  was  to  him  that  the 
peace  of  the  Dardanelles  was  mainly  due, 
and  later  his  diplomacy  probablj-  prevented 
the  outbreak  of  war  between  Holland  and 
Belgium.  He  retired  from  political  life  in 

Adam,  the  first  of  the  human  race. 

Adam,  Adolphe  Charles  (b.  1803,  d.  1856), 
French  dramatic  composer  ;  of  his  numer- 
ous works  the  best  is  le  Fostillo>i  de  Loiig- 
jumeau.  In  1847  he  opened  in  Paris  a 
third  theatre  for  comic  oi^era,  but,  being 
compelled  to  close  it  durmg  the  revolu- 
j  tionarj'  disturbances,  found  himself  ruined, 
and  compelled  to  earn  money  by  giving 
lessons  and  writing  musical  reviews. 

I      Adam,    Alexander.    LL.D.    (b.    1741,   d. 
•   1809),  rector  of  the  High  School  of  Edin- 
burgh from  1768.     A  man  of  great  learning, 




he  left  several  works,  amougst  them  being 
livniaa  Antiqu'divs,  Classical  UiotirapliUs, 
aud  the  first  Latiu  Grammar  that  was  writ- 
ten in  English. 

Adam,  de  La  Halle,  a  French  poet  of  the 
13th  century,  attached  to  the  Court  of 
Naples,  and  surnamed  Le  Bossu  (the  hunch- 
back). One  of  his  poems,  Le  jeii  dii  Bergtr 
et  de  la  Beyyere,  affords  perhaps  the  earliest 
example  of  the  modern  drama. 

Adam,  Lambert  {b.  1700,  d.  1759),  sculptor, 
studied  at  Rome,  and  executed  several 
works  for  Louis  XV.  for  the  decoration  of 
St.  Cloud  and  Versailles. 

Adam,  Eobert  {b.  1728,  d.  1792),  archi- 
tect, aud  the  most  celebrated  of  the  four 
brothers  Adam,  who  erected  the  buildings 
known  as  Adelphi,  between  the  Strand 
and  the  Thames,  besides  many  others  in 
London  and  elsewhere.  Robert  especially 
did  much  to  influence  and  improve  the 
street  architecture  of  Loudon. 

Adamnan,  or  Adomnan  {d.  704),  Abbot 
of  lona,  author  of  a  description  of  Palestine 
and  a  life  of  St.  Columba. 

Adams,  Charles  Francis  [b.  1807,  d.  1886), 
son  of  J.  Q.  Adams,  spent  his  childhood  in 
Europe,  and  returniDg  to  America  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  College,  1825.  He  was 
educated  for  the  law,  but  adopting  politics, 
eventually  joined  the  coalition  now  known 
as  the  Republican  party,  and  was  appointed 
minister  to  England,  1861-8,  He  was  arbi- 
trator for  America  for  the  settlement  of 
claims  ULider  the  Treaty  of  Washington, 
1871,  aud  continued  to  take  an  active 
interest  in  political  life.  He  wrote  bio- 
graphies of  his  father  and  grandfatlier. 

Adams,  John  {b.  1735,  d.  1826),  second 
President  of  the  United  States,  graduated 
at  Harvard,  and  was  called  to  the  bar  in 
1761.  He  was  one  of  the  delegates  at  the 
Congress  at  Philadelphia  1774,  aud  through- 
out encouraged  the  movement  for  inde- 
pendence, in  which,  as  chairman  of  the 
board  of  war,  he  took  an  active  part.  He 
was  commissioner  to  the  Court  of  France 
1788,  and  was  sent  on  an  embassy  to 
England  1779.  He  was  elected  Vice-Presi- 
dent of  the  Union  in  1789,  and  succeeded 
Washington  as  President  in  1797,  but  in 
1801  failed  to  gain  re-election,  and  then 
retired  from  public  affairs. 

Adams,  John  Couch  {b.  1816,  d.  1892), 
son  of  an  agricidtural  labourer,  early 
showed  a  capacity  for  mathematics,  and 
graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1838,  being 
Senior  Wrangler.  He  devoted  himself  espe- 
cially to  astronomy,  and  from  protracted 
study  of  the  perturbations  of  Uranus  pre- 
dicted the  existence  and  the  precise  position 

of  the  disturbing  body,  almost  at  the  same 
tiiue  at  which  M.  Le  Verrier  arrived  inde- 
pendently at  the  same  conclusion.  Their 
predictions  were  verified  by  the  telescope, 
and  the  planet  Neptune  thus  discovered! 
In  1858  Adams  was  appointed  to  the 
Lowndesiau  chair  of  astronomy  in  Cam- 

Adams,  John  Quincy  {b.  1767,  d.  1848), 
son  of  President  John  Adams,  and  sixth 
President  of  the  United  States,  studied 
at  Leyden  and  Harvard,  and  was  called 
to  the  bar  in  1791.  He  entered  the  diplo- 
matic service,  aud  was  successively  Ameri- 
can minister  in  Holland,  England,  aud 
Prussia,  and  as  a  senator  (1803-1808)  he 
supported  Jefferson's  Embargo  Act.  From 
18U6-1809  he  occupied  the  chair  of  rhe- 
toric at  Harvard  College.  After  holding 
various  offices,  in  1825  he  was  elected 
President  of  the  United  States,  and  being 
returned  to  Congress  in  1830,  became  a 
vigorous  supporter  of  the  Abolitionists. 
He  was  autlior  of  Letters  on  Silesia,  Lectures 
on  Rhetoric,  and  a  poem  Bermot  Mac- 
Mar  rogh. 

Adams,  Samuel  {b.  1722,  d.  1803),  edu- 
cated at  Boston  and  Harvard,  entered  his 
father's  brewery,  and  began  public  life  as 
a  tax-collector.  By  liis  firmness  in  1770  he 
obtained  the  withdrawal  of  the  British 
troops  from  Boston,  aud  it  was  he  who 
instigated  and  led  "  the  Boston  Tea 
Party."  He  was  a  member  of  Congress, 
1794,  and  ardently  supported  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence.  In  1794  he  was 
appointed  Governor  of  Massachusetts,  and 
died  at  Boston. 

Adanson,  Michel  (b.  1727,  d.  1806), 
naturalist ;  a  pupil  of  Jussieu  and  Reaumur ; 
he  travelled  in  Africa,  making  a  map  of  the 
Senegal  and  Gambia,  and  studying  the 
languages.  His  great  work  Families  des 
Flantes  was  published  in  1763. 

Adaschoff,  Alexay  Theodorovich  («?.  1561), 
the  favourite  minister  of  Ivan  IV.  of  Russia, 
whose  life  he  saved  from  the  populace 
duruig  the  conflagration  of  Moscow,  1547. 
He  used  his  power  wisely  and  well,  revising 
the  laws  and  encouraging  commerce,  but 
was  imprisoned  by  his  enemies  on  a  charge 
of  sorcery,  in  Livonia,  where  he  died. 

Addington.  {See  Sidmouth,  Lord.] 
Addison,  Joseph  (^<.  1672,  ^.  1719),  passed 
from  Charterhouse  school  to  Queen's  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  and  graduated  at  Magdalen 
College  in  1693.  He  spent  four  years 
travelling  on  the  Continent,  returning  in 
1703,  and  in  1704  The  Campaign,  a  poem 
celebrating  the  victory  of  Blenheim,  brought 
him  into  favour.  In  1708  he  was  sent  to 
Ireland  as  secretary  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant. 
He  contributed  largely  to  the  Tatler  and 
Spectator  from  their  commencement,   and 




wrote  274  numbers  for  the  latter.  In  1713 
he  brought  his  tragedy  of  Cato  before  the 
public,  and  at  Drury  Lane  it  proved  an 
unprecedented  success.  In  1716  he  mar- 
ried the  Countess  Dowager  of  Warwick,  and 
the  follo\Aring  year  was  appointed  Secre- 
tary of  State.     He  died  at  Holland  House. 

Adelaide  {h.  931,  d  999),  widow  of 
Lothaire  II.  of  Italy,  was  imprisoned  by 
Berengarius  II.,  but  rescued  and  married 
by  Otho  I.,  951.  During  the  minorities  of 
her  son  and  grandson  (Otho  II.  and  III.) 
she  acted  as  regent,  showing  both  zeal  and 

Adelaide  [d.  1091),  "The  Marchioness," 
daughter  of  Manfredi,  Count  of  Turin,  and 
wife  of  Oddo,  Marquis  of  Italy,  acted  as 
regent  during  the  minority  of  her  sons, 
displaying  considerable  energy  and  ability. 

Adelard,  of  Bath,  eminent  English  phi- 
losopher of  the  twelfth  century,  called 
"  the  Father  of  natural  philosophy  in  Eng- 
land." He  travelled  in  Europe  and  Asia, 
and  was  the  first  to  translate  Euclid's  fifteen 
books  from  the  Arabic ;  he  also  left  several 
treatises  on  physics. 

Adeler.Cort  §iverstein  {b.  1622,  d.  1675), 
naval  commander,  of  Danish  birth,  wiio 
served  with  distinction  in  the  na\'ies  of 
Holland  and  of  Venice,  signalising  himself 
especially  in  the  war  between  the  latter 
country  and  Turkey.  Returning  to  Den- 
mark, he  was  given  control  of  the  navj^,  and 
appointed  to  command  in  the  war  with 
Sweden,  but  failing  health  compelled  him 
to  resign. 

Adeler,  Max,  the  pseudonym  of  Charles 
Heber  Clark,  the  American  humorist,  author 
of  Out  of  the  Hurlij  Burly  (187-1),  and  other 

Adil  Shah,  Yusuf  (jb.  1443,  d.  1510), 
after  the  death  of  Mahommed  II. ,  in  whose 
service  he  had  attained  considerable  distinc- 
tion, withdrew  to  Bejapoor,  and  in  1489 
assumed  the  title  of  royalty,  and  succeeded 
in  establishing  his  empire  in  the  Deccan. 
He  was  successful  in  an  attack  upon  the 
Poi-tuguese  at  Goa,  but  died  shortly  after. 

Adimari,  Ludovico  (/;.  1644,  d.  1708), 
Professor  of  the  Tuscan  language  at  Flor- 
ence, and  one  of  the  best  satirical  poets  of 

Adler,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Hermann  (b.  1839), 
appointed  principal  of  the  Jews'  college  in 
London  1863,  and  minister  of  the  Bays- 
water  synagogue  1864,  and  succeeded  his 
father  as  Chief  Rabbi. 

Adler,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Nathan  Marcus 
{b.  1803,  d.  18i)0),  studied  in  Germany, 
and  in  1845  was  appointed  Chief  Rabbi 
of  the  United  Congregations  of  the  Brit- 
ish   Empii'e.       Besides    commentaries    and 

sermons,    he  wrote   a    brief    exposition  of 
The  Jewish  Faith. 

Adlerbeth,  Gudmund  Goran  {b.  1751, 
d.  1818),  a  Swedish  poet  and  translator,  and 
twice  President  of  the  Swedish  Academy ; 
he  also  filled  political  posts,  and  in  1809 
assisted  in  drawing  up  the  fundamental 
laws  of  the  new  constitution. 

Adlerfeld,  Gustaf  {b.  1671,  d.  1709),  his- 
torian, travelled  with  the  Court  of  Charles 
XII.  His  Journal  of  the  IFars  has  been 
published  in  French  and  German.  He  was 
killed  by  a  cannon  ball  at  Pultowa. 

Adlzreiter,  Johann  {b.  1596,  d.  1662), 
lawyer,  who,  under  Maximilian  I.  of 
Bavaria,  rose  rapidly  to  the  position  of 
Privy  Chancellor.  Me  wrote  a  history  of 
Bavaria  from  the  earliest  times  to  1652. 

Adolphus,  Duke  of  Guelders  {b.  1438, 
d.  1477),  wrested  the  dukedom  from  his 
father,  Arnold,  in  1465.  The  interference 
of  Charles  the  Bold  ultimately  resulted  in 
his  father's  release  and  his  own  imprison- 
ment. Released  in  1477,  he*kgain  headed 
the  insurgents,  but  was  killed  the  same  year. 

Adolphus  L,  Count  of  Holstein  {d.  1131), 
was  er  trusted  by  the  Emperor  Lothair 
with  (\\e  government  of  Holstein  in  1106, 
i  and  contrived  to  subdue  his  enemies,  pro- 
mulgate Christianity,  and  establish  a  dynasty 
which  lasted  350  years. 

Adolphus  II.,  Count  of  Holstein  {d.  1164), 
succeeded  the  preceding  in  1131.  His  reign 
was  troubled,  and  he  was  slain  at  the  siege 
of  Demmiu. 

Adolphus  III.,  Coimt  of  Holstein,  and  son 
of  the  preceding,  assisted  Henry  the  Lion 
at  the  battle  of  Haltefeld,  by  whom  he  was 
afterwards  driven  from  his  throne,  but  was 
restored  by  Barbarossa  of  Denmark.  In 
1200  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  Canut  VI. 
of  Denmark,  and  on  his  release  retired  to 
Schauenberg,  where  he  soon  afterwards 

Adolphus  IV.,  Count  of  Holstein  {d.  1252), 
son  of  the  preceding ;  in  1227  defeated 
Waldemar  at  the  battle  of  Bornhoved  ;  but 
in  1238  retired  into  a  Franciscan  monastery. 

Adolphus  VIII.,  Duke  of  Schleswig  {d. 
1459),  was  educated  at  the  court  of  the  Em- 
peror Sigismund.  After  a  long  warwith  Den- 
mark for  the  possession  of  Schleswig,  he 
received  it  in  1440,  as  a  fief  of  that  country. 
On  the  death  of  King  Christopher  he  was 
offered  the  crown  of  Denmark,  which,  how- 
ever, he  refused. 

_Adolphus,  Frederick  II.  (/>.  1710,  d. 
1771),  succeeded  to  the  Swedish  throne  in 
1731,  but  was  destitute  of  the  necessary 
power  of  mind  for  such  a  position. 




Adolphus,  Johu,  Duke  of  Saxe  Weis- 
senfels  {b.  1685,  d.  17-46),  a  valiant  soldier 
whose  courage  and  skill  attracted  the  notice 
of  Marlborough  ;  in  1734  he  took  Dantzic, 
and  was  made  field-marshal  of  the  Saxon 
amiy.  He  succeeded  his  brothers  to  the 
dukedom,  and  took  part  in  the  Quadruple 
Alliance  of  17-45. 

Adolphus,  John  {b.  1768,  d.  1845), 
historian  and  criminal  lawyer.  He  defended 
the  Cato  Street  conspirators  in  1820 ;  and. 
besides  other  works,  wrote  a  History  of 
England,  from  the  accession  of  Georue  III. 
to  1783. 

Adolphus  of  Nassau,  Emperor  of  Ger- 
many, was  crowned  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  in 
1292.  For  his  cruelty  and  oppression  he 
was  deposed  in  1298,  and  killed  in  battle 
with  his  rival  Albert  of  Austria,  who  had 
been  elected  by  the  Diet  of  Mainz. 

Adonijah,  the  fourth  son  of  David,  by 
Haggith.  His  three  elder  brothers  being 
dead,  Adonijah  made  an  attempt  on  his 
father's  throne,  which  Avas  entu-eh'  frus- 
trated by  David's  immediate  abdication  in 
favour  of  his  younger  son,  Solomon. 

Adorno,  a  wealthy  family  of  Genoa, 
several  members  of  which  Avere  Doges  of 
the  republic  in  the  14th,  loth,  and  16th 
centuries.  The  Adorno  and  Fregoso  fami- 
lies Avere  rivals,  and  their  contentions 
continually  disturbed  the  republic  till  both 
were  expelled, 

Adrets,  Francois  de  Beaumont,  Baron 
des  [b.  1513,  d.  1587),  a  Huguenot  leader, 
though  a  Eoman  Catholic,  a  brave  iind  skil- 
ful, but  cruel  soldier.  Under  Charles  IX. 
he  changed  sides. 

Adrian  I.  (cl.  795),  pope,  a  Roman  by 
birth,  was  raised  to  the  papal  chair  in  772. 
Sought  and  received  the  protection  of 
Charlemagne  against  Desideriu.  King  of 
the  Longobards.  The  firm  establishment  of 
the  temporal  power  of  Rome  may  be  at- 
tributed to  him. 

Adrian  II.  {d.  872),  pope,  867,  an  able 
pruice  _  Avho  well  maintained  the  papal 
authority  over  European  monarchs.  During 
liis  time  the  separation  of  the  Greek  and 
Roman  churches  commenced. 

Adrian  III.  {d.  885),  pope,  884,  a  Roman 
iiamed  Agapetus,  the  first  to  change  his 
name  on  assuming  the  tiara.  j 

Adrian  IV.  {d.  1159),  pope,  1154,  Nicholas 
lireakspere,  the  only  Englishman  who  has 
occupied  the  papal  chair.  He  Avas  the  son  of 
a  servitor  to  a  monastery,  and  entered  a 
-t  rench  monastery  as  clerk,  and  rose  to  be  \ 
a  bbot,  cardmal,  and  legate,  and  was  finally 
elected  pope.  : 

Adrian  v.,  pope,  1276,  a  noble  Genoese, 
who  had  been  legate  in  England.  He 
occupied  the  papal  chair  one  month  only. 

Adrian  VI.  (J).  1459,  d.  1523),  cardinal  and 
pope,  1521,  a  natiA-e  of  Utrecht,  of  mean 
parentage,  rose  to  be  Bisliop  of  Tortosa, 
and  regent  during  the  minority  of  Charles 
V.  of  Spain. 

Adriano  {d.  1630),   Spanish  painter,  and 
j  lay-brother  of  the  CanneHte    convent    at 

I  Adye,  General  Sir  John  Miller,  G.C.B. 
{b.   1819),   entered   the  army  in    1836,   and 

I  distinguished  himself  in  the  Crimean  war, 
the  Indian  mutiny,  and  the  Sitana  expedi- 
tion. In  1882  he  Avas  chief  of  the  staff 
to  Sir  Garnet  Wolseley,  and  took  part  in 
the  actions  of  Mahsameh  and  Tel-el-Kebir. 
From  1883  to  1886  he  was  Governor  of 

^acides,  King  of  Epirus  {d.  b.c.  313), 
father  of  PA^rrhus,  and  lineal  descendant  of 
Achilles.  He  allied  himself  with  Olympias 
against  Cassauder,  but  Avas  defeated  and 

.ffigidius,  Colonna  (r/.  1316),  a  monk  of 
the  order  of  St.  Augustine,  and  a  distin- 
guished disciple  of  Thomas  Aquinas.  He 
taught  philosophy  in  Paris,  and  Avas  pre- 
centor to  the  sons  of  Philip  III.  ;  Bishop  of 
Bourges,  1294. 

^lianus,  Claudius,  Italian  Avriter  of  the 
third  century,  and  Greek  scholar.  He 
Avrote  a  Avork  on  the  peculiarities  of  animals, 
and  a  Miscellaneous  History. 

Aelst,  Evert  van  {h.  Delft,  1602,  d.  1658). 
an  eminent  painter  of  still  life. 

Aelst,  Willem  van  {b.  Delft,  1620,  d. 
1679),  nephew  and  pupil  of  the  preceding, 
Avhom  he  surpassed. 

Emilia,  one  of  the  most  ancient  pa- 
trician families  of  Rome,  to  which  several 
of  the  consuls  belonged,  notably  :— Lucius 
Mamercus,  thrice  consul ;  Lucius  Paulus, 
killed  at  the  battle  of  CannsB  ;  Lucius 
Paulus,  his  son,  twice  consul,  and  A'ictor 
over  the  Macedonians  at  Pydna. 

^neas,  a  hero  of  the  Trojan  war,  and 
founder  of  the  Latin  race.  From  the  Ho- 
meric poems  and  the  uEneid  we  learn  that, 
on  the  capture  of  Troy,  ^neas  escaped,  and 
arriving  in  Italy  built  the  city  of  LaA'inium, 
which  he  named  in  honour  of  his  wife  La- 
vinia,  daughter  of  King  Latinus.  On  the 
death  of  his  father-in-laAv  ^neas  succeeded 
to  the  kingdom,  but  four  years  later  was 
slain  in  battle  Avith  the  Rutuli. 

.ffipinus,  Franz  Maria  Ulrich  {b.  1724, 
d.    1802),    a  Geiinan    mathematician   and 




scientist,  who  discovered  the  electrical  pro- 
perties of  lieated  tourmaline,  and  published 
several  works  on  electricity. 

JEpinus,  Johann  (b.  1499,  d.  1553),  one  of 
the  early  reformers,  and  a  friend  of  Luther. 
In  1534  he  came  to  England  to  adWse 
Henry  VIII.  respecting  the  reformation  of 
the  English  church. 

JErius,  a  native  of  Pontus,  in  the  fourth 
century  ;  tirst  a  follower  of  Ai-ius,  he  later 
established  a  sect  known  as  j3Erians. 

Machines  {b.  b.c.  389,  d.  b.c.  314),  cele- 
brated Athenian  orator.  Failing  in  an 
attack  on  Demosthenes,  was  twice  sent  on 
an  embassy  to  Philip  of  Macedonia,  and  re- 
tired to  Khodes,  where  he  founded  a  school. 

^schylus  (b.  b.c.  525,  d.  B.C.  456), 
Atlienian  tragic  poet ;  distinguished  also 
for  his  valour  at  the  battles  of  Marathon, 
Salamis,  and  Platea.  First  gained  the 
prize  for  tragedy  in  484  B.C.  He  retired 
for  some  years  to  Sicily,  but  returning  to 
Athens,  received  the  prize  for  tragedy  for 
his  famous  trilogy,  Oresteia.  He  event- 
ually returned  to  Sicily,  where  he  died. 
Of  the  seventy  tragedies  said  to  have  beeu 
written  by  him,  only  seven  remain,  iuclud- 
ing  Prometheus,  Againeinnon,  etc. 

^sopus  {b.  B.C.  619,  d.  B.C.  564),  said 
to  have  been  a  Phrygiaii  slave,  com- 
poser of  the  well-kuo\m  fables.  Having 
obtained  his  freedom,  he  was  well  received 
by  Croesus,  King  of  Lydia,  but  when  visit- 
ing Delphi  gave  offence  by  his  sarcasm,  and  ] 
was  put  to  death.  j 

iEtius    {d.    454),    Koman    general,    who  j 
was  four  times  consul,  defeated   the  Bur-  ' 
gundiaus   and    Franks,    and    drove    Attila 
beyond  the  Khine,  but  having  excited  the 
jealousy  of  Valentiniau,  was  put  to  death,      j 

Affleck,     Sir    Edmund   {d.    1787),    rear-  '■ 
admiral,  went  with  Sir  George  Eodney  to 
the  relief  of  Gibraltar,  and  afterwards,  in  ; 
the    West    Indies,    rendered     such    signal 
services    that    he    was    rewarded    with     a 
baronetcy  in  1782. 

Affre,  Denis  Auguste  (b.  1793.  d.  1848), 
Archbishop  of  Paris,  a  man  of  benevolence 
and  learning,  who  did  much  to  improve 
education  in  liis  country.  While  endea- 
vouring to  mediate  in  the  disturbances  of 
1848,  the  insurgents  by  mistake  opened  fire, 
and  he  was  killed. 

Aflfry,  Louis  Auguste  August  in  d'  (J).  1713, 
d.  1798),  served  in  the  French  aiTny, 
rising  to  the  rank  of  field-marshal.  He 
protected  Louis  XVI.  on  the  5th  and  6th 
October,  1789,  but  afterwards  supported 
the  revolutionary  party. 

Alfty,  Count  Louis  Augustin  Philippe  d' 
(6.  174),  d.  1810),  commander  of  the  army 

on  tlie  Upper  Rhine  during  the  revolution, 
was  appointed  chief  magistrate  of  Switzer- 
land, after  Bonaparte  had  proclaimed  him- 
self protector  of  the  Helvetic  confederacy. 

Afzelius,  Adam  {b.  1750,  d.  1836),  Swe- 
dish botanist,  a  pupil  of  LiimaBus,  and 
professor  of  botany  at  L'psala.  He  travelled 
much,  published  valuable  papers,  and  was  a 
member  of  the  Eoyal  Society  of  England. 

Aga,  Mohammed  Khan  (b.  1734,  d. 
1797),  founder  of  the  present  djaiasty  of 
Shahs  of  Persia,  and  belonging  to  the  tribe 
of  the  Kadjars.  He  conquered  Ispahan, 
Shiraz,  and  the  south  of  Persia,  and  crossed 
the  Araxes  and  invaded  Khorassan,  but  was 
murdered  by  two  condemned  slaves. 

Agamemnon,  King  of  Mycenae,  was 
entrusted  with  the  command  of  the  allied 
forces  of  Greece  in  the  Trojan  war.  He 
sacrificed  his  daughter  Iphigeuia  at  Aulis  to 
appease  the  wrath  of  Diana.  On  his  return 
to  Mycenee  he  was  killed  by  his  wife,  Clytem- 

Agapetus  I.  {d.  536)  succeeded  John  II. 
as  pope  in  535.  He  was  the  first  Eomau 
Pontiff  who  exercised  authority  over  the 
Eastern  Chui'ch,  and  was  a  diligent  opponent 
of  Arianism. 

Agapetus  II.  {d.  956),  pope,  succeeded 
Martin  III.  in  946  ;  was  aided  by  Otho  in 
953  against  Berenger. 

Agardh,  Karl  Adolph  {h.  1785,  d.  1859), 
Swedish  scientist  and  politician,  distin- 
guished in  many  branches  of  learning,  Avas 
particularly  eminent  as  a  botanist,  being 
especially  devoted  to  the  study  of  Alga; 
and  marine  plants.  He  left  writings  on 
many  subjects,  his  great  work  being  Sijs- 
tema  Algarum,  1834. 

Agassiz,  Alexander  {b.  1835),  son  of 
Louis  Agassiz,  graduated  at  Harvard  in 
1855,  and  afterwards  assisted  his  father  in 
the  study  of  mai'ine  zoology.  A  fortunate 
enterprise  in  copper  mining  relieved  him 
from  all  fear  of  pecuniary  embarrassment, 
and  he  devoted  himself  to  the  promo- 
tion of  his  favourite  study,  both  by  personal 
research  and  munificent  endowment. 

Agassiz,  Louis  Johann  Rudolph  {b.  1807, 
d.  1878),  eminent  naturalist,  was  the  son 
of  a  Swiss  Protestant  clergyman.  He 
studied  medicine  and  graduated  at  Munich, 
but  devoted  himself  principally  to  ichthyo- 
logy, and  was  employed  to  classify  and 
arrange  the  collection  brought  from  Brazil 
by  Martins  and  Spix.  In  1846  he  went  to 
America,  where  he  was  well  received,  and 
accepted  the  chair  of  zoologj'  and  geologj'  at 
the  University  of  Cambridge  (Harvard 
College).  In  1865  he  visited  Brazil,  and 
on  his  return  placed  the  large  collection  he 




had  made  in  the  museum  of  Cambridge. 
He  wrote  numerous  very  valuable  works, 
and  was  to  the  last  a  disbeliever  in  the 
Darwinian  theory  of  evolution. 

Agathocles  {b.  b.c.  361,  d.  b.c.  289), 
tyrant  of  Syracuse,  a  soldier  of  fortune, 
who  became  wealthy  by  his  marriage  with 
the  widow  of  his  patron,  Demas.  Being 
banished  on  account  of  his  intrigues,  he 
raised  an  anny  and  became  sovereign  of 
Syracuse  B.C.  317.  He  gained  many  vic- 
tories over  the  Carthaginians.  Is  supposed 
to  have  died  of  poison. 

Agathon  (6.  circa  B.C.  448,  d.  circa  B.C. 
401),  Greek  tragic  poet,  contemporary  and 
friend  of  Plato,  Aristophanes,  andEm-ipides. 
Only  fragments  of  his  works  remain. 

Agazzari,  Agostino  {b.  1578,  d.  1640), 
Italian  musician  and  composer,  maestro  of 
the  cathedral  of  Sienna. 

Ageladas,  Greek  sculptor,  who  flou- 
rished in  the  fifth  centuiy  B.C.,  and  was 
master  of  Myron,  Rheidias,  and  Polycletus. 

Agelet,  Joseph  Le  Paute  d'  (b.  17-51, 
d.  1786),  French  astronomer,  who  took  part 
in  the  South  Sea  expedition  of  1773,  and 
(1785)  accompanied  LaPerouse  on  the  voyage 
of  exploration  in  which  they  both  perished. 

AgeUi,  Antonio  {b.  1532,  d.  1608),  author 
and  scholar.  Bishop  of  Acerno,  was  chosen 
by  Pius  V.  to  assist  in  revising  the  Septu- 
agint,  and  also  assisted  in  the  revision  of 
the  Vulgate. 

Agesander,  sculptor  of  Rhodes  in  the 
time  of  Vespasian,  was  one  of  the  three 
artists  who  executed  the  group  of  LaociJon 
and  his  Sons,  now  in  the  Vatican. 

Agesilaus  II.  (b.  b.c  445,  d.  B.C.  361), 
King  of  Sparta,  son  of  Archidamus,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  throne  B.C.  398.  After 
successes  against  the  Persians,  he  defeated 
the  combined  forces  of  Athens,  Argos, 
Corinth,  and  Thebes  at  Coroneia  in  B.C. 
394.  He  next  invaded  Argos  and  Corinth, 
and  in  277  B.C.  attacked  Thebes.  He  died 
ou  his  way  home  from  a  campaign  in  Egypt. 

Agesipolis  I.  (d.  b.c.  380),  King  of 
Sparta,  son  of  Pausanias,  commanded  ex- 
])editions  against  Argos,  B.C.  390,  and  Man- 
tineia,  B.C.  385,  and  was  chosen  chief  of  the 
Lacedemonian  forces  against  Macedonia, 
but  died  during  the  war. 

Agiluphus,  Duke  of  Turin,  who,  by  his 
marriage  with  Theudalinda,  the  widow  of 
King  Autaris,  became  king  of  Lombardy 
in  590.  He  extended  his  dominion  over  the 
greater  part  of  Italy. 

Agis  I.,  King  of  Sparta,  succeeded  his 
father  Eurystheues,  and  reduced  his  con- 
quered subjects  to  a  state  of  vassalage  and 

the  inhabitants  of  Helos  to  that  condition  of 
slavery  which  gave  rise  to  the  name  of  helot. 

Agis  II.  {d.  B.C.  399)  ascended  the  throne 
B.C.  427.  He  hivaded  ArgoHs  B.C.  418,  and 
later  defeated  the  allied  armies  of  Argives, 
Athenians  and  Mantineians  at  Mantineia. 
In  B.C.  413  he  invaded  Attica,  and  waged 
war  successfully  against  the  Eleans,  B.C.  401. 

Agis  III.,  King  of  Sparta,  succeeded  to 
the  throne  in  388  B.C.,  resisted  the  en- 
croachments of  Alexander  the  Great,  but 
was  defeated  by  Autipater,  and  slain  after 
a  brave  and  prolonged  resistance,  B.C.  331. 

Agis  IV.  {d.  B.C.  235),  King  of  Sparta  B.C. 
144,  a  brave  and  prudent  man  who  did  all  in 
his  power  to  avert  the  decline  of  the  State. 
His  exertions,   however,  aroused  consider- 
able opposition ;   after  varying  success  his 
I  rival,    Leonidas,   gained   the   upper    hand, 
I  and  he  was  seized  while  taking  sanctuary 
I  in  the  temple  of  Pallas,  and  was  executed. 

1      Agneaux,     Robert     and    Antoine,    two 
■  brothers,   natives  of  Normandy,  who  pro- 
duced in  1582  the  first  French  translation 
of  Vii'gil  and  afterwards  of  Horace. 

'      Agnes   {d.    1077),    daughter  of  William, 

j  Duke  of  Aquitaiue,  wife  of  Henry  III.  of 

j  Germany,  was  appointed  regent  during  the 

minority  of   her    son   Henry,    but   finding 

herself  unequal  to    the    difficult   position, 

retired  to  a  monastery,  where  she  died. 

Agnes,  Saint  (d.  303),  a  Roman  maiden 
martyred  during  the  Diocletian  persecution. 

Agnes  of  Austria  (h.  1280,  d.  1364), 
daughter  of  Albert  I. ,  and  wife  of  Andrew 
III.  of  Hungary  :  her  cruel  revenge  for  the 
murder  of  her  husband  caused  her  to  be 
universally  hated  ;  she  died  in  a  monastery. 

j  Agiies  Sorel  or  Soreau  (b.  1409,  d.  1450), 
I  the  favourite  mistress  of  Charles  VII.  of 
[France,  distinguished  for  her  beauty  and 
wit,  and  her  influence  with  the  king, 
which  she  used  to  such  good  purpose  as  to 
gain  for  herself  the  good- will  and  affection 
of  the  people.  Her  death  is  attributed  to 

Agnesi,  Maria  Gaetana  {b.  1718,  d.  1799), 
a  woman  of  great  learning,  both  in  lan- 
guages and  mathematics,  was  appointed 
professor  of  mathematics  at  the  university 
of  Bologna,  and  her  text-book  on  this  sub- 
ject has  been  translated  into  French  and 
English.  Towards  the  end  of  her  life  she 
entered  a  monastic  order. 

Agnolo,  Baccio  {b.  1460,  d.  1543),  emi- 
nent Florentine  sculptor  and  architect,  re- 
commended by  Michael  Angelo  to  Clement 
VII.,  to  restore  the  statues  in  the  Belvedere 
Musetmi  at  Rome. 




Agoracritus,  sculptor  of  Pai-os,  aud  the 
favourite  pupil  of  Phidias. 

Agostini,  Paolo  (Jk  1593,  d.  1660),  emi- 
neut  musiciau  aud  maestro  of  the  chapel  of 
St.  Peter's  at  Rome. 

Agostino,  Veneziano  or  Augustiuus  de 
Musis,  Veuetiau  eugraver  of  the  16th  ceu- 
tury,  engraved  mauy  of  Raphael's  desigus. 

Agresti,  Livio  {d.  1580),  a  Roman  his- 
torical paiuter,  worked  iu  the  Vatican 
under  Gregory  XIII. 

Agricola,  Cnseus  Julius  (b.  37,  d.  94), 
Roman  commander  in  Britain  under  Sueto- 
nius Paulinus,  became  Governor  of  Britain, 
77,  and,  pushing  his  cou quests  northward, 
built  the  chain  of  forts  from  the  Clyde  to 
the  Firth  of  Forth. 

Agricola,  Georg  {b.  1494,  d.  1555),  whose 
real  name  was  Landmanu,  German  metal- 
lurgist, travelled  in  Italy  and  Germany,  and 
finally  settled  at  Chemnitz. 

Agricola,  Johaun,  surnamed  Islabius  (b. 
1492,  d.  1566),  at  first  the  friend  and  advo- 
cate of  Luther,  but  afterwards  opposed  him, 
and  became  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  Anti- 

Agricola,  Johann  Friediich  {b.  1720,  d. 
1774),  German  composer  and  musician,  a 
pupil  of  Bach,  wrote  several  operas. 

Agricola,  Rudolph  (b.  1443,  d.  1485),  phil- 
ologist and  scholar  of  the  15th  century,  tra- 
velled in  Italy  1476,  and  afterwards  in  Ger- 
many, dwelhng  at  Worms  and  Heidelberg. 

AgTippa,  Heinrich  Cornelius  {b.  I486,  d. 
1535),  scientist  and  theologian,  was  secre- 
tary to  the  Emperor  Maximilian,  studied 
at^  Paris  1506,  and  taught  theology  at 
Dole,  in  Burgundy ;  after  many  wander- 
ings he  settled  at  Antwerp.  His  treatises, 
iJe  I'nnitate  Scientiarnm  and  De  Occulta 
Phllosophia,  brought  him  into  discredit ; 
he  was  several  times  imprisoned,  and  after 
some  years  of  poverty  died  at  Grenoble. 

Agrippa,  Marcus  Vipsanius  {b.  b.c.  63,  d. 
B.C.  12),  three  times  consul,  and  twice 
governor  of  Syria,  took  a  prominent  part 
in  the  wai-s  which  followed  the  death  of 
Julius  Caesar;  defeated  Sextus  Pompeius 
at  sea,  B.C.  38,  and  greatly  contributed  to 
the  victory  of  Octavius  at  Actium. 

Agrippa,  Menenius  Lanatus  {d.  circa  b.  c. 
493),  Roman  consul  about  B.C.  502,  con- 
quered the  Sabines,  and,  by  the  fable  of 
the  belly  and  its  members,  appeased  the 
Plebs  when  they  had  seceded  to  the  Aven- 
tine  Hill. 

Agrippa  I.,  Herod  {h.  b.c.  10,  d.  a.d.  44), 
son  of  Aristobulus  and  Berenice,  and  grand- 
sou   of  Herod  the  Great,  was  tetrarch  of 

Abilene,  and  afterwards,  under  the  Emperor 
Claudius,  king  of  Judea  and  Samaria.  He 
persecuted  the  Qhristians,  killing  James,  the 
brother  of  John,  and  imprisoning  Peter. 
He  died  at  Csesarea. 

Agrippa  II.,  Herod  {b.  27,  d:  94),  son  and 
successor  of  the  preceding,  and  last  of  the 
Jewish  monarchs  of  the  family  of  Herod  the 
Great.  He  took  the  part  of  the  Romans 
against  his  countrymen  on  several  occasions, 
and  it  was  before  him  that  St.  Paul  was 
brought  in  59. 

Agrippina  [d.  63),  daughter  of  M.  V. 
Agrippa,  married  Germanicus,  after  whose 
death  she  was  banished  by  Tiberius  a.d.  30. 

Agrippina  {d.  59),  daughter  of  above, 
the  mother  of  Nero,  a  cruel,  licentious 
woman,  poisoned  her  uncle  and  third 
husband  Claudius  to  secure  the  elevation  of 
her  son,  who  caused  her  to  be  put  to  death 
a  few  years  later. 

Aguesseau,  Henri  Fran9ois  d'  {b.  1668, 
d.  1751),  orator  and  advocate,  took  part 
in  the  contest  between  the  Pope  aud  the 
Galilean  Church,  1699;  was  made  Procure ur- 
General  in  1700,  and  defended  the  Galilean 
Church  against  the  Ultramontane  party. 
After  the  death  of  Louis  XIV.  was  ap- 
pointed Chancellor  in  1717,  but  was  twice 
deprived  of  the  seals,  retiring  from  Paris 
1722,  but  was  finally  restored  in  1727.  He 
was  a  great  scholar  and  jurist. 

Aguilar,  Grace  (b.  1816,  d.  1847),  Jewess 
of  Spanish  extraction,  authoress  of  The  Days 
of  Bruce,  as  well  as  of  many  moral  tales  and 
religious  tracts. 

Ahab,  sou  of  Omri,  and  seventh  king  of 
the  separate  kingdom  of  Israel,  married 
Jezebel,  daughter  of  Ethbaal,  King  of  Sidon. 
His  reign  is  marked  by  the  attempted  ex- 
termination of  the  followers  of  Jehovah, 
the  death  of  Xaboth,  and  his  own  death  iu 
battle  with  the  Syrians. 

Ahasuerus,  the  name  or  title  of  one 
Median  and  two  Persian  kings,  mentioned 
in  the  books  of  Daniel,  Ezra,  and  Esther, 
and  supposed  to  be  identical  with  Cyaxares, 
Cambyses,  and  Xerxes  respectively. 

Ahaz,  eleventh  king  of  Judah,  and  son 
of  Jotham,  became  tributary  to  Tiglath- 
Pileser,  King  of  Assyria,  whom  he  had  sum- 
moned to  assist  him  iu  repelling  the  kings 
of  Israel  and  Damascus.  He  adopted  the 
necromantic  pi-actices  of  the  Syrians,  aud 
died  after  a  reign  of  sixteen  years. 

Ahaziah,  called  also  Azariah,  fifth  king 
of  Judah,  was  the  son  of  Jehoram  and 
Athaliah  the  daughter  of  Ahab.  He  was  an 
idolater  ;  being  mortally  wounded  by  Jehu, 
died  at  Megiddo  after  a  reign  of  one  year. 




Ahenobarbi  or  ^nobaxbi  (Brazenbeaixis), 
a  distiuguished  family  of  the  Geus  Domitia 
of  Rome,  members  of  which  filled  the 
highest  offices  in  the  State  from  B.C.  496  till 
the  first  century  a.d. 

Alili  Shirazi,  a  Persian  poet  and  native 
of  Shiraz,  lived  in  the  fifteenth  century ; 
his  chief  work  is  the  Kamdas. 

Ablwardt,  Christian  Wilhelm  {b.  1760, 
d.  1830),  linguist,  rector  of  the  gjonnasiums 
of  Oldenburg  and  Grafswald,  and  writer  of 
several  translations  from  the  classical 

Ahmed  or  Ahmud  (Shah),  a  cruel  and 
warlike  prince  of  the  Bahmuny  dynasty  in 
the  Deccan.  He  was  bitterly  hated  by  his 
Hindoo  neighbours,  who  compassed  his 
death  in  1435.  . 

Ahmed  or  Achmet  I.  {l>.  1590,  d.  1617) 
succeeded  his  father  as  SuUau  of  Turkey  in 
1603.  While  fond  of  aTt.  he  was  weak  and 
voluptuous,  and  embroiled  his  country  in 
civil  commotions  and  foreign  wars. 

Ahmed  or  Achmet  II.  {b.  1643,  d.  1695), 
filtan  of  Turkey,  succeeded  his  brother  in 
1691.  He  was  defeated  by  Germany  at 
the  sanguinary  battle  of  Salankemau. 

^Ahmed  or  Achmet  HI.  {h.  1673,  d. 
1739)  ascended  the  throne  in  1703  on  the 
abdication  of  his  brother,  and  found  himself 
involved  in  internal  troubles  and  foreign 
wars.  Against  Russia  and  Venice  the  Otto- 
man arms  were  successful,  but  Ahmed  was 
defeated  by  Austria,  and  afterwards  by 
Persia,  and  a  rebellion  of  the  Janissaries 
compelled  him  to  abdicate  in  1730. 

Ahmed  IV.  [See  Abdul  Hamid.] 

Ahmed  Ibn  Ahmed  {b.  1577,  d.  1632), 
kno^\^l  also  as  Ahmed  al  Mak-kari,  a 
learned  native  of  Telemsan,  who  lectured  at 
Damascus.  His  great  work  is  The  Rhtory 
of  the  Mahometan  Empire  in  Spain. 

Ahmed  Ibn  Tulun  (jb.  835,  d.  884),  one  of 
the  generals  of  the  Caliph  Al  Mamun,  and 
founder  of  the  Egyptian  dynasty  of  the 

Ahmed  Khan  Abdali  (b.  1723,  d.  1773), 
founder  of  the  Durani  dynasty  in 
Afghanistan.  He  avenged  the  death  of  his 
master,  Nadir  Shah,  w-as  crowned  at 
Kandahar  in  1747,  and  in  a  series  of  brilliant 
victories  overran  the  Punjaub,  and  routed  , 
the  army  of  the  Mahrattas.  t 

Aibek,  Azak  Ed-din,  founder  of  the 
Egyptian  dynasty  of  Mameluke  Baharites. 
Origmally  a  slave,  his  valour  attracted  the 
notice  of  the  widowed  Sultaness,  who  mar- 
ned  him.      He  was  acknowledged   Sultan 

in  1254,  but  was  soon  afterwards  assassi- 
nated by  his  wife. 

Aide,  Hamilton,  a  well-known  author. 
Besides  novels  he  has  written  several  pojni- 
lar  drawing-room  songs,  plays  and  other 

Aignan,  Etienne  {b.  1773,  d.  1824),  a 
zealous  but  moderate  revolutionist,  and  a 
member  of  the  French  Academv,  distin- 
guished as  a  poet  and  dramatic  author.  He 
has  produced  many  works  of  a  miscel- 
laneous nature,  including  several  tragedies, 
and  a  translation  into  verse  of  the  Iliad. 

Aiguillon,  Armand,  Due  d'  {d.  1800), 
joined  the  Duke  of  Orleans  against  the 
Koyalists,  but  was  eventually  compelled  to 
fly,  first  to  London,  and  then  to  Hamburg, 
where  he  died. 

Aikin,  John,  M.D.  {p.  1747,  d.  1822),  mis- 
cellaneous writer,  was  educated  under  his 
father  at  Warrington.  He  devoted  himself 
chiefly  to  literature,  and  among  his  works, 
'  some  of  which  were  written  in  conjunction 
I  with  his  sister,  afterwards  Mrs.  Barbauld, 
is  his  General  Biography. 

i  Aikin,  Lucy  {b.  1781,  d.  1864),  daughter 

j  of  the  preceding,  by  whom  she  was  educated. 

j  Besides  historical  works,  she  wrote  several 

:  poetical  pieces. 

Aikins,  Hon.  James  Cox  {b.  1823), 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  province  of 
Manitoba,  entered  the  Canadian  House  of 
Assembly,  in  L>54,  as  representative  for 
county  Peel.  After  holding  various  political 
IDosts  he  was  appointed  Lieutenant-Governor 
in  1882. 

Ailly,  Pierre,  learned  theologian  of  the 
14th  century,  who,  as  cardinal,  had  great 
influence  in  ecclesiastical  affairs,  and  joined 
in  the  condemnation  of  Huss. 

Aimard,  Gustav  {b.  1818,  d.  1;83), 
French  novelist.  After  leading  a  life  of 
adventure  in  America  for  many  years,  he 
travelled  in  Europe,  and  finally  settled  in 
Paris.  Several  of  his  works  have  been 
translated  into  English,  the  most  popular 
being  Les  Trappeurs  de  V Arkansas. 

AinmiiUer,  Max  Emmanuel  {b.  1807, 
d.  1870),  German  painter  on  glass,  who  exe- 
cuted the  new  windows  in  Eatisbon  Cathe- 
dral, as  well  as  several  at  Spires,  Cologne, 
and  in  St.  Paul's,  London. 

Ainsworth,  William  Francis  {b.  1807), 
natural  historian  and  author.  Enteruig  the 
medical  profession  while  quite  young,  he 
devoted  himself  to  natural  history.  He 
travelled  first  in  Europe,  but  in  1835  he 
accompanied  Chesney's  Euphrates  expedi- 
tion, and  later  on  was  sent  into  Asia  Minor. 




Besides  general  literature,  he  has  published 
a  variety  of  -works  giving  accounts  of  his 

Ainsworth,  "William  Harrison  (6.  1805,  d. 
1882),  English  novelist.  Originally  in- 
tended for  the  bar,  he  decided  in  1824  to 
devote  himself  to  literature.  His  fii'st  con- 
siderable work,  Hh-  John  Ch'nerton,  won 
Sir  Walter  Scott's  admii-ation ;  it  was 
quickly  followed  by  many  others,  including 
The  Toner  of  Lo)idon,  Old  St.  FaiiPs,  and 
Jack  Sheppard. 

Aird,  Thomas  {b.  1802,  d.  1876),  Scotch 
poet  and  journalist,  graduated  at  Edin- 
burgh. Besides  writing  separate  works  he 
contributed  to  Blackwood''s  Magazine,  and 
was  for  a  time  editor  of  the  Edinburgh 
Weekly  Journal,  and  the  Dumfries  Herald. 

Airey,  George  Biddell  {b.  1801,  d.  1892), 
Enghsh  astronomer,  a  native  of  Alnwick, 
educated  at  Cambridge,  where  he  held 
various  professorships,  including  that  of 
astronomy.  In  1835  he  was  appointed 
Astronomer  Royal. 

Airey,  Richard,  General  and  Baron 
(b.  1803,  d.  1881),  was  educated  at  Sand- 
hurst, and  entered  the  army  in  1821.  After 
serving  in  the  Ionian  Islands  and  British 
North  America,  he  went  through  the  Crimean 
war,  and  in  1865  was  made  Governor  of 
Gibraltar.  He  retired  from  service  in  1876 
with  the  title  of  Lord  Airey,  but  in  1879  was 
president  of  the  Airey  commission  of  inquiry 
into  the  new  short  ser^dce  system. 

Aitchison,  George,  B.A.,  and  A.R.A. 
(i^.  1825),  architect,  was  educated  at  Mer- 
chant Taylors'  school,  and  after  entering 
the  Royal  Academy  in  1847,  spent  two 
years  abroad.  He  gained  medals  at  the 
Exhibitions  of  Philadelphia,  Sydney,  and 
Melbourne,  and  has  lectured  at  the  "^ Royal 
Academy  since  1882.  The  practical  results 
of  his  work  are  to  be  seen  in  many  large 
warehouses,  the  London  and  St.  Katherine 
Docks,  and  in  the  decoration  of  many  houses 
of  the  aristocracy. 

Aivazovski,  Gabriel  (Pere  Gabriel)  [h. 
1812),  learned  Armenian  scholar,  belonging 
to  the  convent  of  St.  Lazaro,  near  Venice. 
He  is  author  of  many  valuable  works,  and 
was  one  of  the  foun'ders  of  the  Amienian 
College  of  Grenelle  near  Paris. 

Ajax,  son  of  Oileus,  King  of  the 
Locrians,  and  one  of  the  heroes  who  be- 
sieged Troy,  but  on  his  return  perished  by 

Ajax,  son  of  Telamon,  King  of  Salamis, 
a  brave  and  handsome  man  of  great  stature. 

who  fought  single-handed  with  Hector  in  the 
Trojan  war. 

Akber  (Jabul-ud-dinMohammed)  {b.  1542, 
d.  1605),  the  son  of  Humayuu,  was  a  wise 
and  just  monarch.  It  was  he  who  first  col- 
lected the  various  tribes  of  India  into  a  single 
empire,  with  himself  at  its  head.  He  en- 
couraged literature  and  commerce,  and  for- 
bade the  burning  of  Hindoo  widows  against 
their  will.  Domestic  sorrows  troubled  his 
declining  years,  and  he  died  1605. 

Akenside,  Mark  {b.  1721,  d.  1770), 
British  physician,  and  son  of  a  Newcastle 
butcher ;  he  is  now  remembered  only  as  a 
poet.  His  chief  work  is  Pleasures  of  the 

Akerblad,  John  David  {b.  1760,  d.  1819), 
celebrated  Oriental  scholar,  and  an  author- 
ity on  Phoenician  inscriptions  and  Coptic 
hterature.  His  publications  in  archaeology 
and  hieroglyphics  are  still  regarded  as  ex- 
ceedingly valuable. 

Akennan,  John  Young  {b.  1806,  d.  1873), 
antiquary  and  numismatist.  After  holding 
similar  posts  he  became  secretary  to  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  in  1848.  He  was 
honorary  member  of  many  foreign  societies, 
and  started  the  Numisinattc  Journal  in  1836, 
besides  numerous  other  works  on  his  favour- 
ite subjects. 

Akhbar  Khan  (d.  1847),  son  of  Dost 
Mahomed  of  Cabul.  During  the  rebellion  of 
1840  he  headed  the  Afghan  troops,  and  after 
considerable  success  besieged  Jellalabad,  but 
Avas  twice  defeated  by  General  Pollock. 

Akiba,  Ben  Joseph  {d.  135),  learned 
Jewish  doctor,  said  to  have  studied  under 
Gamaliel.  After  gathering  round  him  vast 
numbers  of  disciples,  he  joined  the  pseudo- 
Messiah  Bar  Cochba,  but  being  defeated  by 
the  Romans,  was  put  to  death  with  the 
greatest  cruelty. 

Akimoo.  Ivan  [b.  1754,  d.  1814),  Russian 
painter  and  dii'ector  of  the  Academy  of 
Filie  Arts.  His  works  are  of  considerable 

Alabaster,  William  {b.  1567,  d.  1640), 
divine  and  poet,  and  prebendary  of  St. 
Paul's.  Besides  other  works  he  left  a 
pentaglott  dictionary,  in  Hebrew,  Chaldaic, 
Syriac,  Talmudico-Rabbinic,  and  Arabic. 

Ala-ed-Dewlet  {d.  1515),  Prince  of  Mer'- 
ash  in  the  15th  and  16th  centuries,  who  made 
himself  master  of  the  vast  dominions  of  the 
dynasty  of  Zulkadr.    He  was  slain  in  battle. 

Alarcon  y  Mendoza,  Don  Juan  {h.  1590, 
d.  1639),  one  of  the  greatest  Spanish  dra- 
matists, and  especially  successful  in  delinea- 
tions of  character.     Le  Mejiteur  of  Comeille 




is  'based  on  one  of  Alargon's  "best  plays. 
Personally  he  was  unpopular,  and  his  works 
were  neglected  for  nearlj'  twenty  years. 

Alaxd,  Delphin  {b.  1815),  a  pupil  of 
Habeneck,  and  one  of  the  most  skilful 
\aoliuists  of  the  century.  In  1S48  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  the  violin  in  the 
Conservatoire  of  Paris. 

Alaric  I.  {d.  410),  King  of  the  Visigoths, 
had  served  in  the  Roman  ai-my,  but  on  the 
death  of  Theodosius  headed  his  countrjTueu 
in  revolt  against  Rome.  After  fruitless  at- 
tempts on  G-reece  and  Italy,  he  was  successful 
in  402  in  reaching  Rome,  which  he  thrice 
besieged,  finally  taking  and  pillaging  the 
city.  He  died  at  Coseuza,  and  was  buried 
in  the  bed  of  the  Basento. 

Alaric  II.  succeeded  to  the  throne  in 
484,  but  was  slain  in  battle  with  the  Franks 
under  Clovis.  To  him  is  due  the  code  of 
laws  known  as  Breviarium  Alaricianum. 

Alasco,  John  {b.  1499,  d.  loGO),  Polish 
theologian  and  scholar,  and  one  of  the  early 
Protestant  reformers.  He  was  a  frieud  of 
Zwingli,  Erasmus,  and  Melauchthou,  and 
did  much  to  further  the  Reformation,  especi- 
ally in  Holland. 

Al-ashari  (Abu  -  1  -  hassan)  {b.  860, 
d.  935),  founder  of  the  sect  of  Asharites ; 
his  doctrines  spread  through  Syria,  Egypt, 
and  Spain. 

Alaux,  Jean  (h.  1786,  d.  1864),  French 
painter,  and  pupil  of  Vincent  and  Gueriui, 
He  was  patronised  by_Louis  Philippe,  and  j 

his  works  are  still  at  Versailles,  St.  Cloud, 
and  Fontainebleau,  the  best  known  being  I 
Pandora  and  The  Fight  of  the  Centaurs  and 
Lainthce.  \ 

Alava,  ]\Iiguel  Ricardo  d'  [b.  Vittoria, 
1771,  d.  1843),  Spanish  soldier,  who  in  ! 
1807  took  the  side  of  France,  and  became  a 
member  of  the  Assembly  of  Bayonne,  but  ' 
about  1811  changed  sides,  and  obtained 
considerable  distinction  under  the  Duke  of 
Wellington.  He  was  afterwards  President 
of  the  Cortes,  and  adopted  the  cause  of 
Maria  Christina,  but  finally  withdrew  to 
France,  where  he  died. 

Alava  y  Nerarete,  Don  Iguacio  {d.  1817), 
a  Spanish  naval  officer,  who  served  under 
Admiral  Cordova  in  the  war  with  England,  ' 
and  was  present  at  the  battle  of  Trafalgar.   \ 
He  was  afterwards  appointed  commander- 
in-chief  at  Cadiz,  and  died  there.  , 

Alban,  Saint,  a  Roman  soldier  martyred  ! 
in  Britain  about  285,  and  in  honour  of  whom 
a  monastery  was  founded  at  Verulam. 

Albani,  Annibale  [h.  1682),  cardinal,   and  i 
chief  librarian  of  the  Vatican. 

Albani,  Alessaudro,  his  brother,  cardinal, 
and  patron  of  learning. 

Albani,  Emma  (^.  circa  1547),  whose  real 
name  is  La  Jeunesse,  a  native  of  Canada, 
is  a  brilliant  operatic  singer.  She  married 
Mr.  Ernest  Gye. 

Albani,  Francesco  {b.  1578,  d.  1660), 
historical  and  portrait  painter,  who  worked 
at  Rome,  Florence,  and  Bologna.  Of  his 
nimierous  works,  chiefly  on  sacred  subjects, 
many  are  still  in  the  galleries  of  Rome  and 

Albani,  Giuseppe  [b.  1750),  president  of 
the  Amioua,  and  auditor-general  of  the 
Apostolic  Chambers. 

Albany,  Leopold  George  Duncan  Albert, 
Duke  of  [b.  1853,  d.  1884),  fourth  son  of 
Queen  Victoria.  In  spite  of  early  delicacy 
he  was  unusually  accomplished  and  culti- 
vated. He  married  in  1882  the  Princess 
Helene  of  Waldeck,  by  whom  he  had  two 

Albany,  Louisa  Maria  Caroline,  Countess 
of  {b.  1753,  d.  1820),  the  daughter  of  Gus- 
tavus  Adolphus  of  Stolberg-Godern.  She 
was  married  in  1772  to  Charles  Stuart,  the 
Young  Pretender,  but  separating  from  him, 
put  herself  under  the  protection  of  Alfieri, 
with  whom  she  lived  till  his  death  in  1803. 

Albatenius,  an  Arabian  astronomer  of 
the  9th  centmy,  whose  works  were  much 
read  and  valued  by  his  successors. 

Alber,  Erasmus,  Superintendent- General 
of  Is  eubrandenburg,  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  the  age  of  Luther,  and  a  zealous 
supporter  of  the  Reformer's  doctrines. 

Alberico  da  Barbiano,  celebrated  con- 
dottiere  in  the  14th  century,  who  formed  a 
company  of  free  lances  and  took  service 
under  Urban  VL,  Gian  Galeazzo  Visconte, 
and  others. 

Alberoni,  Giulio  (J).  1664,  d.  1752),  car- 
dinal, and  first  minister  of  Spain.  Whilst 
secretary  to  the  Duke  of  Vendome  he  in- 
gratiated himself  with  PhiliiD  V.,  and 
formed  schemes  for  the  extension  of 
Spanish  power,  but  his  projects  failing,  he 
was  dismissed  and  exiled,  and  retired  to. 
Rome,  where  he  died. 

Albert  (I'Ouvrier),  a  French  button-maker 
and  journalist,  who  took  part  in  the  insur- 
rection of  Paris  in  1848,  started  the  Atelier, 
and  became  a  member  of  the  Provisional 
Government.  He  was  afterwards  arrested 
and  imprisoned, 

Albert,  Francis  Charles  Augustus  Em- 
manuel, Prince  Consort  of  England  (6.  1819, 
d.  1861),  was  the  second  son  of  Ernest,  Duke 
of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.    After  his  first  visit 




to  Euglaud  iu  1836,  Priuce  Albert  speut 
some  time  at  the  University  of  Bouu,  aud  iu 
European  travels,  aud  ou  his  return  to 
England  iu  1839  tlie  arrangements  for  his 
marriage  with  the  Queen  were  made,  the 
ceremony  being  performed  at  St.  James's 
Palace,  Feb.  lOth,  18 10.  In  the  very  difficult 
situation  iu  which  he  was  now  placed  Priuce 
Albert's  conduct  was  sometimes  miscon- 
strued, but  the  news  of  his  death  from 
typhoid  fever  on  Dec.  Uth,  1861,  was 
received  with  unfeigned  sorrow  by  the 
nation  at  large.  He  was  the  chief  promoter 
of  the  Great  Exhibition  of  1851,  and  being 
a  man  of  wide  intelligence  and  benevolent 
feeling,  took  part  in  most  of  the  public 
movements  of  his  day. 

Albert  Edward,  Prince  of  Wales  {b.  1841), 
eldest  sou  of  Queen  Victoria,  studied  at 
the  Universities  of  Edinburgh,  Oxford,  and 
Cambridge.  In  1862  he  married  the  Princess 
Alexandra  of  Denmark,  by  whom  he  has 
issue  two  sons  aud  three  daughters.  The 
anxiety  manifested  by  the  nation  during 
his  dangerous  illness  in  1871  led  to  the 
memorable  public  thanksgiving  early  in 
the  following  year,  when  the  Queen  and 
Priuce  made  a  royal  progress  to  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  The  prince  has  visited  India, 
America,  and  Palestine.  He  sits  as  Duke  of 
Cornwall  in  the  House  of  Lords,  where  he 
made  his  maiden  speech  iu  1881.  During 
many  years  of  the  Queen's  reign  the  burden 
of  court  or  public  ceremouial  has  fallen 
almost  entirely  ou  his  shoulders,  aud  the 
tact  aud  grace  with  which  he  acquits  him- 
self of  his  functions  have  won  for  him  a 
very  large  degree  of  popularity. 

Albert  Victor,  eldest  son  of  the  above  (b. 
1864,  fL  1892),  created  Duke  of  Clarence  aud 
Avondale  1890.  Was  for  a  time  in  the 
navy,  aud  served  on  board  H.M.S.  Jiac- 
r/iaitte  ;  afterwards  joined  the  10th  Hussars, 
iu  which  he  became  captaiu. 

Albert,  Duke  of  Saxony  {/>.  1443,  d.  loOO), 
ruled  for  a  time  jointly  with  his  brother 
Ernst.  In  1485  they  divided  the  kingdom, 
and  Albert  took  Meissen,  aud  was  the  ! 
founder  of  the  present  reigning  family  of 

Albert,  first  Duke  of  Prussia  {b.  1490,  d. 
15G8),  received  the  territory  of  Lower 
Prussia  as  an  hereditary  fief  from  the  King 
of  Pohiud,  in  return  for  military  services  he 
had  rendered.  He  adopted  and  diffused  the 
doctrines  of  Luther,  aud  founded  the  uni- 
versity of  K(3nigsberg. 

Albert  I.,  Duke  of  Austria  and  Emperor 
of  Germany  {b.  1248,  d.  1308).  Upon  the 
deposition  of  Adolphus  of  Nassau,  Albert 
was  elected  emperor,  and  after  slaying 
Adolphus  at  the  battle  of  Gelheim,  he 
was  crowned  at  Aix-la-Chapelle.      After  a 

succession  of  wars  he    was  killed  by  his 
nephew,  John  of  Swabia. 

Albert  II.  of  Austria  {b.  1298,  d.  1358), 
surnamed  the  Wise,  succeeded  his  father  in 
the  dukedom,  but  declined  the  imperial 
crown.  He  established  peace  with  the 
neighbouring  powers,  but  was  defeated  by 
the  Swiss  at  Morgarten. 

Albert  III.  of  Austria  {b.  1349,  d.  1395). 
Ou  the  death  of  Albert  II.  his  sous  suc- 
ceeded jointly  to  his  dominions,  aud  on  the 
division  amongst  the  survivors  iu  1379, 
Austria  fell  to  Albert.  He  was  an  active 
aud  vigilant  priuce,  aud  a  patron  of  the  fine 

Albert  IV.,  Duke  of  Austria,  surnamed 
"the  Pious"  {b.  1379,  d.  1414),  sou  of  the 
preceding,  allowed  his  cousin  Wilhelm  to 
share  his  dukedom,  aud  was  named  suc- 
cessor to  the  thrones  of  Hungary  and 
Bohemia,  but  was  poisoned  iu  1414  by  the 
Margrave  of  Moravia. 

Albert  v.,  Duke  of  Austria,  and  II.  of 
Germany  {b.  1397,  d.  1439),  succeeded  his 
father  in  the  dukedom,  aud  obtained 
Moravia  by  marriage.  Iu  1438  he  was 
crowned  Kiug  of  Hungary,  and  elected 
Emperor.  He  was  a  Avise  and  judicious 
priuce,  but  his  reign  was  marred  by  a  cruel 
war  with  the  Hussites.  He  died  suddenly 
whilst  repulsing  an  invasion  of  the  Turks. 

Albert  I.,  Margrave  of  Brandenburg  (b. 
1106,  d.  1170),  the  son  of  Otto,  received 
Brandenburg  iu  return  for  Alsatia  aud 
Bavaria,  aud  was  driven  from  his  territories 
by  Henry  the  Lion,  but  was  restored  iu  1142. 

Albert  II.,  of  Brandenburg,  succeeded  his 
brother.  Otto  II.,  in  1206.  He  acquired 
Lower  Alsatia  and  part  of  Pomerania,  and 
died  1221. 

Albert  III.,  of  Brandenburg  (b.  1414,  d. 
1486),  a  man  of  such  strength  aud  skill  that 
he  acquired  the  appellations  of  "Achilles" 
aud  "Ulysses." 

Albert  IV.,  of  Bavaria  (b.  1447,  d.  1508), 
surnamed  '  the  Wise."  A  learned  and 
prudent  prince,  he  largely  increased  and 
consolidated  his  dominions,  and  concluded 
a  compact  by  which  the  duchy  should 
descend  intact  to  the  eldest  son. 

Albert  V.,  of  Bavaria,  surnamed  "the 
Magnanimous"  {b.  1528,  <;?.  1579),  a  noble 
patron  of  the  fine  arts,  aud  a  man  of  great 
piety,  who  largely  endowed  religious  com- 

Albert  I.,  Duke  of  Brunswick,  surnamed 
"  the  Great  "  (b.  1236,  d.  1278),  a  brave  and 
warlike  prince,  who  liberated  Queen  Mar- 
garet  of  Denmark,  aud  was  for  some  thne 
regent  of  that  couutry. 




Albert  II.,  Duke  of  Brunswick  {d.  1318), 
sou  of  the  preceding,  assumed  the  goveru- 
rueut  in  1382.  He  quarrelled  with  his 
brothers,  and  was  of  extravagant  habits. 

Albert  I.,  Archbishop  of  Magdeburg,  a 
monk  of  Treves,  aud  iudefatigable  missiou- 
nry,  who  endeavoured  to  establish  Chris- 
tianity in  Russia. 

Albert  II.,  Archbishop  of  Magdeburg  in 
1205,  For  his  services  to  Otto  of  Brunswick 
he  received  a  large  grant  of  laud,  over 
which  he  ruled  with  prudence  and  ability. 
He  died  in  1233. 

Albert  V.,  Archbishop  of  Magdeburg  {h. 
1489,  d.  1545).  He  was  also  Commissioner 
of  Indulgences,  aud  thus  became  involved 
in  controversy  with  Luther  aud  the  re- 
fonners,  who  attacked  him  vigorously. 

Albert  II.,  of  Mecklenburg  [d.  1412), 
and  King  of  Sweden  (1363),  was  in- 
volved in  disastrous  wars,  aud  finally 
defeated  aud  imprisoned  at  Falkoppiug  in 
1388.  Being  unable  to  pay  the  ransom 
demanded,  he  abdicated,  and  died  iu  a 

Albert  V.,  of  Mecklenburg  {d.  lo47),  ruled 
joLutly  with  his  brother  Heinrich.  He 
actively  opposed  the  Lutheran  doctrines, 
aud  took  arms  on  behalf  of  the  Catholics, 
while  Heinrich  fought  on  the  side  of  the 

Albert,  Friedrich  Rudolph  {]>.  1817), 
Archduke  of  Austria,  son  of  the  Archduke 
Charles,  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Novara, 
1849,  aud  in  1866  defeated  the  Italians  at 
Custozza.  After  Sadowa  he  was  appointed 
commander-in-chief  of  the  Austrian  army, 
which  post  he  held  till  1869. 

Albert  or  Alberti,  Heinrich  {h.  1604, 
d.  1651),  a  musician  aud  poet,  appointed 
Kapellmeister  at  Kouigsberg  in  1626. 
He  was  an  excelleut  lyiical  poet,  and 
introduced  into  his  country  many  improve- 
ments of  the  Italian  school. 

Alberti,  Benedetto,  a  Florentine  of  the 
14th  century,  remarkable  for  his  moder- 
ation. At  first  he  joined  Salvestro  de 
Medici,  but  when  the  populace  proceeded 
to  extremities,  took  the  part  of  the  higher 
classes ;  but  finding  favour  with  neither 
side,  went  abroad  and  travelled  in  the  Holy 

Alberti,  Leon  Battista  {b.  1404,  d. 
1472),  Itahan  scholar,  mathematician, 
architect,  painter  and  sculptor.  Oue  of 
his  best  works  is  the  exterior  of  the 
church  of  San  Francesco  at  Rimini ;  he 
also  wrote  treatises  on  architecture  and 

Alberti,  Salomon  {b.  1540,  d.  1600),  an 
eminent  physician  and  anatomist ;  he  held 

the  chair  of    anatomy    and  philosophy  at 


Albertolli,  II  Cavaliere  Giocouda  {b. 
1742,  d.  1840),  an  eminent  Italian  architect 
who  especially  excelled  iu  ii'teriors.  The 
Palazzo  Reale  in  Naples,  and  the  imperial 
villa  of  Maria  Theresa  at  Monza  were 
decorated  by  him. 

AJbertrandy,  Jan  Chrzciciel  {b.  1731, 
d.  1808),  Polish  autiquary  and  numismatist 
of  the  18th  century.  He  was  director  of 
the  antiquities  of  King  Stanislaus,  and 
founder  of  the  society  of  "  Les  Amis  des 

Albertus  Magnus  (/^.  1193,  d.  1280),  a  man 
of  great  sanctity  and  learning,  was  ap- 
pointed Bishop  of  Ratisbon,  and  assisted  at 
the  General  Couucil  of  Lyons  iu  1274.  He 
left  numeious  works,  and  amongst  his 
scholars  was  the  famous  Thomas  Aquinas. 

Albery,  James  (/;.  1832,  d.  1889),  dramatic 
writer,  wrote  The  Two  Hoses  (1870),  Pink 
Boimnocs  (1877),  and  other  pieces. 

Albini.  Franz  Joseph  {b.  1748,  d.  1816). 
Originally  intended  for  the  law,  he  early 
showed  great  aptitude  for  politics,  and  was 
employed  on  afi^airs  of  importance  by  the 
Em^^eror  Joseph  II.  and  afterwards  by  the 
Elector  of  Mayence.  He  ably  represeuted 
the  Elector  at  the  Congress  of  Rastadt 
(1797),  showed  himself  a  skilful  general  iu 
encounters  with  Augereau  (1800),  and  on 
the  death  of  the  Emperor  Frederick  secured 
the  accession  of  Dalberg. 

Albinus,  Bernard  (5.  1653,  d.  1721),  a 
GeiTuan  physician  and  medical  writer  of 
repute.  He  was  physician  to  the  Elector 
Frederick  William  of  Brandeuburg,  aud 
from  1702  occupied  the  chair  of  anatomy 
and  surgery  at  the  university  of  Ley  den. 

Albinus,  Bernard  Siegfried  (b.  1697,  d. 
1770),  son  of  the  precediug,  and  reader  of 
auatomy  aud  surgery  at  Le3'den.  He  also 
held  the  chairs  of  anatomy,  surgery,  and 
therapeutics,  aud  was  considered  the  best 
GeiTuan  anatomist  of  his  day. 

Albinus,  Clodius  [d.  197),  an  able  Roman 
general,  whose  victories  in  Gaul  gained 
him  much  renown.  On  the  death  of  Per- 
tinax  he  was  one  of  four  competitors  for 
the  empire,  but  was  defeated  and  slain 
by  Severus  in  a  sanguinary  battle  near 

Albitte,  Antoine  Louis  (/>.  1760,  d.  1812), 
a  French  advocate  Avho  took  a  conspicuous 
part  iu  the  revolution. 

Alboin,  King  of  the  Longobards  or  Lom- 
bards [d.  574).  He  gained  considerable  re- 
nown iu  exjjloits  against  the  Gepidai,  whom 
he  succeeded  in  exterminating.  After  making 




himself  master  of  great  part  of  Italy  he 
was  murdered  at  Verona,  at  his  wife's  insti- 

Alboni,  Maria,  Countess  de  Pepolo  (b. 
1823),  a  celelirated  contralto  singer  and 
pupil  of  Rossini.  After  singing  in  various 
European  cities,  she  came  to  London  in 
1847,  and  her  appearance  iu  Covent  Garden 
was  a  very  great  success.  She  married 
Coimt  de  Pepolo,  and  after  his  death 
seldom  appeared  in  public. 

Albornoz,  Gil  Alvarez  {h.  1300,  d.  1367), 
Archbishop  of  Toledo,  fought  against  the 
Moors,  and  took  part  in  the  siege  of  Alge- 
ciias.  Clement  YI.  made  him  a  cardinal. 
Innocent  VII.  despatched  him  to  Rome  as 
<ardinal  legate,  and  iu  1367  he  was  legate 
at  Bologna. 

Albrechtsberger,  Johauu  Georg  {b.  1736, 
(I.  1809),  a  famous  musical  composer,  who 
numbered  amongst  his  pupils  Beethoven, 
Eybler  and  Weigh  His  great  theoretical 
work  GrHudfiche  Ainvevsung  znr  Compo- 
cidon  has  been  translated  into  English. 

Albret,  Cccsar  Phebus  d'  (/>.  1614,  d.  1676), 
a  marshal  of  France,  rendered  celebi'ated 
by  the  wit  of  Scarrou  and  Saint  Evremond 
under  the  name  of  Miassans. 

Albret,  Charles,  Sire  d',  Constable  of 
France  iu  the  loth  century.  He  com- 
manded the  French  troops  against  the 
English  invaders,  but  iu  spite  of  immensely 
superior  numbers  his  troops  were  utterly 
routed  and  himself  slain  at  the  battle  of 
Agincourt,  1415. 

Albumazar  (b.  776,  d.  885),  Persian  as- 
tronomer of  great  renown,  who  lived  to  an 
extraordinary  old  age,  and  left  about  fifty 
works,  chielly  on  astrology. 

Albuquerque,  Alfonse  d'  (/>.  1453,  d. 
1515),  Portuguese  viceroy  of  the  East  Indies, 
ill  the  place  of  Almeida.  Whilst  distinguish- 
ing himself  by  his  wise  and  humane  conduct, 
he  succeeded  in  conquering  Goa,  Malacca, 
and  Ceylon,  and  in  relieving  Malacca  from 
an  attack  by  the  Persians. 

Alcaeus,  a  Greek  lyric  poet  who  flourished 
about  600  B.C.,  was  a  native  of  Mytileue, 
from  which  he  was  banished  by  Pittacus, 
but  afterwards  pardoned.  Only  fragments 
of  his  works  remain. 

Alcamenes,  a  Greek  sculptor,  the  pupil 
and  rival  of  Phidias.  He  flourished  about 
400  B.C. 

Alcantara,  San  Pedro  d'  (/;.  1499,  d.  1562), 
a  religious  ascetic,  who  founded  a  monastic 
order,  and  spent  his  life  in  penitence  and 
self-denial.  He  was  canonised  by  Cle- 
nieiit  JX.  '^ 

Alcester,  Right  Honourable  Frederick 
Beauchamp  Paget  Seymoiu-,  Baron,  G.C.B. 
{b.  18-0),  entered  the  royal  navy  in  1834,  and 
was  created  full  Admiral  iu  1882.  He  served 
\A-ith  distinction  in  the  Bui-mese  war  of 
1852—3,  and  iu  New  Zealand,  1860-1,  and 
iu  1877  was  made  aK.C.B.,  and  appointed 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Mediterranean. 
In  1880  he  commanded  the  Allied  fleet 
posted  on  the  Albanian  coast,  and  in  the  war 
w-ith  Egypt  (1882)  he  held  supreme  com- 
mand until  the  arrival  of  Sir  GaiTiet 
Wolseley.  For  his  services  he  received  the 
thanks  of  Parliament,  and  was  raised  to  the 
peerage  as  Baron  Alcester  of  Alcester. 

Alcibiades  (6.  450  b.c,  d.  404  b.c), 
Athenian  statesman,  acquired  political 
power  after  the  death  of  Cleon,  and  took  a 
large  part  in  the  Peloponuesian  war.  In  4 15 
he  was  ai^pointed  one  of  the  leaders  of  the 
Sicilian  expedition,  but  was  detained  in 
Athens  on  a  charge  of  sacrilege.  He  fled 
to  Sparta,  and  aided  that  state  against 
Athens.  He  subsequently  took  refuge  with 
the  Persian  Tissaphernes.  In  407  he  re- 
turned to  Athens,  but  was  again  compelled 
to  fly  in  the  following  year.  He  was 
assassinated  in  Phrygia  while  with  the 
Persian  satrap  Pharnabazus. 

Alciphron,  a  Greek  Sophist,  who  flourished 
about  300  B.C. 

AlcmEeon,  a  native  of  Lydia,  who  lived 
between  671  and  631  b.c,  and  was  originally 
a  slave.  He  was  the  only  lyrical  poet  of 
note  that  Sparta  has  produced. 

I       Alcman,  or  Alcmseon,  a  native  of  Crotona, 
j  who  lived  in  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  and  was 
j  a  pupil  of  Pythagoras.      He  was  a  distin- 
guished anatomist,  wrote  on  physics,  medi- 
cine, and  anatomy,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  to  dissect  the  human  subject. 

Alcock,  John  (b.  1430,  d.  1500),  Bishop  of 
Ely,  English  ecclesiastic  and  politician,  was 
Master  of  the  Rolls  in  1462,  and  iu  1471 
went  on  a  mission  to  Spain.  The  same 
year  he  was  made  Bishop  of  Rochester,  and 
in  1477  was  elevated  to  the  see  of  Worcester. 
In  1485  he  was  translated  to  Ely.  He 
founded  Jesus  College,  Cambridge. 

Alcock,  Sir  Rutherford  (b.  1809),  served 
with  distinction  on  the  medical  staff  of 
the  British  auxiliary  forces  employed  in 
Spain  1832—37.  In  1844  he  was  appointed 
consul  at  Foo-Chow,  afterwards  holding 
several  other  official  posts  in  China  and 
Japan.  In  1876  he  Avas  president  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society,  and  in  1882 
presided  over  the  Health  department  of  the 
Social  Science  Congress. 

Alcott,  Louisa  May  {b.  1833,  d.  1888), 
an  American  authoress.    She  began  early 




to  write,  but  met  with  no  marked  success 
till  the  publicatiou  of  Little  Women 
in  1867.  She  wrote  mauy  other  books,  the 
material  for  her  first  volume,  Hospital 
Sketches,  being  gathered  during  her  expe- 
rience as  nurse  in  the  military  hospital  at 
Washington,  where  she  went  in  1862. 

Alcuin,  Euglish  theologian,  especially 
noted  as  the  coadjutor  of  Charlemagne 
in  his  educational  reforms.  At  the 
invitation  of  that  emperor  he  left  Eng- 
land, and  settled  in  France,  where  he 
founded  several  schools  ;  but  on  being  made 
Abbot  of  Tours  he  abandoned  the  Court 
and  devoted  himself  to  theology. 

Aldegraff,  Heinrich  {h.  1502,  d,  1562), 
painter  and  engraver,  and  pupil  of  Albert 
Diirer.  Many  of  his  paintings  are  in  the 
churches  and  convents  of  Gennauy. 

Aldhelm,  Saint  {h.  circa  641,  cL  709),  first 
Bishop  of  Sherborne,  and  head  of  the 
monastic  school  at  Malmesbmy.  His  great 
learning  attracted  many  pupils. 

Aldinl,  Giovanni  {b.  1762,  d.  1834),  an 
eminent  natural  philosopher,  and  nephew  of 
Galvani,  whose  discoveries  he  followed  up. 
He  was  professor  of  phj^sics  at  Bologna. 

Aldred,  or  Ealredus  {d.  1096),  Archbishop 
of  York  in  the  11th  century.  He  was  esteemed 
by  Edward  the  Confessor,  and  after  the 
battle  of  Hastings  tendered  his  allegiance  to 
WiUiam  the  Conqueror,  whom  he  crowned 
at  Westminster  Abbey. 

Aldrlch,  Henry  {b.  1647,  d.  1710),  was 
educated  at  Westminster,  and  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  becoming  afterwards  dean  of  his 
college.  He  is  said  to  have  designed  the 
chapel  of  Trinity  College,  and  he  exercised 
his  musical  skill  in  composing  religious 
serAnces.  His  System  of  Logic,  written 
in  Latin,  was  used  at  Oxford  for  many 

Aldrich,  Thomas  Bailey  {b.  1836),  Ameri- 
can poet  and  novelist,  author  of  The  Bells 
(1855),  Lyrics  and  Sonnets  (1880),  Daisy'' s 
Necklace  (1857),  The  Story  of  a  Bad  Boif 
(1869),  The  Stillwater  Tragedy  (1880),  and 
other  works. 

Aldridge,  Ira  {d.  1867),  a  negro  trage- 
dian, known  as  the  "African  Eoscius." 
Bom  in  America,  he  met  with  great  success 
on  the  English  stage,  especially  in  the 
character  of  Othello.  He  visited  various 
European  countries,  and  received  many 
decorations.  He  died  on  his  way  to 
St.  Petersburg. 

Aldringer,  Johann  [d.  1634),  a  common 
soldier  in  the  imperial  army.  During 
the    Thirty    Years'    war    he   rose    to    the 


position  of   field-marshal.      He  was  slain 
at  the  engagement  of  Landschut. 

Aldrovandri,  Ulissi  {b.  1522,  d.  1607),  an 
Italian  naturalist,  and  author  of  a  valuable 
and  voluminous  treatise  on  natural  history. 

Aleandro,  Girolamo  {b.  1480,  d.  1542),  a 
learned  cardinal,  and  Archbishop  of  Brindisi, 
and  a  violent  opposer  of  the  reformed  doc- 
trines. He  wrote  a  Greek  lexicon  and 
grammar,  and  a  Latin  dictionary.  He  was 
taken  prisoner  whilst  with  Francis  I,  at  the 
battle  of  Pa^^a. 

Alegre  Yves,  Baron  d'  {d.  1512),  a  French 
soldier  who  served  in  the  Italian  wars  under 
Charles  VIII.  and  Louis  XII.,  and  was 
made  governor  of  Milan  in  1499.  He  was 
slain  at  the  siege  of  Kavenna. 

Ale^e  Yves,  Marquis d'  {h.  1653,  d.  1735), 
a  brave  and  skilful  soldier  who  fought  under 
Marshal  Luxemburg  at  Fleurus,  and  dis- 
tinguished himself  (1690)  by  his  brave, 
though  unsuccessful  defence  of  Bonn.  He 
was  taken  prisoner  by  the  English,  but 
subsequently  liberated,  and  made  marshal  of 
France  in  1724. 

Aleko  Pasha,  Prince  Vogorides  {b.  1830), 
was  appointed  governor  of  Eastei-n  Eou- 
meha  in  1879.  He  firmly  opposed  the 
attempts  of  Eussia  to  gain  a  footing  in  that 
country,  and  succeeded  in  obtaining  her 
withdiawal,  but  was  recalled  in  1885. 

Aleksseev,  Feodor  (&.  1755,  d.  1821),  a 
Eussian  painter  who  studied  at  St.  Peters- 
burg and  Venice,  and  attained  considerable 
eminence  in  architectural  painting. 

Aleman,  Louis  {b.  1390,  d.  1459),  cardinal, 
and  Archbishop  of  Aries.  He  was  a  president 
of  the  Council  of  Basle,  and  supported  the 
claim  of  Felix  V.  to  the  papal  throne. 

Aleman,  Mateo  [d.  1610),  a  Spanish  writer 
of  the  16th  century.  His  most  celebrated 
work  is  Guzman  de  Alfarache. 

Alembert,  Jean  le  Eond  d'  {b.  Paris,  1717, 
d.  1783),  a  celebrated  scientist  and  mathe- 
matician. He  early  showed  great  precocity, 
and  in  spite  of  delicate  health  and  the  dis- 
couragement of  his  Jansenist  teachers, 
acquired  an  insatiable  love  for  stud}^  and 
especially  for  mathematics.  He  tried,  but 
in  vain,  to  devote  himself  to  the  study  of 
medicine,  as  being  more  lucrative.  His 
tastes  lay  in  other  directions,  and  a  clever 
treatise  on  the  integral  calculus  procured  his 
admission  to  the  Academy  of  Science.  Soon 
after,  when  only  26  years  of  age,  he  enunci- 
ated the  great  pi'inciple  of  the  conservation 
of  energy,  which  underlies  every  problem  of 
applied  mathematics,  and  upon  the  recogni- 
tion of  which  that  science  made  great 
advances.    D'Alembert  soon  foimd  himself 




celebrated,  aud  in  con'espondence  with  all 
the  distinguished  men  of  his  time.  He  was 
pensioned  by  Frederick  II.  and  Louis  XV., 
but  disappointment  in  a  protracted  love 
affair  gave  him  a  sevei-e  shock,  and  he  died 
after  long  and  severe  suffering. 

Alencon,  Fran(^-ois,  Duke  of  {/).  loo4,  d. 
1584),  'took  arms  against  his  brother, 
Henry  III.,  on  behalf  of  the  Huguenots,  till 
in  1576,  having  signed  the  Catholic  League, 
he  took  command  of  the  army  sent  against 
his  former  partisans.  He  sued,  but  in  vain, 
for  the  hand  of  Elizabeth  of  England.  In 
1582  he  was  acknowledged  Duke  of  Brabant 
and  Count  of  Flanders,  but  on  his  death 
without  issue  in  1584  his  territories  lapsed 
to  the  CrowTi. 

Alessi,  Galeazzo  (b.  1512,  d.  1572),  an 
Italian  architect,  who  built  manj^  splendid 
palaces  at  Genoa.  The  church  of  Santa 
Maria  di  Carignao  may  be  considered  his 

Alexander,  Michael  Solomon  (b.  1799,  d. 
1845),  an  eminent  rabbi  of  Jewish  ex- 
traction, but  converted  to  Christianity  in 
1826,  and  consecrated  first  Bishop  of  the 
United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland  in 
Jerusalem  in  1841. 

Alexander,  Stephen,  LL.D.  (b.  1806,  d. 
1883),  an  American  astronomer  who  filled  the 
chairs  of  astronomy  and  mathematics  at 
Princeton  till  his  retirement  in  1878.  He 
has  written  a  considerable  number  of  papers 
on  scientific  subjects,  some  of  which  have 
been  translated. 

Alexander  Aphrodiensis,  a  Carian,  one  of 
the  most  celebrated  commentators  on  Aris- 
totle. Besides  other  works,  he  wrote  an 
inquiry  into  the  opinions  of  Aristotle  on 
fate  aud  free-will,  entitled,  A  Treatise  on 
Fate.     He  died  in  the  third  century. 

Alexander  Balas,  a  man  of  low  origin, 
who  ascended  the  throne  of  the  Greek  king- 
dom of  Syria  150  B.C.  He  Avas  defeated  in 
a  battle  with  his  son-in-law,  and  subse- 
quently treacherously  murdered. 

Alexander  of  Cappadocia,  Bishop  of 
Cappadocia  in  the  third  century.  He  suffered 
persecution  under  the  Emperor  Septimus 
Severus,  an  1  being  translated  to  the  see  of 
Jerusalem,  was  again  thrown  into  prison, 
where  he  died. 

Alexander  of  Hales  {d.  1215),  English 
theologian,  lectured  at  Paris,  and  after- 
wards joined  the  Minorite  order  of  Fran- 
ciscans. His  most  celebrated  work  is 
Summa   Universa  Theologice. 

Alexander  JageUon,  {b.  1461,  d.  1506), 
King  of  Poland  and  Duke  of  Lithuania, 
succeeded  his   father  in    1501.      His  short 

reign  was  marked  by  a  Russian  war,  and 
by  the  incursions  of  the  Turks,  who  ravaged 
Lithuania,  but  were  totally  defeated  at 
Kieckiu  1506. 

Alexander  Jannseus,  succeeded  his  brother 
Aristobulus  in  105  B.C.  He  extended  his 
dominions  along  the  coasts  of  Palestine, 
and  crushed  a  rebellion  of  the  Pharisees  with 
great  cruelty. 

Alexander  Karageorg-ewitz  {b.  1801), 
son  of  Kara  or  Czerni  Georges.  He  was 
elected  Prince  of  Servia  in  1843,  and  for 
some  years  devoted  himself  to  the  internal 
improvement  of  his  country ;  but  his  foreign 
policy  provoked  much  discontent,  and  in 
1857  the  prince  was  forced  to  fly  to  Austria 
and  his  throne  was  declared  vacant.  Later 
he  was  accused  of  complicity  in  the  assas- 
sination of  Prince  Michel  of  Servia,  and 
being  tried  at  Pesth,  was  sentenced  to  eight 
years'  imprisonment. 

Alexander  Nevskoi,  Saint  {b.  1219, 
d.  1263;,  Prince  of  Novogorod.  A  brave 
soldier,  his  surname  of  "Xevsky"  was 
given  him  after  a  signal  victory  over  the 
Swedes  on  the  banks  of  the  Neva.  He  sub- 
mitted to  Batu  Khan,  the  Tartar  chief,  who 
confirmed  him  in  his  dominions,  and  also 
bestowed  upon  him  the  sovereignty  of 
Southern  Russia. 

Alexander  the  Paphlagonian,  a  noted 
impostor  of  the  second  century.  He  was 
initiated  into  the  art  of  magic  by  his  friend 
Apollonius  Tyanaeus,  and  claiming  the  gift 
of  prophecy,  obtained  great  influence  over 
the  people. 

Alexander  Severus  [h.  205,  d.  235), 
Emperor  of  Rome,  defeated  the  Persians  in 
232,  but  was  murdered  in  Gaul  by  Maximin. 

Alexander  L,  Prince  of  Bulgaria  (6. 1857), 
son  of  Alexander  of  Battenberg,  was  elected 
Hereditary  Prince,  in  compliance  with  the 
tei-msof  the  Treaty  of  Berlin,  by  the  Assem- 
bly of  Notables,  gathered  at  Tiniova,  in  1879. 
He  was  at  first  received  with  enthusiasm, 
which,  however,  soon  cooled,  and  in  1881  he 
felt  obliged  to  demand  the  suspension  of  the 
Assembly.  Other  complications  arose.  In 
1885  Alexander  was  invited  to  add  Eastern 
Roumelia  to  his  original  territories,  and  at 
the  same  time  Servia  declared  war.  The 
Servian  troops  were  repulsed,  and  an  arm- 
istice concluded.  An  attempt  made  by  the 
partisans  of  Russia  to  kidnap  the  prince 
resulted  ultimately  in  his  triumphant  return 
to  Sophia,  but  was  shortly  followed  by  his 
abdication  in  1886, 

Alexander  I.,  of  Macedon,  succeeded  to  the 
throne  B.C.  500.  The  Persians  invaded  his 
kingdom,  and  compelled  him  to  join  them  in 
the  invasion  of  Greece. 




Alexander  II.,  of  Macedon  {d.  3G7  b.c), 
succeeded  to  the  throne  B.C.  369.  He  waged 
a  successful  war  with  Thessaly,  but  was 
murdered  by  his  brother  Ptolemy. 

Alexander  III.,  of  Macedou,  surnamed 
"The  Great"  {l>.  B.C.  356,  d.  B.C.  323),  son 
of  Phih'p,  He  was  educated  partly  by  Aris- 
totle, aud  early  gave  proofs  of  skill  and 
courage.  A  revolt  of  Thebes  at  the  com- 
mencement of  his  reigu  was  promptly 
quelled  with  great  severity ;  then  crossing 
the  Hellespont,  he  marched  against  the 
Persians,  whom  he  repeatedly  defeated, 
conquering  Phoenicia  and  Egypt.  After  the 
final  defeat  of  Darius  at  Gaugamela,  and 
the  capture  of  Babylon,  Susa,  and  Perse- 
polis,  Alexander  commenced  the  conquest 
of  India,  but  after  crossing  the  Indus  and 
penetrating  as  far  as  the  Ganges,  he  was  com- 
pelled to  return  to  Babylon,  but  paused  at 
Susa  to  celebrate  his  marriage  with  the 
daughter  of  Darius.  He  died  at  Babylon 
after  a  reign  of  about  13  years  ;  his 
body  was  embalmed  and  taken  to  Alex- 
andria, which  city  had  been  founded  by  him 
aud  named  in  his  honour. 

Alexander  I.,  Paulovich  {}>.  1777,  d. 
lS2o),  Emperor  of  Kussia  and  King  of 
Poland.  He  succeeded  to  the  throne  in 
1801,  and  showed  himself  a  brave  and 
judicious  monarch.  He  entered  into  a  treaty 
wth  England,  Austria  and  Sweden  to  resist 
the  encroachments  of  France,  but  was  de- 
feated at  the  battles  of  Austerlitz,  Eylau,  and 
Friedland,  and  compelled  to  make  peace 
with  Napoleon  at  Tilsit.  In  1812  war  again 
broke  out,  and  on  the  conclusion  of  peace  in 
1814  Alexander  visited  England  and  Poland. 
He  was  succeeded  on  the  throne  by  his 
brother  Nicholas. 

Alexander  II.,  Nichola\nch,  Emperor  of 
Russia  (/;.  1818,  (/.  1881),  succeeded  his  father  j 
as  Czar  in  1855.     He  maiTied  in  1841  Maria, 
daughter   of   the    Grand    Duke  Louis  II.  I 
of  Hesse  Darmstadt.     He   terminated  the  '■ 
Crimean    war   soon  after  his  accession  by  j 
the  Treaty  of  Paris.     Though  trained  by  his 
father  to  a  military  life,  he  devoted  himself   [ 
to    the    internal  'affairs    of    his    country,  i 
improved  the  popular  education,  and  eman- 
cipated the  Russian  serfs.     He  waged  war 
successfully  on  Turkey  in  1877-8.     He  was 
assassinated  in  the  streets  of  St.  Petersburg. 

Alexander  III.  {h.  1845),  was  the  second 
son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he  succeeded 
to  the  imperial  throne.  He  married  in  ISG6 
the  Princess  Dagmar  of  Denmark.  His 
reigu  has  not  been  signalised  by  any  re- 
foi-ms,  and  is  chiefly  notable  for  the  ad- 
vances made  by  Russia  in  Central  Asia. 

AlexanderL.of  Scotland  (6?.  1124),  ascended 
the  throne  in  1 107.  He  maiTied  the  daughter 
of  Henry  I.  of  England,  aud  in  spite  of 

ecclesiastical  disputes  respecting  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Scottish  Church,  contrived 
to  keep  on  good  terms  with  his  father-in-law. 

Alexander  II.,  of  Scotland  (6.  1198,  d. 
1249),  succeeded  his  father  William  the  Lion 
in  1214.  He  supported  the  English  barons 
in  their  revolt  against  King  John,  thougli 
afterwards  consenting  to  do  homage  to 
his  successor  Henry  III.  He  died  whilst 
attempting  to  quelle  revolt  in  the  Western 

Alexander  IIL,  of  Scotland  {h.  1241,  d. 
1286),  sou  of  the  preceding.  While  still  a 
child  he  married  Margaret,  daughter  of 
Henry  III.  of  England,  and  afterwards  did 
homage  to  Edward  I.  During  his  reign  the 
great  battle  of  Largs  (1263)  was  fought  be- 
tween the  Scottish  and  Norwegian  troops, 
and  resulted  in  the  withdrawal  of  the 

Alexander  L  (Pope),  Bishop  of  Rome 
during  the  reign  of  Trajan.  He  is  said  to 
have  suffered  martyrdom  in  117. 

Alexander  II.  (Pope),  Anselmo  Badagio 
id.  1073),  bom  at  Milan  in  the  eleventh 
century ;  he  studied  at  Bee  in  Normandy, 
and  took  part  in  the  controversies  at  Milan, 
and  on  the  death  of  Nicholas  II.  in  1061 
was  elected  Pope.  A  rival  pope,  Honorius 
II.,  supported  by  the  emperor,  was  de- 
feated, aud  his  claim  condemned  by  the 
Council  of  Mantua. 

Alexander  III.  (Pope),  Rolando  Ranuc- 
cio  {d.  1181),  a  member  of  the  Bandinelli 
family  in  Sienna ;  he  held  the  chair  of 
theology  at  Bologna,  and  being  elected  by 
a  majority  in  1159  was  acknowledged  as 
Pope  by  Sicily,  England  and  France.  The 
Emperor  Freclerick  I.  supported  his  rival, 
and  a  lengthy  war  ensued,  but  after  be- 
sieging Alexandria  in  vain  for  seven 
months,  and  being  defeated  at  Legnano  in 
1176,  the  emperor  agreed  to  recognise 

Alexander  IV.  (Pope)  {d.  1261),  Rinaldo  of 
Auagui,  Cardinal -Bishop  of  Ostia,  was 
elected  Pope  in  1254.  He  continued  the  war 
with  the  Two  Sicilies  which  his  predecessor 
Innocent  IV.  had  initiated,  established  In- 
quisitors in  France  at  the  request  of  St. 
Louis,  and  endeavoured  to  unite  the  Greek 
and  Latin  churches. 

Alexander  V.  (Pope),  Peter  Filargo 
{d.  1410),  a  Franciscan  monk  and  learne<l 
divane  who  ascended  the  Papal  throne  at 
the  age  of  70,  and  died  at  Bologna  ten 
months  later. 

Alexander  VI.  (Pope),  Rodrigo  Lenzoli 
(Borgia)  {f>.  1431,  d.  1503),  a  man  of  dissolute 
life  who  was  made  cardinal  and  archbishop 
by  his  uncle.  Pope  Calixtus  III.,  aud  on  the 
death  of  Innocent  VIII.   secured  his  own 




electiou.  He  resorted  to  all  sorts  of  un- 
justifiable means  of  raising  money,  and 
thus  aroused  the  opposition  of  Savonarola, 
who,  however,  was  excommunicated  and 
l^ut  to  death. 

Alexander  VII.  (Pope),  Fabio  Chigi  (b. 
lo99,  (L  1667),  succeeded  to  the  popedom  in 
1655.  He  exerted  himself  nobly  during  the 
ravages  of  the  plague  in  Rome,  and  did 
much  to  improve  that  city. 

Alexander  VIII.  (Pope),  Pietro  Otto- 
boni  (/>,  1610,  ^/.  1691),  Bishop  of  Brescia, 
and  afterwards  of  Frascati :  he  became 
Pope  in  1689,  and  succeeded  in  reforming 
many  abuses  and  re-establishing  friendly 
relations  with  France.  He  placed  in  the 
Vatican  the  fine  collections  of  books  and 
manuscripts  left  him  by  the  Queen  of 

Alexandre,  Jacques  (h.  Orleans,  1653,  d. 
1734),  a  learned  Benedictine,  who  wrote 
several  treatises  on  horology,  and  in  1698 
constructed  a  clock  which  showed  both  the 
true  and  the  mean  time,  and  was  the  first 
of  the  kind  exhibited. 

Alexandri  Basil!  (b.lS'll),  a  Roumanian 
author,  who  wrote  both  in  prose  and  poetry, 
and  undertook  the  management  of  two 
theatres  at  Jassy.  He  pleaded  the  cause  of 
his  coimtry  through  the  French  press,  and 
set  the  example  of  emancipating  serfs. 

Alexis,  a  comic  poet,  born  in  Magna 
Grecia  about  B.C.  394.  His  plays,  which 
were  highly  valued  by  Athenaeus,  are  said 
to  have  numbered  245,  but  only  fragments 
are  extant. 

Alexis,  Mikhaylovich,  surnamed  "  the 
Wise"  (6.  1629,  V.  1676),  Czar  of  Russia, 
succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1645.  After 
the  revolt  of  1648,  consequent  upon  the 
favouritism  which  he  exhibited,  Alexis 
devoted  himself  to  the  interests  of  his 
country,  revising  the  laws,  jiromoting  com- 
merce, and  making  improvements  in  both 
the  army  and  the  Church.  He  also  waged 
war  with  Poland,  and  by  the  peace  of 
Andrusov  added  to  his  dominions  the  Polish 
teiTitories  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Dnieper. 

Alexis,  Petrovich  (b.  1690,  d.  1718), 
son  of  Peter  the  Great.  His  sad  life  and 
miserable  death  are  a  dark  stain  on  his 
father's  fame,  Never  on  good  terms,  the 
breach  between  father  and  sou  widened 
with  time,  and  at  last,  in  spite  of  solemn 
assurances  that  he  would  not  be  harmed, 
Peter  caused  his  son  to  be  seized,  im- 
prisoned, and  tried,  and  but  too  probably 
poisoned  in  the  prison  where  he  died. 

Alexis  I.,  Alexius  Comnenus,  Emperor 
of  Constantniople  (6.  1048,  d.  1118),  son  of 
John   Comnenus ;    he    served   successively 

under  Ducas  and  Nicephorus  III.,  but 
his  popularity  roused  the  jealousy  of  the 
latter,  and  Alexis  was  compelled  to  fly. 
The  troops,  however,  proclaimed  him  em- 
peror, and  Constantinople  was  taken  and 
Nicephorus  deposed  in  1081.  Alexis  suc- 
ceeded in  protecting  his  country  against 
the  Turks  and  the  Normans,  and  died  after 
a  busy  and  intriguing  reign. 

Alexis  II.,  Comnenus  (b.  1167,  d.  1183), 
Emperor  of  Constantinople,  ascended  the 
throne  1180.  His  reign  was  only  nominal, 
the  real  power  being  wielded  first 
by  his  mother,  and  later  by  Audronicus 
Comnenus,  who  usurped  his  throne  and 
caused  him  to  be  put  to  death. 

Alexis  III.,  Angelus  {d.  1210),  deposed 
his  brother  Isaac,  and  assuming  the  name  of 
Comnenus  was  proclaimed  Emperor  of  Cou- 
stantinople  in  1195.  On  the  arrival  at 
Constantinople  of  his  nephew,  Alexis  fled, 
and  died  in  a  monastery. 

Alexis  IV.,  Angelus  [d.  1204),  sou  of 
Isaac,  succeeded  his  uncle  iu  1203,  but 
after  reigning  a  few  mouths  only  was  mur- 
dered by  Alexis  Ducas  Murzuphlus. 

Alexis  v.,  Murzuphlus,  murderer  and 
successor  of  the  preceding,  became  Emperor 
in  1204,  but  was  attacked  by  crusaders,  and 
afterwards,  for  his  conduct  towards  Alexis 
IV.,  condemned  to  be  thrown  from  the 
Column  of  Theodosius  at  Constantinople. 

Alfarabius  (d.  950),  a  celebrated  Arabian 
philosopher,  who  wrote  on  numerous  sub- 
jects. After  studying  at  Bagdad,  he  settled 
at  Damascus. 

Alfaro  y  Gomez,  don  Juan  d'  (6.  1640, 
d.  1680),  a  Spanish  painter  of  historical 
pictures,  and  a  pupil  of  Velasquez. 

Alfez,  Isaac  (6.  1013,  d.  1103),  a 
learned  Jewish  rabbi,  who  established  a  col- 
lege and  synagogue  at  Lugeua,  and  is  noted 
as  the  author  of  The  Lesser  Talmud. 

Alfieri,  Vittoria  (b.  1749,  d.  1803),  one  of 
the  greatest  modern  dramatists  and  poets 
of  Italy.  Of  good  birth  and  iudependent 
means,  he  travelled  extensively  in  Europe, 
and  produced  his  first  tragedy,  Cleopatra,  in 
1775.  This  was  followed  by  numerous  others, 
and  meantime  Alfieri  had  been  captivated  by 
the  charms  of  the  Couutess  of  Albany,  the 
wife  of  the  Young  Pretender,  with  whom 
he  lived  until  his  death.  Towards  the  end 
of  his  life  he  wrote  comedies  with  extra- 
I  ordinary  rapidity,  but  his  health  broke 
!  down  and  he  died,  having  done  much  to 
reform  and  elevate  the  Italian  drama. 

Alfonso  I.,  of  Aragon  and  Navarre,  as- 
cended the  throne  in  1104.  A  warlike 
prince,  who  successfully  waged  war  with 
the  Moors  of  Saragossa,  slaying  their  king 




and  capturing  Saragossa.  He,  however, 
failed  in  an  attack  upon  Valencia  and 
Granada,  being  defeated  by  the  Almora- 

Alfonso  II.,  of  Aragon  (6.  1152,  d.  1196), 
ascended  the  throne  whilst  still  a  child, 
but  proved  a  valiant  soldier,  defeatiug  the 
Moors  of  Valencia  and  Murcia,  and  assisting 
in  the  taking  of  Cuenca. 

Alfonso  III.,  of  Aragon  (6.  126o,  d. 
1291),  succeeded  to  the  throne  on  the  death 
of  his  father,  Pedro  III.,  in  128.5.  He  was, 
however,  compelled  to  transfer  much  of  the 
royal  power  to  the  Cortes. 

Alfonso  IV.,  of  Aragou  (&.  1299,  d. 
1366),  ascended  the  throne  on  his  brother's 
abdication  in  1327.  His  reigu  was  chiefly 
occupied  by  a  war  with  Genoa. 

Alfonso  v.,  of  Aragon.  [5^^(?  Alfonso  I., 
of  Naples.] 

Alfonso  I.,  of  Asturias  and  Leon  (6.  693, 
d.  756),  a  wise  and  brave  king,  who,  elected 
in  739,  succeeded  in  expelling  the  Moors 
from  Galicia,  Leon  and  Castile.  He  also 
established  to\vns,  built  churches,  and  gener- 
ally improved  the  internal  condition  of  his 

Alfonso  II.,  of  Asturias  and  Leon  {d.  842), 
left  a  monastery  for  the  throne  in  791. 
He  carried  on  a  successful  war  with  the 
Moors,  and  made  Oviedo  his  capital. 

Alfonso  III.,  of  Asturias  and  Leon 
{d.  912),  surnamed  "the  Great,"  suc- 
ceeded liis  father  on  the  throne  of  Oviedo 
in  866.  His  reign  was  disturbed  by  wars 
with  the  Moors,  and  by  the  revolts  of  his 
subjects,  and  after  many  victories  Alfonso 
abdicated  in  910,  and  died  at  Zamora. 

Alfonso  IV.,  of  Leon  {d.  932),  suniamed 
"The  Monk,"  after  an  unsatisfactory  reign 
of  sixteen  years,  resigned  the  throne  to  his 
brother  Ramiro,  and  entered  a  monastery. 
A  few  mouths  later  he  attempted  to  regain 
his  kingdom,  but  was  defeated,  and  com- 
pelled to  re-enter  the  monastery,  where  he 

Alfonso  v.,  of  Leon  Q).  994,  d.  1028). 
He  ascended  the  throne  on  his  father's 
death  in  999,  and  ruled  well  and  wisely,  at 
first  luider  the  regency  of  Melendo  Gon- 
zalez, and  then  alone.  He  was  slaiu  by  an 
aiTOW  at  the  siege  of  Viseo. 

Alfonso  VI.  (h.  1030,  d.  1109),  of 
Leon  and  I.  of  Castile,  asceuded  the 
throne  of  Leon  and  Asturias  on  his 
father's  death,  while  Castile  and  Galicia 
fell  to  his  brothers,  Saucho  and  Garcia. 
A  war  with  Sancho  resulted  in  Alfcuso's 
defeat  and  compulsory  abdication,  but 
on  the   death  of   Sancho   he  succeeded  to 

both  kingdoms.  He  afterwards  carried 
on  a  vigorous  war  with  the  Moors,  and  in 
spite  of  disastrous  defeat  at  Zalaca,  added 
largely  to  his  dominions.  He  died  at 
Toledo,  leaving  the  throne  to  his  daughter 

Alfonso  VII.,  of  Leon.  [5^^  Alf onso  L ,  of 
Aragon,  who  claimed  the  throne  of  Leon 
in  right  of  his  wife  Urraca.] 

Alfonso  VIII.,  of  Leon,  and  II.  of  Castile 
{h.  1105,  d.  1157),  an  able  and  excellent 
monarch  who,  on  the  death  of  his  mother, 
Urraca,  came  into  possession  of  the  two 
countries  in  1126.  He  weakened  the  power 
of  the  Moors,  and  caused  himself  to  be 
crowned  Emperor  of  Spain. 

Alfonso  IX.,  of  Leon  {d.  1230),  succeeded  to 
the  throne  in  1188.  A  war  with  Alphonse 
of  Castile  was  ended  by  the  marriage  of 
Alfonso  of  Leon  to  his  cousin  Bereugaria 
of  Castile,  but  the  Pope  refused  to  sanction 
a  marriage  of  cousins,  and  laid  the  kingdom 
xmder  an  interdict.  The  separation  at 
length  took  place,  and  the  Pope  reconciled 
the  two  kings. 

Alfonso  X.,  of  Leon  and  Castile  (&.  1226, 
d.  1284),  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1252 ; 
aspired  to  be  emperor  of  Germany,  and  in 
1257  divided  the  election  with  Richard  of 
Cornwall.  In  1272  he  again  unsuccessfully 
attempted  to  gain  the  imperial  crown.  He 
was  driven  from  the  throne  by  his  son 
Sancho.  He  was  the  most  learned  ruler  of 
his  time. 

Alfonso  I.,  of  Castile.  \See  Alfonso  VL, 
of  Leon.] 

Alfonso  II.,  of  Castile.  \See  Alfonso  VIII., 
of  Leon.] 

Alfonso  III.,  of  Castile  {h.  1155,  d.  1214), 
attacked  the  invading  Moors,  but  was 
defeated  with  great  loss  at  the  battle  of 
Alarcos  in  1195  ;  some  years  later  he  joined 
the  kings  of  Leon  and  Navarre  against 
their  common  foe,  and  distinguished  himself 
in  the  brilliant  victory  of  Tolosa,  1212. 

Alfonso  X.,  of  Castile.  \See  Alfonso  X., 
of  Leon.] 

Alfonso  XI.,  of  Castile  [h.  1310,  d.  1350), 
displayed  great  administrative  and  martial 
ability,  quelling  the  internal  disturbances  of 
his  country,  and,  in  conjunction  with  the 
King  of  Portugal,  gaining  a  brilliant  victory 
over  the  Moors  at  Tarifa. 

Alfonso  XII.  (6.  1857,  d.  1885),  King  of 
Spain,  was  proclaimed  king  in  1875.  His 
reign  was  troubled  by  the  continuance  of 
the  Carlist  war,  as  well  as  frequent  dis- 
turbances in  the  army  and  elsewhere,  and 
attempts  were  twice  made  on  the  king's  life. 
He  married  twice,  his  second  wife  being 




Maria  Christina,  daughter  of  the  late  Arch- 
duke Charles  Ferdiuaud,  of  Austria. 

Alfonso  XIII.,  King  of  Spain  [b.  18S6), 
sou  of  the  preceding.  As  direct  heir  to  the 
throne  in  the  male  line  his  birth  gave  great 
satisfaction,  and  Queen  Christina  was  ap- 
pointed regent  during  his  minority. 

Alfonso  I.,  of  Naples  and  Sicily,  and  V.  of 
Aragon  {b.  1385,  d.  1458),  succeeded  his 
father  as  King  of  Aragon  in  141 G.  He  ruled 
also  over  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  and  taking  part 
with  Joanna  of  Naples,  compelled  Louis  to 
raise  the  siege  of  that  city,  but  afterwards 
quarrelled  with  the  queen,  and  was  forced 
to  leave  Naples.  On  the  death  of  Joanna 
he  seized  the  throne,  and  was  proclaimed 
king  in  1442. 

Alfonso  II.,  of  Naples  (6.  1448,  d.  1495), 
succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1494,  but  caused, 
himself  to  be  so  hated  for  his  cruelty  and 
licentiousness  as  to  be  left  without  followers, 
and  in  a  jianic  he  abdicated,  and  took  refuge 
in  a  monastery,  where  he  died. 

Alfonso  I.,  of  Portugal,  Doni  Alfonso 
Enrique  {l>.  1110,  d.  1185);  he  succeeded  his 
father  as  Count  of  Portugal,  and  defeating 
the  Moors  at  Castro-Verde  and  Camp  d' 
Ourique,  was  proclaimed  king,  and  crowned 
in  1143.  He  established  his  seat  of  govern- 
ment at  Lisbon,  from  which  he  had  driven 
the  Moors,  but  was  afterwards  defeated  and 
taken  prisoner  by  his  son-in-law,  Ferdi- 
nand II.,  of  Leon. 

Alfonso  II.,  of  Portugal  {b.  1185,  d.  1223), 
was  successful  in  wars  with  the  Moors, 
but  his  extortions  drew  upon  him  the  wrath 
of  the  Pope,  who  laid  his  kingdom  under 
an  interdict,  and  terrified  Alfonso  into  res- 

Alfonso  IIL,  of  Portugal  (6.  1210,  d. 
1279),  sou  of  the  preceding,  deposed  his 
elder  brother,  Sancho,  and  seized  the  throne 
in  1248.  He  was  victorious  over  the  Moors 
and  improved  the  condition  of  his  people, 
though,  like  his  father,  he  quarrelled  with 
the  Church,  and  was  worsted  in  a  struggle 
with  the  Pope. 

Alfonso  IV.,  of  Portugal  (6.  1290,  d. 
1357),  was  involved  in  wars,  first  with  his 
brother-in-law,  Ferdinand  IV.  of  Castile, 
and  later  against  the  Moors,  but  his  reign 
was  on  the  whole  prosperous.  The  cruel 
murder  of  his  daughter-in-law,  Inez,  re- 
sulted iu  the  rebellion  and  hostility  of  his 

Alfonso  v.,  of  Portugal  (6.  1432,  d.  1481), 
on  the  death  of  his  uncle  Pedro,  who  had 
acted  as  regent,  took  the  government  into 
his  own  hands.  He  waged  war  with  the 
Moors,  and  invaded  Africa,  but  a  war  with 
Spain  proved  unsuccessful,  and  Alfonso  died 

at  Cintra,  whilst  in  the  act  of  retii'ing  to  a 

Alfonso  VI.,  of  Portugal  (6.  1643,  d.  1683), 
a  weak  and  wicked  prince  ;  the  government 
was  at  first  administered  wisely  by  his 
mother,  but  in  1662  she  retired  to  a  convent, 
and  Alfonso's  conduct  was  then  such  as  to 
provoke  a  revolt,  and  he  was  deposed  in 
1668,  while  his  brother  Pedro  assumed  the 

Alfonso  (I.)  d'Este,  Duke  of  Ferrara,  Mo- 
deua  and  Reggio  (6.  1476,  d.  1534);  he  was 
successful  in  a  war  against  the  Venetians, 
but  was  afterwards  defeated  by  the  troops 
of  the  Pope,  and  temporarily  lost  Modena 
and  Reggio. 

Alfonso  (II.)  d'Este  {d.  1597)  succeeded 
his  father  in  1599.  He  imprisoned  the  poet 
Tasso  in  consequence  of  the  latter's  passion 
for  his  sister. 

Alfonso  (IIL)  d'Este  {d.  1644)  succeeded  his 
father  in  1628,  but  shortly  abdicated  in 
favour  of  his  son  Francesco,  and  retired 
to  a  Capuchin  convent,  where  he  died. 

Alfonso  (IV.)  d'Este  {b.  1634,  d.  1662) 
succeeded  his  father  iu  1658.  He  reigned 
only  four  years,  but  added  Correggio  to  his 

Alford,  The  Very  Rev.  Henry,  D.D. 
(/>.  1810,  d.  1871),  educated  at  Charmouth 
and  Ilminster,  graduated  at  Cambridge, 
and  took  holy  orders  in  1832 ;  after  some 
years  spent  in  the  country  he  came  to 
London  as  minister  of  Quebec  chapel 
(1853),  and  iu  1857  was  made  Dean  of 
Canterbury.  He  left  several  works,  of 
which  the  chief  is  his  edition  of  the 
Greek  Testament;  he  also  promoted  and 
assisted  in  the  revision  of  the  Authorised 

Alfragan,  a  celebrated  Arabian  astro- 
nomer, who  flourished  in  the  ninth  century 
at  the  court  of  Al  Mamum,  and  was  the 
author  of  ElemeyiU  of  AslroHonry. 

Alfred,  a  Saxon  prince  {d.  1036),  son  of 
Ethelred  II.  and  Emma,  who  was  induced 
to  contest  the  English  throne  with  his 
brother  Harold  Harefoot,  but  was  seized 
and  cruelly  put  to  death  at  Ely. 

Alfred  the  Great  {b.  Wantage,  Berks, 
849),  the  youngest  son  of  Ethelwulf,  king  of 
the  "West  Saxons,  succeeded  on  the  death 
of  his  brother  Ethelred  to  a  throne  threat- 
ened by  invasion  from  without  and  dissension 
within.  His  first  care  was  to  drive  off  the 
Danes,  whom  he  is  said  to  have  encountered 
in  fifty-six  battles  by  land  and  sea.  The 
great  victory  of  Edington  (S78)  led  to  the 
peace  of  Wedniore,  and  Alfred  was  thus  for 
a  time  free  to  devote  himself  to  the  peaceful 
refoiTus  for  which  his  name  is  renowned. 




Promirient  amongst  these  are  the  establish- 
ineut  of  social  order,  the  encouragemeut  of 
learuiug,  aud  the  fouudiug  of  a  national  ■ 
Heet.  Alfred  died  iu  901,  esteemed  as  a 
religious  aud  industrious  man,  and  a  wise 
and  learned  king. 

Alfric  Abbas,  or  the  "Abbot."  A  volu- 
minous Saxon  writer,  who  was  Abbot  of  St, 
Alban's  in  'J69. 

Algardi,  Allessandro  (d.  1654),  a  sculptor 
of  Bologna  of  the  seventeenth  century.  His 
most  famous  Avorks  are  his  Alt  da  and  aSY. 
Leo,  and  his  monument  of  Leo  XI.  iu  St. 
Peter's,  and  his  group  of  the  Beheading  of 
St.  Paul  at  Bologna.     He  died  iu  1654. 

Algarotti,  Francesco,  Count  (d.  1764), 
son  of  an  Italian  merchaut ;  he  was 
well  versed  in  literature,  and  studied 
at  Bologna,  and  afterwards  travelled 
iu  Euroije.  Amongst  his  friends  we 
find  many  celebrated  names,  including 
Voltaire  and  Pitt,  and  also  Frederick  the 
Great,  who  made  him.  a  count,  aud  on  his 
death  erected  a  monument  at  Pisa  to  his 

AlgazaUi,  Abou  lb  Hamed  {h.  1058,  d. 
1111),  a  distinguished  Persian  philosopher, 
and  director  of  the  college  of  Bagdad.  He 
left  numerous  works,  mauy  of  which  are  in 
the  Bibliotheque  Imperiale  at  Paris. 

Al-ghalib  Billah  {b.  1195,  d.  1273),  Mo- 
hammed Ibn  Yusuf,  founder  of  the  dynasty 
of  the  Xaserites  of  Granada. 

Al-hakem  Ibn  Atta,  a  celebrated  impostor 
of  Khorassan  in  the  eighth  century,  and  the 
subject  of  Moore's  poem.  The  Veiled 
Prophet  of  Aliorassan.  He  claimed  to  be 
the  Deity,  wore  a  golden  mask,  and  attracted 
a  considerable  folloAving  ;  but  being  besieged 
by  the  Imperial  army,  poisoned  those  with 
him,  burnt  their  bodies,  and  himself  jumped 
into  a  corrosive  fluid  which  consumed  him, 
leaving  no  trace. 

Al-hakem  Biamrillah  (b.  985,  d.  1046), 
sixthCalijih  of  Egypt  of  the  Fatimist  dynasty. 
He  assumed  the  government  while  still  a 
child,  and  after  a  reign  marked  by  several 
acts  of  oppression,  was  murdered  at  the 
instigation  of  his  sister. 

Al-hakem  I.  (b.  770,  d.  822),  third  Sultau 
of  Cordova.  His  conduct  was  such  as  to 
induce  repeated  revolts,  which  he  suppressed 
with  horrible  cruelty,  driving  some  30,000 
families  into  exile. 

Al-hakem  II.  (6.  913,  d.  976),  ninth  Sultan 
of  Cordova.  A  man  of  learning  aud  virtue, 
his  reign  may  be  regarded  as  the  Golden  Age 
of  Arabian  literature.  He  also  erected  many 
public  buildings,  aud  made  extensive  addi- 
tions to  the  great  Mosque. 

Al-hazen  {d.  1038),  an  Arabian  mathema- 
tician, who  first  discovered  the  effect  of 
refraction  in  astronomy. 

All  (b.  1084,  d.  1142),  second  Sultan  of 
Africa  and  Spain.  In  war  he  was  generally 
successful,  aud  won  the  battle  of  Ucles 
in  1109. 

All,  sumamed  Abu  '1-Hassan  {d.  1 351 ),  was 
Sultan  of  Africa  iu  the  14th  century.  He  in- 
vaded Spain,  but  was  totally  vanquished 
there,  and,  returning  home,  was  defeated 
aud  put  to  death  by  a  rebellious  son. 

All,  sui-named  Abu  1-Hassan,  twentieth 
Sultan  of  Granada  of  the  dynasty  of  the 
Naserites,  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1466, 
and  carried  on  a  vigorous  war  with  the 
Christians.  The  loss  of  Alhama  filled  his 
subjects  with  coustemation,  aud  internal 
dissensions  breaking  out,  Ali,  shortly  before 
his  death,  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  brother. 

Ali  Abdul  Shah  I.,  King  of  Beejapoor 
{d.  1 580),  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1557.  He 
restored  the  Shea  in  place  of  the  Soonee  creed, 
and  at  first  allied  himself  with  Ram  Raja  of 
Bejauugger,  whom  he  afterwards  attacked, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  three  other  kings 
totally  defeated  at  Talikote.  Ali  also 
attacked  the  Portuguese,  but  was  repulsed 
with  loss. 

Ali  Abdul  Shah  II.  (b.  1637,  d.  1672),  King 
of  Beejapoor,  succeeded  to  the  throne  in 
1656.  His  reign  was  one  of  trouble  and 
warfare ;  his  capital  was  besieged  by  Au- 
rungzebe,  aud  his  general,  Afzul  Khan, 
treacherously  murdered. 

Ali  Bey,  Pacha  of  Egypt  (6.  1728, 
d.  1772).  A  native  of  Circassia,  he 
was  sold  into  Egypt  as  a  child,  but  was 
adopted  by  Ibrahim,  lieutenant  of  the 
Janissaries,  and  soon  rose  to  be  a  member 
of  the  council.  He  avenged  the  assassina- 
tion of  Ibrahim  with  his  own  hand,  and 
though  forced  to  flee  for  a  time,  was  recalled 
and  placed  at  the  head  of  the  government. 
He  died  of  wounds  received  whilst  crushing 
a  rebellion. 

Ali  Hekim  Zade  (6.  1688,  d.  1758),  a 
Turkish  minister-in-chief  of  the  army  du- 
ring the  war  with  Persia  iu  1732.  Three 
times  vizier,  he  was  deposed  aud  exiled,  but 
afterwards  was  appointed  Pasha  of  Egj'pt, 
and  on  his  dismissal  retired  to  Constanti- 
nople, where  he  died. 

Ali  Ibn  Abi  Talib  {b.  602,  d.  661), 
a  cousin  and  faithful  adherent  of  Mo- 
hammed, whose  daughter  he  married. 
He  became  caliph  in  656,  aud  succeeded  in 
repulsing  the  repeated  attacks  of  his  ene- 
mies. He  was  a  gi'eat  monarch,  and  a  good 
aud  learned  man. 

Ali  Ibn  Hammud  (cL  1017),  founder  of  the 




dynasty  of  Hammudites.  He  wrested  the 
crown  of  Cordova  from  Suleymau  iu  1016, 
but  made  himself  unpopular,  and  was 

Ali  Mustapha  (b.  1542,  d.  1599),  an  his- 
torian and  poet,  and  member  of  the  corps 
of  the  Janissaries.  Selim  appointed  him 
Pasha  of  D Jidda. 

Ali  Pacha,  vizier  of  Janniua  (&.  1744,  d. 
1822),  the  sou  of  an  Albanian  chief,  on  being 
deprived  of  his  territories  he  placed  himself 
at  the  head  of  a  band  of  robbers,  which  he 
increased  to  the  number  of  2,000,  and  carried 
on  a  constant  and  cruel  warfare  for  50  years. 
He  was  killed  by  the  Turks,  and  his*^  head 
seut  to  Constantinople. 

Alibert,  Jean  Louis,  Baron  (b.  1776,  d. 
1837),  physician  to  Louis  XVIII.  and 
Charles  X.  of  France.  He  was  eminent  for 
his  general  learniug,  as  well  as  his  profes- 
sional ability. 

Alibrandi,  Girolamo  (6.  Messina  1470,  d, 
1524),  a  Sicilian  painter,  called  the  "Ra- 
phael of  Messina."  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Leonardi  da  Vinci ;  his  masterpiece  is  in  the 
church  of  Candelora  in  Messuia. 

Alice  Maud  Mary,  Princess  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,  and  Grand  Duchess  of 
Hesse  Darmstadt  (6.  1843,  d.  1878),  was  the 
third  child  of  Queen  Victoria  and  the  Prince 
Consort.  In  1862  she  married  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Hesse,  and  died  of  diphtheria  in 
1878.  Her  private  letters  to  the  Queen 
have  been  published  and  widely  circulated  in 

Alison,  Rev.  Archibald  (6.  1757,  d.  1839), 
an  accomplished  scholar  and  divine,  and 
author  of  Essays  on  the  Nature  and  Prin- 
ciples of  Taste. 

Alison,  Sir  Archibald  (b.  1826),  son  of  the 
preceding.  He  was  educated  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Edinburgh,  and  called  to  the 
Scottish  bar,  becoming  deputy  advocate  in 
1822,  But  he  is  best  known  as  an  historian, 
his  great  work  being  llie  History  of  Europe 
from  the  French  Itevohdion  to  the  Jiestoration 
of  the  Bourbons^  in  recognition  of  which  he 
was  made  a  baronet  in  1852. 

Alison,  William Pulteney(^.  1790,  d.  1859), 
brother  of  the  historian.  He  was  a  physician 
and  physiologist,  did  much  to  bring  about 
the  improved  poor  law  of  Scotland,  and  was 
author  of  several  text-books  on  physiology 
and  medicine. 

Alkan,  Charles  Valentin  {h.  1813),  an 
accomplished  pianist  and  composer,  who 
took  the  first  prize  at  the  Conservatoire  when 
only  seven-and-a-half  years  old. 

Alkemadi,  Kornelis  van  (6.  1654,  d.  1737), 
a   Dutch  antiquarian    and   historian,   who 

made    valuable     contributions     to     these 

AUam,  Andrew  (h.  1655,  d.  1685),  alearned 
Englishman,  who  left  many  works,  and 
assisted  in  the  composition  of  the  Athence 


Allamand,  Jean  Nicholas  Sebastian  (6. 
1713,  d.  1787),  professor  of  philosophy  in 
the  universities  of  Franeker  and  Leyden, 
and  the  first  to  explain  the  properties  of  the 
Leyden  jar. 

Allan,  David  {h.  1744,  d.  1796),  Scottish 
painter,  studied  in  Glasgow  and  Italy,  and 
settling  in  Edinburgh  was  appointed  mas- 
ter of  the  Trustees'  Academy.  He  has 
been  called  the  "  Scottish  Hogarth." 

Allan,  Sir  "William,  R.A.  (6.  Edinbm-gh, 
1782,  d.  1830).  He  studied  painting  iu 
Edinburgh  and  London,  and  then  went  to 
Russia  and  obtained  practice  as  a  portrait 
painter.  In  1838  he  was  chosen  president' 
of  the  Roj^al  Academy  of  Scotland,  and  in 
1846  Her  Majesty's  principal  limner  for 
Scotland.     His  best  pictures  are  historical. 

Alla-oo-deen  I,  Emperor  of  Delhi  {d. 
1316),  the  first  Mohammedan  invader  of 
the  Deccan.  He  attacked  Ram  Deo, 
and  obtained  the  cession  of  Ellichpoor ; 
then  returning  to  Delhi,  he  put  his  uncle,  the 
emperor,  to  death,  and  ascended  the  throne. 
His  death  is  attributed  to  poison. 

Alla-oo-deen  II.  [d.  1457),  tenth  king  of  the 
Bahmuuy  djTiasty  in  the  Deccan,  succeeded 
to  the  throne  in  1435.  He  was  a  wise  and 
humane  monarch,  and  effected  many  im- 
provements in  his  kingdom. 

Allatius,  Leo  [d,  1669),  a  Greek  physician, 
professor  in  the  Greek  college  at  Rome, 
and  librarian  of  the  Vatican. 

Allegri,  Gregorio  (b.  1580,  d.  1652),  a 
great  musician,  composer  of  the  celebrated 
Miset-ere  ;  he  held  a  post  in  the  Pontifical 
chapel  of  Urban  VIII. 

Allen,  Ethan  (/;.  1737,  d.  1789),  American 
revolutionary  general,  captured  Ticonderoga 
in  1775,  but  was  taken  prisoner  at  Montreal 
and  released  in  1778. 

Allen,  Harrison  (b.  1841).  Entering 
the  medical  profession,  he  served  with 
the  army  of  the  Potomac,  and  after- 
wards in  the  Washington  hospital.  Since 
1865  he  has  filled  chairs  of  anatomy  and 
zoology  at  Pennsylvania  and  Philadelphia, 
and  has  published  Outlines  of  Comparatire 
Anatomy  and  Zoology,  and  other  works. 

Allen,  Joel  Asaph  {b.  Springfield,  Mass., 
1838),  naturalist.  He  was  a  pujiil  and 
assistant  of  Agassiz,  whom  he  accompanied 
to  Brazil  in  1865.      He  has  been  connected 




with  other  exploring  parties,  and  varions 
museums  and  scientific  societies,  and  has 
written  many  papers  on  zoological  subjects. 

AUen,  John  {h.  1771,  d.  1S43),  Scottish 
author,  travelled  with  Lord  Holland  in 
r-^Ol,  and  was  long  a  resident  at  Holland 
House,  London.  He  wrote  largely  for  the 
Edinburgh  Revieiv,  and  was  author  of 
several  historical  works. 

Allen,  Oscar  Dama  {h.  1836),  an  American 
chemist.  He  studied,  and  afterwards  taught 
in  the  Sheffield  scientific  school,  and  in  1873 
was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  analytical 
chemistiy  and  metallurgy.  Most  of  his  in- 
vestigations, which  have  been  principally 
directed  to  the  rare  metals,  Ccesium  and 
rubidium,  have  appeared  in  the  American 
Journal  of  Science. 

Allen,  Ralph  {b.  1694,  d.  1764),  philan- 
thropist, lived  chiefly  at  Bath.  He  was  a 
friend  of  Pope,  Pitt,  and  Fielding,  and  is 
the  original  of  the  latter's  "  Squire  All- 

Allen,  Thomas  (/».  lo42,  d.  1632),  English 
mathematician,  antiquarian,  and  astrologer, 
studied  at  Oxford,  and  spent  his  life  in 
studious  retirement. 

Allen,  WiUiara  [h.  1532,  d.  1594),  cardinal, 
an  opposer  of  Protestantism  and  a  supporter 
of  Philip  II.  in  his  claim  to  the  English 
throne.  Founded  the  English  college  at 

Allen,  William  {b.  Mass.,  1784,  d.  1868), 
an  American  writer,  for  some  years  president 
of  Bowdoin  College,  and  author  of  an 
American  biographical  dictionary,  and  other 

Allen,  William  {b.  1770,  ^.  1 843),  chemical  1 
lecturer  at  Guy's  Hospital,  and  president  of  j 
the  Pharmaceutical  Society.  He  was  a  ! 
member  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  origi-  \ 
nator  of  many  philanthropic  schemes.  | 

Allestre  or  Allestry,  Richard  {h.  1619, 
d.  1680),  a  Royalist  and  divine  who  took  part 
in  the  Civil  wars  of  the  17th  century,  and 
after  several  reverses  was  made  Regius  Pro- 
fessor of  Divinity  at  Oxford  in  1663.  He 
left  many  works. 

AUeyn,  Edward  (6.  1566,  d.  1626),  a 
c^elebrated  actor,  and  founder  of  Dulwich 
College.  His  charity  was  re-constituted  by 
Act  of  Parliament  in  1858,  and  the  new 
buildings  opened  in  1870. 

Allier,  Achille  (6.  1807,  d.  1836),  a 
French  engi-aver,  and  author  of  VAncien 
Bourbonnais  and  VArt  en  Province. 

Ailing-ham,  Mi-s.  Helen  (b.  1848),  the 
eldest  child  of  the  late  A.  H.  Paterson,  M.D. 
On  her  father's  death  she  came  to  London 

and  studied  painting  in  the  schools  of  the 
Academy.  Her  sketches  in  black  and  white 
first  attracted  notice;  she  afterwards 
addressed  herself  to  watercolour  painting, 
and  has  taken  several  portraits  of  Thomas 

AUingham,  William  {b.  1828,  d.  1889),  a 
native  of  Ballyshamiou  in  the  north-west  of 
Ireland,  and  author  of  many  songs  and 
ballads.  While  editor  of  Eraser's  he  con- 
tributed to  it  several  prose  articles. 

Allionl,  Cario  {h.  1725,  d.  1804),  an 
Italian  doctor  of  medicine  and  professor  of 
botany  in  the  university  of  Turin;  his 
great  work  Flora  Pedemontana^  was  pub- 
lished in  1785. 

Allman,  George  James  (&.  1812),  an  Irish 
zoologist,  graduated  at  Trinity  College, 
Dublin ;  has  filled  the  chair  of  natural 
history  at  the  Edinburgh  University,  and 
been  president  of  several  scientific  associa- 
tions. His  writings  are  chiefly  on  zoophytes 
and  kindred  species,  and  include  a  History 
cf  the  Fresh- JFnter  Polyzoa,  and  Hydroida 
of  the  "  Challenger''^  Expedition. 

AUman,  George  Johnston  {b.  1824),  a 
distinguished  mathematician,  and  professor 
of  mathematics  at  Queen's  College,  Galway. 
He  has  published  papers  on  Greek 
Geometry  and  on  Some  Properties  of 

Allman,  William  [b.  1776,  d.  1846),  an  Irish 
botanist  and  mathematician,  he  graduated 
at  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  .Avas  pro- 
fessor of  botany  at  the  Dublin  University 
from  1809  to  1844.  He  was  the  first  pro- 
fessor to  introduce  the  natural  method  of 
classification,  and  is  also  author  of  a  plan  for 
the  Arrangement  of  Plants. 

Allori,  Alessaudro,  called  Bronzino  {b. 
1535,  d.  1607),  a  Florentine  painter  of 
history  and  portraits.  A  Last  Judgment 
by  him,  after  Michael  Angelo  Buonarroti,  is 
still  at  Rome. 

AUorl,  Cristofauo,  called  Bronzino  {d. 
1621),  son  of  the  preceding,  distinguished 
as  a  painter  of  portraits  and  landscapes. 

Allston,  Washington  {b.  1779,  d.  1843), 
an  American  painter;  he  studied  in  London, 
Paris,  and  Rome,  and  was  the  author  of 
Hints  to  Young  Painters  on  the  Study  of 
Landscape  Painting. 

Almada,  Alvaro  vas  d',  lived  in  the 
loth  century,  and  was  created  Count  of 
Avranches  by  Charles  VI.  of  France.  He 
was  devotedly  attached  to  Dom  Pedro, 
Regent  of  Portugal,  and  on  his  death  in  the 
battle  of  Alfarrobeira,  rushed  madly  into 
the  fight  and  was  slain. 

Almagro,    Diego   d'  [b.  1475,  d,  1538),  dt, 




Spanish  soldier,  the  companiou  of  Fi'aucesco 
Pi^aiTO  iu  the  couquest  of  Peru,  lu  spite 
of  considerable  foibearance  on  Almagro's 
side,  quarrels  betweeu  himself  and  the 
Pizarro  brothers  were  frequent,  and  in 
lo38  they  had  recourse  to  arms,  and  ou 
the  plain  of  Las  Salinas  Almagro  was 
defeated  and  captui-ed,  and  afterwards  put 
to  death. 

Al-Mahadi,  Abu  Mohammed  Obeydullah 
(A.  873,  (/.  1)34),  founder  of  the  dynasty  of 
the  Fatimites  iu  Egypt  and  Africa.  He  was 
pn  clainuHl  Sultan  in  908,  and  founded  the 
city  of  Mehidia. 

Alma-Tadema,  Laurence,  R.A.  {b.  1S3G), 
born  in  Friesland,  painter,  studied  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Antwerp,  and  was 
afterwards  pupil  and  assistant  of  Baron 
Henry  Leys.  He  settled  in  England, 
where  his  pictures  found  a  read}^  wel- 
come. He  was  elected  A. R.A.  iu  1876  and 
R.A.  in  1879.  Among  his  numerous  works 
ai-e  riiidins  and  the  Elg'oi  Marbles  (1868),  A 
Jioma/i  Emperor  (1871),  T/ie  Sculpture  Gai- 
ter// (187.-5),  Sappho  (1881),  and  T/ic  Jioses  of 
Heliogabalas  (1888). 

Almeida,  Fraucesco  d'  (d.  lolO),  the  first 
Portuguese  viceroy  of  India.  He  captured 
several  towns  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  and 

after  a  victory  at  Calicut  fixed  his  seat  of  \ 

government   at  Cochin.      Before   resigning  } 

the   command  to    Albuquerque,  who    was  j 

appointed  to  succeed  him,   he  contrived  to  1 

defeat  and  disperse  the  fleets  of  Calicut  aud  I 

EgJTt.  I 

Almeida,  Lorenzo  d',  called  "the  Macca-  j 
beus  of  Portugal,''  was  the  sou  of  the  pre- 
ceding,   in   whose    victories    he   took  part. 
He  was  slain  in  an  engagement  with  the 
Egyptian  fleet  iu  lo08. 

Almeida,  Mauoel  (6.  1580,  d.  1G4G),  a 
learned  Portuguese  Jesuit,  who  worked  as 
missionary  in  India  aud  Abyssiuia. 

Almeras,  Louis,  Baron  {h.  17GS,  d.  1828), 
a  French  general  who  served  with  gallantry 
iu  the  wars  of  Xapoleon,  but  was  taken 
prisoner  during  the  retreat  from  Russia. 

Almodavar,  Duke  of  {d.  1794),  a  Spanish 
diplomatist  aud  author  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  He  w;is  ambassador  at  the  courts 
of  Russia,  Portugal,  aud  England,  and 
made  a  translation  of  Raynal's  Historg  of 
the  East  and  If 'est  Indies. 

Almon,  John(//.  1738,  d.  180')),  a  pohtical 
writer  and  publisher,  contributed  many 
articles  to  the  Gazetteer,  aud  was  prosecuted 
and  convicted  for  selling  a  reprint  of 
the  Letters  of  Junius. 

Almonde,  Philip  van  (b.  164G,  d.  1711),  a 
Dutch  admiral,  who  served  under  De 
Buyter  iu  the  war  against  England.     He 

afterwards  came  to  England  with  William 
of  Orange,  aud  was  prominent  in  the  battles 
of  La  Hogue  and  Vigo. 

Almonte,  Juau  Nepomuceuno  (6.  1804,  d. 
18G9),  a  Mexicau  general  Avho  served  under 
Santa  Anna  iu  the  campaign  of  Texas  aud  in 
the  war  with  America.  Iu  1862  he  was  elected 
president  in  the  place  of  Juarez,  but  was 
unable  to  form  a  government.  He  was 
afterwards  one  of  the  triumvirate  intrusted 
with  the  management  of  Mexicau  affairs; 
he  was  favourabl}'  treated  by  Maximilian, 
but  on  the  execution  of  the  emperor  fled  to 
Europe,  where  he  died. 

Almqvist,  Karl  Jonas  Ludwig  {b.  1793, 
d.  1866),  a  Swedish  Avi-iter,  author  of  The 
Book  of  the  Thor)t  Hose.  Guilty  of  forgery 
and  murder,  he  was  forced  to  fly,  aud  took 
refuge  in  America,  where  he  became  secre- 
tary to  President  Lincoln,  but  afterwards 
returned  to  Europe,  where  he  died. 

Al-mutassan  Billali  (6.  1211,  d.  125S), 
Caliph  of  the  Abbasides,  a  weak  aud  ostenta- 
tious king :  he  was  betrayed  by  his  vizier, 
Ibn  Alkami,  imprisoned,  and  put  to  death. 

Al-muten  Abbi  {d.  965),  an  Arabian  poet 
of  great  celebrity  and  highly  esteemed  by  the 
Sultan  of  S^Tia  and  Egypt.  Some  of  his 
poems  have  been  translated. 

A.  L,  0.  E.,  the  nom  de  phime  of  Miss 
Charlotte  Tucker,  a  very  prolific  wi'iter  of 
moral  aud  religious  story-books  for  childreu. 

Aloisi,  Baldassare  {b.  1578,  d.  1638),  au 
eminent  portrait  and  historical  painter, 
sometimes  called  the  "Italian  Vandyke," 
he  was  a  pupil  of  the  Carracci. 

Alompra  (6.  1710,  d.  1760),  founder  of  the 
present  dyuasty  of  Burmah.  L^pon  the 
couquest  of  Burmah  by  the  King  of  Pegu, 
Alompra,  then  a  petty  chieftain,  raised  the 
standard  of  rebellion,  aud  after  many 
battles  secured  the  independence  of  his 
country.  He  died  while  preparing  to  quell 
an  insurrection  of  the  Peguans. 

Alopa,  Lorenzo  or  Laurentius,  a  learned 
Venetian, Avho  became  celebrated  as  a  printer 
at  Florence,  his  classical  works  being 
especially  beautiful  and  correct. 

Alp-arslan,  "  the  strong  lion  "  [b.  1030, 
d.  1072),  Sultan  of  the  Seljuk  Turks;  he 
succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1063,  aud  sor>u 
commenced  a  sezies  of  brilliant  conquests  in 
Asia  Minor,  Syria,  aud  the  provmce  of 
Gurgistau.  An  encounter  with  the  Greek 
emi^eror  resulted  iu  a  defeat,  which,  how- 
ever, was  compensated  by  a  signal  victory 
in  1071. 

Alpedrinlia,  Cardinal  (Jorge  da  Costa) 
(/;.  1406,  d.  1508),  a  distinguished  theo- 
logian,   whose    influence  over   Alfonso  V. 




was  very  great.     He  was  made  Archbishop 
of  Lisbon,  and  afterwards  cardinal. 

Alphen,  Hierouymus  van  [b.  1746,  d.  1803), 
a  German  Protestant  divine,  who  filled  the 
chair  of  theology  in  the  university  of 
Utrecht  from  ITlo  till  his  death  ;  he  left 
many  works  on  theological  subjects. 

Alphonsus,  Abulensis  or  Tostatus  (/?. 
1400,  d.  1445),  theologian,  who  distinguished 
himself  by  his  eloquence  at  the  Council  of 
Basle  in  1440. 

Alphonsus,  Sancta  Maria  (Alphonse) 
(h.  1396,  d.  1456),  Spanish  historian,  canon 
of  the  cathedral  of  Segovia,  and  after- 
wards Bishop  of  Burgos. 

Alpini,  Prospero  (6.  1553,  d.  1616), 
an  Italian  physician  and  botanist ;  he  tra- 
velled in  Europe  and  other  countries,  and 
founded  the  botanical  garden  of  Padua. 

Alpteghin,  founder  of  the  Ghazuevide 
dynasty.  A  freed  slave,  he  entered  the 
army  and  was  made  governor  of  Kho- 
rassan,  but  refusing  to  recognise  Mansur 
as  emperor,  headed  a  revolt,  and  seized 
Ghuznee,  where  he  established  himself. 

Alquier,  Charles  Jean  Marie  (6.  1752, 
d.  1826),  a  French  diplomatist  and  revolu- 
tionist ;  he  was  sent  as  ambassador  to 
various  countries  by  the  Directory  and 
Napoleon,  but  on  the  restoration  of  the 
Bourbons  was  banished  till  1818. 

AIsop,  Eichard  (h.  1761,  d.  1815),  a 
learned  prebendary  of  Winchester  cathedral, 
who  took  part  with  Boyle  in  the  controversy 
with  Bentley. 

Alstrdmer,  Jonas  (b.  1685,  d.  1761),  a 
Swede,  remarkable  for  his  perseverance  and 
energy.  The  child  of  poor  parents,  he  made 
his  way  to  London,  where  he  acquired  a 
considerable  fortune.  This  he  devoted  to 
the  good  of  his  country,  and  succeeded  in 
introducing  many  new  industries,  and  es- 
tablishing factories  for  cotton-printing  and 
stocking- wea\ing.  He  also  founded  the 
Swedish  academy. 

Altdorfer,  Albrecht  (6.  1488,  d.  1538), 
a  Bavarian  painter  and  engraver  on  wood 
and  metal.  His  painting  of  the  Bat  lie  of 
Arbela  is  in  the  gallery  of  Munich. 

Althen,  Ehan  (6.  1711,  d.  1744),  a  Per- 
sian of  great  energy  and  perseverance, 
who,  in  spite  of  many  difficulties,  succeeded 
in  introducing  the  cultivation  of  madder  into 
Avignon.  His  services,  however,  were  un- 
recognised, and  he  died  in  poverty.  In  1821 
a  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory. 

Alunno,  Niccolo  (6.  1508,  d.  15S2),  an 
Italian  artist,  who  painted  the  altar-piece 
io  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas  at  Foligni. 

Alva,  Ferdinand  Alvarez  de  Toledo,  Duke 
of  {h.  1508,  d.  1582),  Spanish  governor  of 
the  Netherlands  under  Philip  11.  of  Spain, 
and  notorious  for  the  merciless  manner  in 
which  he  exercised  his  dictatorial  power. 
Under  his  rule  more  than  18,000  persons 
were  sent  to  the  scaffold,  and  a  revolt,  headed 
by  the  Prince  of  Orange,  broke  out,  which, 
after  nearly  forty  years  of  war,  resulted  in 
the  independence  of  the  pro\'inces.  Alva 
was  recalled  in  1573,  but  he  was  soon  given 
the  command  of  Portugal,  which  he  quickly 
conquered.  Though  his  pride  and  cruelty 
were  excessive,  he  was  undoubtedly  the 
greatest  general  of  his  age. 

Alvarado,  Alonzo  (-/.  1554),  one  of  the 
Spanish  conquerors  of  Mexico  and  Peru  under 
Pizarro ;  he  was  defeated  and  made  prisoner 
by  Almagro.  He  afterwards  joined  De  Cas- 
tro (1542),  and  was  lieutenant-general  of 
the  army  which  suppressed  the  rebellion  of 
Gonzalo  Pizarro  in  1548. 

Alvarado,  Pedro  d'  {d.  1541),  one  of  the 
Spanish  conquerors  of  Mexico  ;  he  took  part 
in  the  expedition  and  victories  of  Cortez,  and 
was  entrusted  \\-ith  the  command  of  the  city 
of  Mexico,  and  afterwards  made  governor  of 
Guatemala  and  Honduras.  He  explored 
California,  and  was  killed  soon  after  his 
return  in  an  expedition  against  XaUsco. 

Alvarez,  Affonso,  a  popular  dramatic 
wi'iter  of  Portugal,  sujiposed  to  have  lived 
in  the  15th  or  16th  century.  He  was  author 
of  many  "  autos  "  or  religious  plays. 

Alvarez,  Francisco,  a  Portuguese  tra- 
veller, who  went  on  an  embassy  to 
Abyssinia,  and  was  the  first  to  give  to 
Europe  an  account  of  the  customs  of  that 
country.     He  died  in  the  16th  century. 

Alvarez,  Jose  {b.  1768,  d.  1827),  a 
Spanish  sculptor  who  worked  at  Paris, 
though  many  of  his  best  works  are  at  Madrid. 
He  showed  himself  a  true  patriot,  and  was 
imprisoned  for  refusing  to  take  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  Joseph  Bonaparte  as  King  of 

Alvarez,  Juan,  leader  of  the  Mexican 
revolution  of  1855 ;  he  was  proclaimed 
president  by  the  assembly  at  Cuemavaca, 
but  resigned  within  a  few  weeks  in 
favour  of  his  minister  Comonf ort,  and  taking 
200,000  dollars,  and  such  arms  and  ammuni- 
tion as  he  could  seize,  returned  with  his 
Indians  to  South  Mexico. 

Alvarez,  Manoel  (6.  1727,  d.  1797),  a 
Spanish  sculptor,  surnamed  "the  Greek" 
from  the  purity  of  his  style.  He  was  director 
of  the  academy  of  San  Fernando,  and  was 
chosen  to  model  the  equestrian  statue  o| 
Philip  V, 




Alvarez  do  Oriente,  Feniao  (6.  1540, 
d.  lo9o),  a  Portuguese  poet,  whose  style 
veiy  closely  resembles  that  of  Camoeus,  to 
whom  his  principal  work,  A  Limtani 
Transformada,  is  sometimes  attributed. 

Alvensleben,  Phihpp  Karl,  Count  of 
(6.  1745,  d.  1802),  a  Prussian  diplomatist 
under  Frederick  the  Great,  was  employed 
as  ambassador  at  various  European  courts, 
and  being  appointed  in  1790  minister  of 
foreign  affairs,  left  an  account  of  the  war 
from  the  peace  of  Munster  to  the  peace  of 

Alviano,  Bartolomeo  {b.  1455,  d.  1515), 
a  Venetian  general,  celebrated  for  his  exploits 
against  the  Emperor  Maximilian,  especially 
at  the  siege  of  Padua,  and  in  the  battles  of 
Laraotte  and  Marignano. 

Alvinczy,  Joseph  [d.  1810),  an  Austrian 
general,  who  served  in  several  wars,  and 
was  distinguished  for  his  bravery.  He 
was  made  generalissimo  at  the  coronation 
of  the  Empress  Maria  Louisa  in  1808. 

Al-walid  I,  (d.  715),  succeeded  his  father 
as  caliph  in  705.  He  built  many  splendid 
mosques,  and  during  his  reign  Sardinia  and 
Minorca  were  added  to  his  dominions,  and 
Spain  was  conquered. 

Al-walid  II.  succeeded  as  caliph  in  743. 
His  dissolute  conduct  produced  a  revolt, 
headed  by  Yezid,  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
Al-walid  was  defeated  and  beheaded. 

Al-wathik  BiUah  (&.  821,  d.  847),  Caliph 
of  Bagdad,  succeeded  in  842.  He  was  a, 
patron  of  learning  and  science,  and  a  good 
sovereign,  though  somewhat  of  a  gourmand. 

Al-wathik  Billah,  Sultan  of  Morocco  in 
1267.  He  engaged  in  war  with  Abu  Yusef, 
by  whose  assistance  he  had  secured  the 
throne,  which,  however,  resulted  in  the 
defeat  and  death  of  the  Sultan. 

Al-wathik  Billali,  Sultan  of  Murcia, 
succeeded  his  father  in  1237.  He  success- 
fully contested  the  rival  claim  of  Abu  Bekr 
Aziz,  but  was  defeated  and  driven  from  his 
dominions  by  Jayme  I.  of  Aragon  in  1270. 

'Aly  Fehmy  Pasha,  one  of  Arabi  Pasha's 
supporters  in  the  Egyptian  insurrection  in 
1880.  After  Tel-el-Kebir  he  was  sentenced 
to  banishment,  but  was  subsequently  par- 

Amadeo,  Giovanni  Antonio,  born  in  Pavia 
in  the  1.3th  century ;  was  one  of  the  best 
sculptors  of  his  time,  and  has  left  some  fine 
bas-reliefs  in  the  Certosa  di  Pavia,  and  at 

Amadeus,  Prince  [h.  1845),  Duke  of  Aosta, 
second  son  of  Victor  Emmanuel,  King  of 
Italy,  was  chosen  king  of  Spain  in  1870, 
abdicated  in  1873,  and  retired  to  Italy.    In 

1888  he  m.arried  Princess  Le'titia,  daughter 
of  Prince  Napoleon. 

Amadeus  I.,  Count  of  Savoy,  the  son  of 
Humbert  "of  the  white  hands,"  and  a 
descendant  of  Berengarius  II.,  became  the 
ancestor  of  the  house  of  Savoy. 

Amadeus  II.,  Count  of  Savoy  {d.  1080), 
nephew  of  the  preceding,  and  son  of 
Oddo  and  Adelaide.  On  the  death  of  her 
husband  in  lOGO  Adelaide  acted  as  regent 
for  her  sons  Peter  and  Amadeus,  and  on 
the  death  of  Peter  in  1078,  Amadeus  and 
his  mother  ruled  jointly. 

Amadeus  III.,  Count  of  Savoy  {d.  1148), 
grandson  of  the  preceding ;  repelled  an 
attack  by  Guy.  Count  of  Venice,  and 
afterwards  joined  Louis  VII.  of  France  iu 
the  crusade  of  1147. 

Amadeus  IV.,  Count  of  Savoy  {b.  1179, 
d.  1253),  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded 
his  father  in  1233.  He  aided  the  Emperor 
Frederick  II.  in  his  wars  with  Lombardy. 

Amadeus  V.,  Count  of  Savoy  (6.  1249, 
d.  1323),  suniamed  "the  Great,"  suc- 
ceeded as  Count  of  Savoy  in  1285, 
but  later  he  was  induced  to  di\'ide  the 
duchy  with  his  nephew  Philip,  who  was  the 
lawful  heir. 

Amadeus  VI.,  Count  of  Savoy,  the 
"Green  Count"  {b.  1334,  d.  1383), 
succeeded  his  father  in  1343.  He  extended 
his  dominions,  defeating  the  French  at 
Arbrette,  and  compelling  the  submission 
of  James,  Prince  of  Acbaia;  and  iu  1360 
made  a  successful  expedition  to  the  East. 

Amadeus  VII.,  Count  of  Savoy  {b. 
1360,  d.  1391),  the  "Red  Count," 
succeeded  his  father  in  1383.  He  was 
successful  in  war  with  the  English  and 
Flemish,  and  during  his  rule  added  Nice  to 
his  dominions. 

Amadeus  VIII.  (h.  1383,  d.  1451),  "the 
Pacific,"  Count  and  first  Duke  of  Savoy, 
extended  his  dominions,  and  received  the 
title  of  "Duke"  from  the  Emperor  Sigis- 
mund,  but  in  1434  resigned  the  sovereignty 
and  retired  to  the  priory  of  Ripaille.  On 
the  deposition  of  Eugenius  in  1439  Ama- 
deus was  elected  Pope,  and  took  the  name 
of  Felix  v.,  till  he  agam  retired  in  1449. 

Amadeus  IX.,  Duke  of  Savoy  {b.  1435,  d. 

1472),  succeeded  his  father  Louis  in  1465. 

His  delicate  health  compelled  the  formation 

of  a  regency,  composed  of  his  wife  Yolande 

j  and  his  brothers. 

i      Amalaric  [h.  502,  d.  531)  was  elected  king 
!  of  the  Visigoths  on  the  death  of  his  father, 
Alaric  II.      He  married  Clotildis,  daughter 
i  of  Clovis  I.,  but  so  persecuted  her  on  ac- 
count of  her  faith  that  she  appealed  to  her 




brother,  Childebert,  King  of  the  Franks, 
wlio  came  to  her  rescue,  and  defeated  and 
slew  Amalaric. 

Amalaswinth,  "  The  Maid  of  the  Aniali " 
[d.  534),  daughter  of  Theodoric,  King  of  the 
East  Goths,  was  a  beautiful  and  learned 
woman.  She  acted  as  regent  during  the 
minority  of  her  son  Athalric,  but  on  his 
death  associated  with  herself  in  the  re- 
gency her  husbaud's  nephew,  Theodat.  He, 
however,  soon  foiTned  designs  on  the  throue, 
and  caused  the  queen  to  be  put  to  death. 

Amalek  was  the  son  of  Eliphaz,  and 
grandsou  of  Esau,  and  one  of  the  chieftains 
of  Edom. 

Amalie  (h.  1739,  d,  1807),  the  widowed 
Duchess  of  Saxe-Weimar,  is  remembered  as 
-the  patroness  of  literature,  aud  her  court 
was  the  reudezvous  of  Goethe,  Schiller  and 
others.  She  resigned  the  government  to  her 
son  in  1775. 

Amalie,  Anna  (b.  1723,  d.  1787),  Princess 
of  Prussia,  and  sister  of  Frederick  the  Great. 
She  was  distinguished  for  her  musical  talent 
both  as  performer  and  composer. 

Amalie,  Elizabeth  (6.  1602,  d.  1651), 
Landgravine  of  Hesse-Cassel.  was  en- 
dowed with  courage,  beauty  and  wisdom. 
On  the  death  of  her  husband  in  1637  she 
assumed  the  regency,  and  took  an  active 
part  in  the  Thirty  Years'  war,  obtaining  a 
peace  favourable  to  the  Protestants,  as  well 
as  an  increase  of  tenntory.  In  1648  she  re- 
signed the  government  to  her  son,  and  spent 
the  rest  of  her  life  in  retirement. 

Amalric,  Amaud  (d.  1225),  was  leader  of 
the  crusade  against  the  Albigenses  in  the  13th 
century,  and  was  rewarded  for  his  services 
with  the  Archbishopric  of  Narbonne.  His 
violence  and  cruelty  were  particularly  pro- 
minent at  the  taking  of  Beziers,  and  brought 
him  a  severe  reproof  from  the  Pope.  He 
quarrelled  with  his  former  ally  Simon  de 
Montfort  respecting  his  claims  to  the  duchy 
of  Narbonne. 

Amalteo,  Giambattista  {/k  1525,  d.  1573), 
secretary  to  Pius  VII.,  aud  one  of  the  best 
poets  of  his  day.  His  compositions  in  Latin 
and  Italian  are  of  high  merit. 

Amalteo,  Pompouia  (h.  1505),  painted  in 
oil  and  fresco.  His  best  work,  the  J/<df/- 
ment  of  Solomon,  is  in  the  chui-ch  of  San 
Francisco  at  Udine. 

Amar,  Andre  {b.  1750,  d.  Paris  1816),  a 
French  advocate,  who  was  deputy  for  Isere 
in  the  National  Convention  in  1792,  and 
voted  for  the  execution  of  Louis  XVI.  He 
exercised  his  authority  in  the  department  of 
Aiu  with  great  zeal  and  cruelty,  but  during 
the  reign  of  Napoleon  lived  in  obscurity. 

Amara  Sinha,  a  famous  Hindoo  poet,, 
flourished  in  the  1st  century  B.C. ;  of  his 
numerous  works  only  one,  the  A/iu/ra- 
Kos/ia,  a  Sanscrit  vocabulaiy,  is  extant, 

Amaral,  Andreas  do  (d.  1521),  a  Portu- 
guese Knight  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  and 
Grand  Prior  of  Castile.  During  the  siege 
of  Rhodes  he  was  convicted  of  carrying  ou  a 
secret  correspondence  with  the  Sultan,  and 
was  put  to  death. 

Amaral,  Antonio  Castano  do  (h.  1747,  d. 
1819),  a  learned  Portuguese  historian  and 
author  of  the  valuable  Memoirs  on  the 
Forms  of  Government  and  Customs  of  the 
Nations  that  inhabited  Portugal. 

Amar-Dnrivier,  Jean  Augustiu  (6.  1765,  d. 
Paris  1837),  devoted  himself  to  the  cause  of 
!  education  in  Lyons,  and  contributed  largely 
j  to  the  educational  works  of  his  day.  In 
'  1809  he  was  appointed  conservator  of  the 
j  Mazarin  library  in  Paris. 

I  Amari,  Michel e  {h.  1S06),  was  bom  and 
educated  at  Palenno,  and  took  a  keen  in- 
terest in  the  politics  of  his  country  during 
the  first  half  of  the  century.  Being  forced, 
for  political  reasons,  to  leave  his  country,  he 
spent  some  years  in  Paris,  where  he  studied 
Arabic,  and  in  1859  was  appointed  professor 
of  Arabic  in  the  imj)erial  institute  at  Flor- 
ence. In  1862  he  was  minister  of  education. 
His  fame,  however,  rests  mainly  upon  his 
work    as    an    author;    the    History  of  the 

\  Sicilian  Vespers  (1842)  has  been  translated 
into  English,  French,  and  German,  while 
his  greatest  work,  the  Storia  dei  Mnssul- 
mdni  di  Sicilia,  was  not  completed  till  1872. 

Amaseo,  Romolo  {b.  1489,  d.  1552),  scholar 
and  orator,  filled  the  chairs  of  Literae 
Humaniores  in  Padua,  Bologna  aud  Rome, 
and  left  a  considerable  nimiber  of  works. 

Amasis,  King  of  Egj'pt  in  the  sixth  cen- 
tury B.C.     He  deposed  Apries,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  the  first  conqueror  of  Cyrus.     He 
I  erected  the  monohth    temple  at   Sais,   eu- 
!  couraged  commerce,  and  enjoyed  a  pros- 
j  perous  reign. 

Amat,  Feliz  (b.  1750,  d.  1824),  a  man  of 
precocious  development  of  mind  and  body. 
He  was  professor,  and  afterwards  director, 
of  the  ecclesiastical  seminary  at  Barcelona. 
j  In  1803  he  was  made  Abbot  of  San  Ilde- 
'  fonso  and  Archbishop  of  Palmyra,  and 
though  he  had  actively  resisted  the  French 
in  lf90,  his  conduct  towards  them  in  1808 
rendered  him  unpopular,  and  he  retired  to  a 
Franciscan  convent,  where  he  died.  He  left 
many  works,  amongst  them  being  an  eccle- 
siastical history  and  a  Spanish- Catalan  dic- 

Amati,  a  Cremonese  family,  several  mem- 
bers of  which  (notably  Niccolo)  in  the  16th 




aud  17th  centuries  were  famed  as  violiu- 

Amato,  Giovanni  Antonio  d',  surnamed 
II  Vecchio  {b.  1475,  d.  looo),  a  distin- 
guished Italian  painter,  \rho  worked  both 
in  oil  and  fi-esco,  but  confined  himself  to 
sacred  subjects.  His  best  _  work,  T//e 
Dispute  on  t/ie  Sacrament,  is  in  the  cathe- 
dral at  Naples. 

Amato,  Giovanni  Antonio  d'  (6.  lo35,  d. 
1598),  nephew  and  pupil  of  the  preceding. 
His  pictures  are  in  the  style  of  Titian  and 
are  distinguished  by  their  fine  colouring. 

Amaury,  Amalricus.  a  native  of  Chartres, 
whose  doctrines  brought  upon  him  the  con- 
demnation of  Innocent  III.  His  dogmas  were 
collected  in  a  book  called  F/ii/sion,  which 
is  now  lost. 

Amaury,  Aimery,  or  Amalric  1.  (b.  1135, 
d.  1173),  King  of  Jerusalem  ;  succeeded  his 
brother  Baldwin  III.  in  1162.  His  reign  is 
a  continual  record  of  wars,  in  which  Amaury 
met  with  varying  fortune,  and  his  last  years 
were  spent  in  protectmg  his  country  against 
the  incursions  of  Saladin. 

Amaury  II.,  or  Aimery  de  Lusignan  {d. 
1205),  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Cyi^rus  on 
the  death  of  his  brother  Guy  in  1194,  and 
obtained  that  of  Jerusalem  in  right  of  his 
wife,  the  daughter  of  Amauiy  I.  He  cap- 
tured Beyrout  from  the  Saracens,  but  was 
compelled  to  make  a  truce  with  the  Turks. 

Amaziah,  son  of  Joash  and  eighth  king  of 
Judah.  He  was  victorious  over  the  Edom- 
ites,  but  was  defeated  and  made  prisoner  by 
Joash,  King  of  Israel. 

Amberger,  Christoph  (b.  1490,  d.  1569), 
a  pupil  of  the  elder  Holbein  ;  he  painted  in 
oil  and  fresco,  and  many  of  his  works  are 
at  Munich  and  Augsberg. 

Ambiorix,  King  of  the  Eburones.  He 
headed  a  revolt  of  the  Belgians  against 
Julius  Caesar  and  was  at  first  successful.  In 
later  attacks  npon  Quintus  Cicero  and 
Labienus  he  was  repulsed,  but  gave  such 
trouble  to  the  Romans  that  Caesar  himself 
led  an  army  into  his  territories  and 
ravaged  them,  but  he  escaped  across  the 

Amboise,  Charles  d'  {b.  1473,  d.  1511), 
marshal  of  France,  took  part  in  the  Italian 
wars  and  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  Louis 

Amboise,  George  d'  (6.  1460,  d.  1510),  a 
French  cardinal  aud  minister  of  state.  He 
was  successively  Bishop  of  Montauban, 
Archbishop  of  Narbonne,  and  of  Rouen,  and 
after  acquiring  considerable  popularity  as 
prime  minister  under  Louis  XII.  was  made 
-cardinal  and  appointed  legate  in  Trance, 

where  he  eiTected  great  reforms  among  the 
religious  orders. 

Ambra,  Francesco  d'  (d.  1558),  a  Flor- 
entine poet,  wrote  three  excellent  comedies, 
besides  other  works. 

Ambrogio  or  Ambrosio,  Teseo  (h.  1469, 
d.  1540),  a  celebrated  Italian  orientalist  who 
was  appointed  by  Leo  X.  professor  of  Syriao 
and  Chaldee  at  Bologna. 

Ambrosius,  Aureliauus  (d.  497),  a  Bn'fi'sh 
prince,  who  succeeded  in  deposing  Vortigern 
and  being  himself  proclaimed  king  in  465. 
He  afterwards  fought  with  the  Saxons 
under  Hengist,  whom  he  finally  overcame 
and  put  to  death  in  4S9. 

Ambrosius  or  Ambrose,  Saint,  Bishop  of 
Milan  (6.  333  or  334,  d.  397),  Avas  remarkable 
for  his  calm  bravery  and  impartial  adminis- 
tration of  justice.  The  son  of  a  Praetorian 
prefect  and  himself  Governor  of  Liguria,  he 
was  called  in  374,  whilst  still  unbaptised,  to 
the  bishopric  of  Milan,  and  distinguished 
himself  by  his  opposition  to  Arianism  and 
Paganism,  as  well  as  to  the  crimes  of  the 
Emperor.  He  was  also  the  first  great  re- 
former of  church  music,  and  left  numerous 
religious  works. 

Ambrosius,  Andre  Sertis  Kamenski  (6. 
1708,  d.  1771),  was  a  Russian,  who  assumed 
the  name  Ambrosius  when  he  became  a 
monk,  and  in  1761  was  appointed  Arch- 
bishop of  Moscow.  He  was  distinguished 
for  his  piety,  learning,  aud  active  benevo- 
lence, but  in  the  time  of  the  plague  in  Mos- 
cow was  seized  by  the  infuriated  populace 
and  cruelly  put  to  death. 

Ambrozy,  Wenzel  Bernard  (h.  1723,  d. 
1806),  a  BtAemian  painter  of  the  Venetian 
school,  who  was  patronised  by  Maria  Theresa 
and  the  Emperor  Joseph  II. 

Ambuehl,  Johann  Ludwig  (6.  1750,  d. 
1800),  a  Swiss  poet,  historian,  and  novelist. 

Ameilhon,  Hubert  Pascal  (6.  1730,  d. 
1811),  French  historian  and  philologist. 

Ameipsias,  a  Greek  comic  poet,  the  con- 
temporary of  Aristophanes,  in  competition 
with  Avhom  he  twice  gaiued  the  jirize.  Only 
fragments  of  his  works  remain. 

Amelie,  Marie  {b.  1782,  d.  1866),  Queen  of 
the  French,  married  Louis  Philippe  in  1809, 
was  daughter  of  Ferdinand,  first  king  of 
the  Two  Sicilies. 

Amelius,  Martin  {b.  1526,  d.  1590),  a  dis- 
tinguished chancellor  of  Baden  and  an 
energetic  advocate  of  the  reformed  religion. 

Amelotde  la  Houssaye,  Abraham  Nicholas 
{b.  1634,  d.  1706),  a  French  writer,  who  was 
secretary  to  the  embassy  at  Veuice  aud 
wrote  a  history  of  the  government  of  that 




place,   which  gave    such    offence    that   its 
author  was  imprisoned  in  the  Bastille. 

Amelotte,  Denys  (6.  1606,  d.  1678), 
Superior  of  the  Oratory  at  Paris,  translated 
the  New  Testament. 

Amelunghi,  Girolamo,  an  Italian  poet  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  called  II  Gobho 
di  Pisa,  inventor  of  the  burlesque  style 
of  poetry.  His  principal  poem,  La  Gigantea^ 
was  published  in  1547. 

Amenophis  I.,  King  of  Egj'pt  in  1778  B.C., 
was  a  warlike  prince  who  reigned  twenty- 
one  years. 

Amenophis  IL,  King  of  Egypt,  ascended 
the  throne  in  1687  B.C.  After  many  years  of 
war  he  succeeded  in  expelling  the  "  Shepherd 


Amenophis  III.,  grandson  of  the  pre- 
ceding, a  celebrated  Egyptian  king,  at 
first  shared  his  throue  with  a  brother,  on 
whose  death  he  reigned  alone,  and  erected 
the  temple-palace  of  Luxor  and  other  colossal 
works.  A  statue  of  this  king  stands  in  the 
British  Museum. 

Amenophis  IV.  succeeded  Sesostris  on  the 
Eg)-ptiau  throne  in  1322  B.C. 

Amerbach,  Boniface  (6.  1495,  d.  1562), 
the  youngest  son  of  Johami,  and  a  friend  of 
Erasmus ;  he  was  professor  of  civil  law  in 
the  university  of  Basle,  and  was  a  good 
Latin  and  Hebrew  scholar, 

.Amerbach,  Johaun  {d.  1515),  a  learned 
and  wealthy  printer  of  Basle,  and  the  first 
to  use  Koman  in  the  place  of  Gothic  and 
Itahan  type.  He  published  excellent  edi- 
tions of  the  works  of  St.  Augustine  and  St. 
Ambrose,  and  was  preparing  to  print  those 
of  St.  Jerome  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

Amerigo  Vespucci  (6.  Florence,  1451,  d. 
Seville,  1512),  was  an  Italian  naA-igator  who 
^^sited  Brazil  in  1503.  He  had  previously 
made  several  voyages  of  exploration,  and 
claimed  priority  over  Cabot  and  Columbus 
in  reaching  the  mainland,  named  in  his 
honour  America,  but  the  best  authorities 
consider  this  claim  to  be  unfoimded. 

Amerpack,  Veit  or  Veitus  (&.  1506,  d. 
1557),  a  learned  professor  of  philosophy  at 
Ingoldstadt,  left  many  works  of  value. 

Ames,  Fisher  (6.  1758,  d.  1808),  American 
lawj^er  and  politician  who  sat  in  the  Massa- 
chusetts Convention,  and  was- afterwards  a 
member  of  Congress,  and  famed  for  his 
eloquence.  He  retired  from  public  life  with 
AVashington,  and  devoting  himself  to  literary 
pursuits,  was  elected  president  of  Harvard 
College  in  1804. 

Ames,  Joseph  (6.  1689,  d.  1759),  an  iron- 
monger of  London,  evinced  a  great  love  for 
antiquities,  and  wrote  an  historical  account 

of  printing  in  England  from  1471  to  1600. 
He  was  elected  fellow  of  the  Society  of  An- 
tiquaries and  member  of  the  Royal 

Amherst,  Jeffrey,  Lord  {b.  1717,  d. 
1797),  British  general,  served  on  the  Con- 
tinent and  in  America,  where  he  succeeded 
Abercrombie  asconunauder-in-chief.  Here 
,  he  was  remarkably  successful,  and  after 
i  many  victories,  Montreal  surrendered  and 
Newfoundland  was  recovered  from  the 
French.  He  was  raised  to  the  peerage  in 
1776,  and  was  appointed  field-marshal  in 

Amici,  Giambattista  (i.  1784,  d.  1863), 
professor  of  mathematics  at  Modena  and 
director  of  the  observatory  at  Florence, 
made  several  important  discoveries  in  botany 
and  zoology. 

Amico,  Yito  Maria  {h.   1693,  d.  1762),  a 

Benedictine  monk,  who  was  prior  of  his  con- 

\  vent  and  historiographer  of  Sicily ;  he  wrote 

several  works  on  the  histories  of  his  country 

and  monastic  order. 

Amiconi  or  Amigoni,  Jacopo  {b.  1675,  d. 
1752),  Italian  painter  who  travelled  in 
Europe,  and  visited  England  in  1729. 

Amiot  or  Amyot,  Joseph  (6,  1718,  d. 
Pekin,  1794),  a  Jesuit  missionary  who  went 
in  1750  to  China,  and  after  studying  the 
language  and  literature,  wrote  an  important 
history  of  that  country. 

Amleth,  Amlod,  or  Hamlet,  a  prince  of 
Jutland,  the  original  of  Shakespere's  tragedy 
of  Hamlet.  His  history,  which  is  largely 
fictitious,  represents  him  as  slaying  his 
uncle  and  the  courtiers,  and  after  travelling 
in  England  and  Scotland,  returning  to  Jut- 
land, where  he  was  killed  by  Vigleth. 

Amman,  Jost  (6.  1539,  d.  1591),  an  ex- 
tremely prolific  and  popular  designer;  he 
also  painted  well  in  oils. 

Ammannati,  Bartolomeo  (Jj.  1511,  d. 
1589),  an  Italian  sculptor,  architectj  and 
engineer,  a  pupil  of  Bandinelli  and  of 
Sansovino.  He  worked  in  Rome,  Flor- 
ence, Naples  and  elsewhere,  and  planned 
the  Ponte  della  Trinita,  which  bridges  the 
Arno  at  Florence. 

Ammianus,  Marcellinus,  an  historian  of 
the  fourth  century,  who  served  in  Gaul, 
Persia,  Mesopotamia,  and  in  the  Persian 
wars  under  Julian.  His  history,  which  has 
been  praised  for  its  accuracy  and  impar- 
tiality, is  a  continuation  of  that  of  Tacitus 
to  the  time  of  Ammianus. 

Ammirato,  Scipione  (6.  1531,  d.  1601),  a 
Neapolitan  historian  and  genealogist ;  he  was 
called  the  modern  Livy,  and  wrote  an  erudite 
history  of  Florence,  as  well  as  several 




Ammonio,  Andrea  {h.  1477,  d-  I'^H), 
scholar  and  pout,  became  secretary  for  Latiu 
correspondence  to  Henrj^  VIIT.,  and  was  a 
friend  of  Erasmus  and  Sir  Thomas  More. 

Ammonius,  a  sui-geon  of  Alexandria  who 
flourished  in  the  third  century  B.C.,  the  in- 
ventor of  lithotrity, 

Ammonius,  the  son  of  Hermias,  was  a 
celebiated  teacher  of  ])hilosophy  at  Alex- 
andria in  the  sixth  century.  He  was  a  Neo- 
Pkitonist,  but  wrote  several  commentaries 
on  Aristotle,  whom  he  greatly  admired. 

Amo,  Anton  Wilhelm  {h.  1703),  a  native 
of  Guinea,  was  adopted  by  the  Duke  of 
Brunswick  and  educated  at  the  universities 
of  Halle  and  Wittenberg,  where  he  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  talents  and  learning. 
He  rose  to  be  councillor  of  state  in  BerUn, 
but  on  the  death  of  his  adopted  father  he 
is  said  to  have  returned  to  the  Gold  Coast. 

Amontons,  Guillaume  (6.  1663,  d.  1705), 
a  Frenchman  learned  in  natural  philo- 
sophy, whose  inventions  did  much  for  the 
promotion  of  science.  He  constructed  a 
new  thermometer,  hygroscope,  and.  other  in- 
struments, and  is  by"^  some  said  to  have  in- 
vented the  telegraph. 

Amoretti,  Carlo  {h.  1741,  d.  1816),  ItaUan 
naturalist  and  geogiapher,  wrote  at  Milan 
an  interesting  collection  of  literary  memoii-s. 
His  best-known  work  is  A  Joarneij  from 
Milan  to  the  Three  LukvH. 

Amorosi,  Antonio,  an  Italian  painter  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  who  especially  ex- 
celled in  humorous  pictures  of  low  life. 

Amory,  Thomas  (6.  1691,  d.  1788).  English 
liumoious  writer,  author  of  The  Life  and 
(J/jiuious  of  John  Biincle,  Enq. 

Amos,  one  of  the  minor  prophets,  was 
a  native  of  Tekoa,  a  village  about  eleven 
miles  south  of  Jerusalem. 

Amour,  Guillaume  de  Saint  {d.  1272), 
canon  of  Beauvais,  and  professor  of  philo- 
sophy in  the  university  of  Paris,  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  dispute  between  the 
))iofessors  and  the  Dominicans,  and  was 
the  chief  associate  of  Robert  Sorbonne  in 
founding  the  establishment  of  the  Sorbonne. 

Ampere,  Andre  Marie  {Ij.  1775,  d.  1836), 
a  distinguished  electrician,  who  may  be 
considered  the  father  of  electro-magnetics. 
He  tirst  attracted  attention  by  a  treatise  on 
tlic  Theory  of  Probability,  published  in  1802, 
and  obtained  a  post  as  teacher,  and  ulti- 
mately as  ])rofe&sor,  at  the  polytechnic 
school  in  Paris.  In  1820  Orsted's  discovery 
of  the  effect  of  voltaic  currents  upon  mag- 
netic needles  was  brought  to  his  notice, 
and  Ampere  verified  and  completed  this,  and 
showed  also  the  mutual  effect  of  currents 

upon  each  other,  from  which  he  deduced  a 
new  theory  of  magiietifim.  The  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  recognised  his  services, 
and  gave  his  name  to  one  of  the  electro- 
magnetic units.  Ampere's  last  great  work 
was  the  classification  of  the  sciences,  but 
this  he  did  not  live  to  finish. 

Ampere,  Jean  Jacques  Antoine  (6.  1800, 
d.  1864),  sou  of  the  preceding,  an  histonan 
and  literary  critic  of  repute,  became  pro- 
fessor of  French  literary  history  at  the 
College  de  France. 

Amphilochus,  Saint  {d.  399),  Bishop  of 
Icouium,  and  the  contemporary  and  friend 
of  Basil  and  Gregory  Xazianzen.  He  took 
part  in  the  Council  of  Constantinople,  and 
was  a  zealous  opponent  of  the  Arians. 

AmptMU,  Right  Hon.  Odo  William  Leo- 
pold Russell,  Baron  {h.  1829.  d.  1884),  third 
sou  of  Major-General  Lord  George  William 
Russell.  He  was  educated  chiefly  on  the 
Continent.' and  acquired  gieat  proficiency  in 
moderu  languages,  and  entering  the  diplo- 
matic service,  was  employed  in  several 
countries  as  attache  to  the  English  embassy 
and  otherwise.  In  1857  he  was  appointed 
ambassador  to  Berlin,  and  with  Lords 
Beaconsfield  and  Salisbury  represented 
England  at  the  Congress  of  Berlin,  1878. 
He  was  created  Baron  Ami)thill  of  Ampthill 
in  1881. 

Amru  Ibn  Othman,  a  learned  Persian  of 
the  8th  century,  who  compiled  the  Arabic 
grammar  and  syntax  known  as  The  Book'. 

Amru-Ibnu-1-Ass  {h.  600,  d.  663),  an 
o])ponent,  but  afterwards  a  supporter  and 
general  of  Mohammed,  on  whose  death  he 
fought  in  Palestine  and  Egypt,  capturing 
Jerusalem  and  Alexandria,  and  destroying 
the  library  at  the  latter  place. 

Amru-1-Kays,  a  celebrated  Persian  poet, 
who  wrote  one  of  the  Moallakat  or  poems 
suspended  in  the  temple  at  Mecca, 

Amsdorf,  Nicholas  von  (6.  1483,  d.  1565), 
a  disciple  and  supporter  of  Luther,  whom  he 
assisted  in  the  translation  of  the  Bible.  He 
was  appointed  Bishop  of  Naumberg  in  1524. 

Amulius,  King  of  Alba  {d.  B.C.  714),  de- 
throned his  brotber  Numitor,  and  forced  the 
hitter's  daughter,  Rhea  Silvia,  to  become  a 
vestal  virgin  ;  she  becamo,  however,  mother 
of  Romulus  and  Remus,  who  slew  the 

Amussat,  Jean  Zulema  (6.  1796,  d.  1856), 
a  French  surgeon,  eminent  for  his  researches 
and  writings,  especially  those  on  the  vas- 
cular system. 

Amynander,  a  king  of  Athamania,  who 
lived  in  the  2ud  and  3rd  centuries  B.C.,  acted 
as    mediator    between  Philip  of   Macedon 




and  the  ^tolians,  aud  also  took  part  in  the 
wars  between  Rome  and  Macedou. 

Amyntas  L,  King  of  Macedonia,  came  to 
the  throne  B.C.  olO ;  he  became  tributary 
for  his  dominions  to  the  Persians. 

Amyntas  II.,  King  of  Macedonia  {d.  B.C. 
370)  B.C.  394.  He  was  defeated  by  the  Illy- 
rians,  but  Avith  the  help  ■  of  Thessaly  and 
Sparta  recovered  his  thi'one. 

Amyntas  III.,  King  of  Macedonia,  was 
only  an  infant  on  his  father's  death,  and  his 
uncle  Philip  assumed  first  the  regency,  and 
then  the  throne.  He  was  put  to  death  for 
conspiring  against  his  cousin  Alexander  the 

Amyot,  Jacques  (b.  1513,  d.  1593),  pro- 
fessor of  Greek  and  Latin  at  the  College 
of  France,  afterwards  preceptor  to  the  sons 
of  Henry  II.  Charles  IX.  appointed  him 
Bishop  of  Auxerre  and  Grand  Almoner  of 
France.  His  greatest  work  was  a  translation 
of  the  Lives  of  Flutarch. 

Amjrrant  (Amyraldus),  Moise,  (6.  1596,^. 
1664),  a  Protestant  theologian  and  professor 
of  the  luiiversity  of  Saumur,  who  excited  a 
violent  controversy  by  a  defence  of  Calvin's 
doctrine  of  predestination. 

Anacaona  {d.  1503),  Queen  of  Xaragua  in 
Hayti.  Her  husband,  the  chief  of  Maguana, 
being  captured  and  carried  off  by  Colum- 
bus, she  went  to  her  brother  the  Kiag  of 
Xaragua,  who  associated  her  with  him  in  the 
government.  She  treated  the  Spaniards 
kindly  aud  honourably,  but  was  treacher- 
ously seized  and  put  to  death  by  Ovaudo, 
the  Spanish  governor. 

Anacletus  II.,  a  cardinal  of  wealth  and 
learumg ;  he  was  elected  by  a  minority  as 
Pope,  and  maintamed  his  position  agamst 
Innocent  II.,  till  his  death  in  1138. 

Anacreon  (6.  circa  560),  a  Greek  lyric  poet 
who  lived  at  Samos  under  the  patronage 
of  the  tyrant  Polycrates,  and  afterwards  at 
Athens.  His  poems  were  admirably  trans- 
lated by  Moore. 

Ananias,  High  Priest  of  the  Jews,  was 
appointed  in  a.d.  48,  but  was  deposed  before 
Felix  left  the  province.  He  was  a  violent 
and  lawless  man  aud  was  assassinated  by 
the  sicarii  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  Jewish 

Ananias,  an  early  professor  of  Christianity 
who  with  his  wife  attempted  to  deceive  the 
apostles,  but  was  punished  with  instant 

Ananias,  a  Christian  of  Damascus  who  by 
Divine  direction  sought  out  Saul  in  his 
blinduess  and  comforted  aud  healed  him. 
He  IS  .said  to  have  been  afterwards  Bishop  of 
Damascus,  and  to  have  suffered  martyrdom. 

Ananus,  the  Elder,  or  Annas,  High  Priest 
under  the  governorship  of  Cyrenius,  be- 
fore whom  our  Lord  was  first  brought  by 
the  Jews.  He  is  frequently  mentioned  by 

Ananus,  lie  Younger  {d.  67) ,  son  of  the 
preceding.  He  was  made  High  Priest  by 
Agrippa,  but  after  three  mouths,  during 
which  he  had  put  James  the  Less  to  death, 
he  was  deposed.  He  courageously  opposed 
the  Zealots,  who  had  seized  the  temple  and 
succeeded  in  gaining  the  outer  court,  but 
was  attacked  and  slain  by  the  Idumeans. 

Anarawd  or  Anarod  {d.  913),  a  Welsh 
piince  who  in  867  succeeded  his  father 
Roderick  to  the  throne  of  North  Wales.  He 
received  the  Britons  who  were  driven  from 
Cumberlaud,  granted  them  land  and  assisted 
them  in  defeating  the  Saxons  at  the  battle 
of  Dial  Rodi'i,  near  Conway. 

Anarctiarsis,  a  celebrated  Scythian  philo- 
sopher, who  lived  in  the  16th  century  B.C., 
and  whose  remarks,  as  recorded  by  Luciau 
aud  other  writers,  show  him  to  have  been  a 
shrewd  and  just  thinker.  He  spent  some 
time  in  Athens,  where  he  became  intimate 
with  Solon  ,  and  afterwards  visited  Croesus, 
Kmg  of  Lydia  ;  but  on  his  return  home  was 
put  to  death  by  his  brother  the  king. 

Anasco,  Juan  de,  a  Spanish  adventurer, 
who  under  Hernando  de  Soto  assisted  in  the 
conquest  of  Florida. 

Anastatia,  Saint,  a  pious  and  charitable 
Christian  lady  who  suffered  martyi'dom  in 
the  Diocletian  persecution  in  303. 

Anastatius,  anti-Pope,  Cardinal  of  St. 
Marcellus,  was  set  up  by  the  Emperors 
Lothaire  aud  Louis  in  opposition  to  Benedict 
III.  in  855. 

Anastatius  Sinaita  {d.  593) ,  Patriarch  of 
Antioch,  was  expelled  from  his  see  by  Justin 
II.  in  570,  but  was  afterwards  restored. 

Anastatius  Sinaita  {d.  608) ,  the  Younger, 
Patriarch  of  Autioch  aud  successor  of  the 
preceding.  He  was  zealous  in  his  efforts  to 
convert  the  Jews,  who  however  revolted, 
and  put  him  to  death  with  great  cruelty. 

Anastatius  I.  (6.  430,  d.  518),  Emperor  of 
Constantinople,  called  Dicorus  on  account 
of  the  differeut  colours  of  his  eyes.  Of 
humble  origin,  he  entered  the  life-guards 
of  the  Emperor  Zeno,  on  whose  death  in 
491  he  was  raised  to  the  throue.  A  war 
with  Persia  and  an  invasion  of  the  Huns 
were  among  the  troubles  of  his  reign,  while 
in  514  Vitalianus  besieged  Constantinople 
and  defeated  Anastatius  by  land  and  sea. 

Anastatius  II.  id.  719),  Emperor  of 
Constantinople.     On   the  deposition  of   the 




Emperor  Philippicus,  his  niiiiister  Artemis 
was  elected  to  the  throue  and  assumed  the 
name  of  Aiiastatius.  A  rival  claimant  arose 
iu  Theodosius,  who  besieged  aud  took  Cou- 
stautmople,  aud  Auastatius  abdicated  aud 
retired  to  a  couveut  in  716.  In  an  attempt 
to  regain  the  throue  he  was  betrayed  aud 

Anastatius  I.  {d.  401),  Pope,  a,  contem- 
porary of  Chrysostom,  Augustine,  aud 
Jerome;  he  reconciled  the  Chui'ches  of 
Rome  and  Autioch,  and  opposed  the  opinions 
of  Origen. 

Anastatius  II.  {d.  498),  Pope,  was  elected 
in  496,  and  vainly  endeavoured  to  create 
liarmony  between  the  Eastern  and  Western 

Anastatius  III.  (d.  913),  Pope,  a  man  of 
mild  disposition  and  moderate  views. 

Anastatius  IV.  (d.  1154),  Pope,  a  man 
of  wisdom  aud  charity,  who  succeeded 
Eugenius  III.  in  1153. 

Anatolius  of  Alexandria,  Saint,  Bishop  of 
Laodicea  iu  the  3rd  century,  and  one  of  the 
most  learned  men  of  his  time.  He  was  the 
first  Christian  who  taught  the  philosophy  of 
Aristotle,  and  is  said  to  have  suffered  mar- 

Anaxagoras  {b.  b.c.  500,  d.  b.o.  428),  a 
celebrated  Greek  philosopher  who  taught  at 
Athens,  and  numbered  amougst  his  pupils 
many  distinguished  men,  including  Euripides 
and  Pericles,  and  probably  Thucydides  and 
Socrates.  ^.Beiug  banished  on  a  charge  of 
atheism,  he  retired  to  Lampsacus,  where  he 
remained  undisturbed  till  his  death.  He 
explained  his  views  in  a  treatise  on  j\y(- 

Anaxandrides,  a  Greek  comic  poet  of  the 
4th  century  B.C.,  bom  at  Rhodes;  was 
accused  of  libelling  the  government,  and 
starved  to  death  at  Athens. 

Anaxarchus  of  Abdera  (d.  b.c.  323),  a 
Greek  philosopher  of  the  school  of  Leucipjjus 
and  Democritus,  and  a  friend  of  Alexander 
the  Great.  He  was  cruelly  put  to  death  by 
the  tyrant  of  Cyprus. 

Anaximander  (6.  610  b.c,  d.  54 7 b.c.)  was 
the  friend  aud  disciple  of  Thales  of  Miletus, 
and  was  a  distinguished  astronomer.  He 
first  noticed  the  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic, 
taught  that  the  moou  shines  by  reflected 
light,  aud  that  the  earth  is  globular. 

Anaximenes  (b.  528  b.c),  the  pupil  aud 
successor  of  the  preceding,  legarded  air  as 
the  primal  principle  of  all  things,  and  Pliny 
attributes  to  him  the  invention  of  the  sun- 

Anaximenes    of    Lampsacus,    a    Greek 

historian  and  philosopher,  was  the  son  of 
Aristocles,  and  one  of  the  preceptors  of 
Alexander  the  Great,  aud  wrote  a  history  of 
the  reigns  of  Philip  and  Alexander. 

Anaya  y  Maldonado,  Diego  (6.  1360,  d. 
1440),  Archbishop  of  Salamanca,  represented 
Castile  at  the  Council  of  Constance  in  1414, 
and  was  aftenvards  ambassador  to  France 
for  John  II.  He  founded  aud  endowed  the 
college  of  Salamanca,  the  first  of  the  great 
colleges  of  Spain. 

Ancelot,  Jacques  Arsene  Francois  Poly- 
carpe  (6.  1794,  ^A  1854),  a  French  dramatist, 
originally  a  clerk  in  the  marine  department, 
who  from  1819  to  1829  wrote  several  trage- 
dies. Was  in  receipt  of  a  pension  from 
Louis  XIII.,  which  hi  1830  he  lost  and  was 
prohibited  from  writing  tragedies,  but 
Avith  the  assistance  of  his  wife  produced 
a  number  of  comedies  and  operettas.  In 
1841  he  was  elected  member  of  the  French 

Ancelot,  Marguerite  Virginie  Chardon  (b. 
1792,  d.  1875),  wife  of  the  preceding,  whom 
she  considerably  assisted  in  his  work,  being 
herself  a  writer  of  novels  and  comedies. 

Anchieta,  Jose  de  (b.  1533,  d.  1597),  a 
Portuguese  missionary,  "the  Apostle  of 
Brazil,"  where  he  worked  indefatigably 
amougst  the  Indians.  He  was  also  author 
of  a  treatise  on  27ie  Natural  Productions  of 

AnciUon,  Charles  {h.  1659,  d.  1715),  eldest 
eon  of  David  Ancillou.  He  was  judge 
of  the  French  refugees  at  Berlin,  aud 
historiographer  to  the  King  of  Prussia. 
He  left  several  biographical  and  historical 

Ancillon,  David  (6. 1617,  d.  1692),  a  French 
Protestant  divine,  and  native  of  Metz,  from 
whence  he  fled  to  Berlin  upon  the  revocation 
of  the  Edict  of  Nantes. 

Ancillon,  Johann  Peter  Frederick  (6. 
1766,  d.  1837),  German  preacher  and  author, 
aud  member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  in 
Berlin,  was  an  advocate  of  constitutional 
freedom.  In  1831  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  foreign  affairs. 

Ancina,  Giovanni  Giovenale  {b.  1545,  d. 
1604),  was  professor  of  medicine  iu  the  uni- 
versity of  Tuiin,  but  determined  iu  1572  to 
devote  himself  to  theology,  and  iu  1602  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  Saluzzo. 

Anckwitz,  Nicholas  (6.  1750,  d.  1794), 
Polish  diplomatist,  a  talented  but  vicioss 
man,  w^as  accused  by  the  populace  of 
accepting  bribes  from  Prussia,  aud  put  to 

Ancus  Martius  {d.  b.c  616),  fourth  king 




of  Eome,  and  gi-andson  of  Numa  Pompilius. 
He  did  much  iu  the  iutei*ests  of  religiou  aud 
hiws,  built  the  towu  of  Ostia,  defeated  the 
Latins  in  a  sanguiiiary  battle,  and  had  a 
prosperous  reign  of  twenty-four  years. 

Andelo,  or  Andelau,  Herman  Peter  von, 
a  German  jurist  of  the  loth  century,  who 
studied  at  Padua,  and  was  the  first  to  com- 
pile a  system  of  German  law. 

Andersen,  Hans  Christian  (6,  1805,  d. 
187-3).  The  son  of  poor  parents,  was  born 
at  Odensee  iu  Funen ;  he  early  showed  a 
strong  inclination  for  the  stage,  and  at 
fourteen  went  to  Copenhagen,  where  he 
obtained  an  engagement  at  the  theatre 
royal.  His  voice  soon  broke  down,  but 
through  the  kindness  of  Conference  Coun- 
cillor Collin  he  was  admitted  to  the 
grammar  school  at  Slagelse.  His  first 
prose  work,  a  book  of  travels,  was  published 
in  1828,  and  was  followed  by  others,  as  well 
as  novels  and  poems.  He  is  best  known  for 
his  fairy  tales,  which  are  full  of  charm. 

Anderson,  Adam  (6.  1692,  d.  1765),  the 
historian  of  commerce.  His  great  work, 
published  in  1764,  gives  accounts  of  the 
commercial  progress  and  social  and  indus- 
trial development  of  all  civilised  countries 
from  the  earliest  times  to  1762. 

Anderson,  Sir  Edmund  (6.  1530,  d.  1605), 
an  English  lawyer,  Chief  Justice  in  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas  in  1582,  and  a  patient  and 
impartial  judge  in  civil  cases,  though  his 
adhesion  to  the  Established  Church  led  him 
into  too  great  severity  towards  sectarians. 

Anderson,  Elizabeth  Garrett,  M.D.  (6. 
1837).  A  well-known  lady  physician, 
studied  medicine  at  the  Middlesex,  St. 
Andrew's  (Edinburgh),  and  London  hos- 
pitals, and  in  1865  received  the  diploma  of 
L.S.  A.,  and  was  appointed  medical  attendant 
to  St.  Mary's  dispensary.  In  1870  she  was 
made  visiting  physician  to  the  East  Loudon 
hospital  for  children,  and  obtained  the 
degree  of  M.D.  at  the  university  of  Paris. 
The  following  year  she  was  married  to  Mr. 
J.  G.  S.  Anderson,  but  continued  to  practise 
in  London,  and  was  appoiuted  senior  physi- 
cian to  the  new  hosx^ital  for  women,  and 
dean  of  the  London  school  of  medicine  for 

Anderson,  Sir  George  William,  K.C.B. 
(6,  1791,  d.  1857),  son  of  a  Loudon  mei'chant, 
entered  the  Indian  Civil  Service,  and  was 
employed  by  Elphiustone  in  drawing  up 
The  Bombay  Code  of  1827.  In  1841  he 
became  Governor  of  Bombay,  but  after 
holding  similar  posts  in  Mauritius  and 
Ceylon,  resigned  in  1855  ;  he  was  knighted 
iu  1849. 

Anderson,  James  {b.  1662,  d.  1728),  a 
Scottish    genealogist  and  antiquary,    who 

was  educated  for  the  law,  but  devoted 
himself  entirely  to  antiquities.  Iu  spite  of 
great  poverty,  Andersou  contrived  to  finish 
his  collection  of  the  ancient  charters  and 
great  seals  of  Scotland,  but  it  was  not  pub- 
lished till  some  years  after  his  death. 

Anderson,  Johaun  (6.  1674,  d.  1743),  a 
German  diplomatist  aud  naturalist  who  was 
employed  iu  matters  relating  to  commerce 
and  navigation. 

Anderson,  John  (6.  1726,  d.  1796),  pro- 
fessor of  Oriental  languages  and  afterwards 
of  natural  philosophy  in  the  University  of 
Glasgow,  and  founder  of  the  Anderson 
University  in  that  city. 

Anderson,  John  {d.  1820),  a  Scottish  mer- 
chant of  humble  birth  who  settled  iu  Ireland, 
where  he  acquired  a  large  fortune,  much  of 
which  he  expended  upon  the  town  aud 
neighbourhood  of  Eermoy.  He  declined  a 
baronetcy,  which  however  was  conferred 
upon  his  son. 

Anderson,  Martin  Brewer  (6.  1815),  an 
American  educator,  who  graduated  at 
Water ville  college,  where  he  was  subse- 
quently professor  of  rhetoric.  In  1853  ha 
became  president  of  the  university  of 
Eochester;  he  obtained  repute  as  a  powerful 
public  speaker,  and  used  his  eloquence  with 
effect  diuing  the  Civil  war. 

Anderson,  Mary  {b.  1859),  born  at  Sacra- 
mento, California,  well  known  as  an  actress 
of  great  beauty  and  considerable  dramatic 
taste,  at  sixteen  years  of  age  made  her 
debut  at  Louisville  as  Juliet.  She  met  with 
great  success  both  iu  the  United  States  and 
in  London. 

Anderson,  Nils  Johaun  (6.  1821,  d.  1880), 
a  Swedish  botanist,  who  left  numerous  tech- 
nical works. 

Anderson,  Robert,  M.D.  (6.  1750,  d.  1830), 
a  Scottish  surgeon  who  devoted  himself  to 
literature,  and  published  a  Complete  Edition 
of  the  Poets  of  Great  Britain  from  the  time 
of  Chaucer,  with  biographical  and  critical 

Anderson,  Robert  (6.  1770,  d.  1833),  a 
ballad  writer  of  humble  birth,  whose  later 
productions  were  in  the  Cumberland  dialect. 
His  most  popular  ballad  was  Betty  Brown 
(1801),  his  earUest  Lucy  Gray,  of  which  the 
name  and  metre  were  borrowed  by  Words- 

Anderson,  Robert  {b.  1806,  d.  1871),  an 
American  general,  who  served  under  Lincoln 
in  the  Black  Hawk  war,  and  distinguished 
himself  in  the  Mexican  war  (1846-7)  in  the 
battle  of  El  Molino  del  Rey.  On  the  out- 
break of  the  Civil  war  he  was  appointed  to 
the  defence  of  Charleston  harbour,  and 
held  Fort  Siunter  for  two  days  against  the 




Confederates ;  failing  health  prevented  his 
taking  further  part  in  the  war. 

Anderson,  Robert  Burn  (6.  lSZ3,d.  1860), 
a  British  officer,  wlio  distinguished  himseJf 
during  the  Indian  Mutiu}%  He  afterward 
served  in  China,  but  being  sent  with  other 
officers  to  negotiate  with  the  Chinese  com- 
missioners, was  treacherously  seized,  carried 
to  Pekin,  and  so  cruelly  tortured  that  death 
ensued  in  a  few  days, 

Anderson,  WilHam  (6.  1757,  d.  1837),  a 
painter  of  marine  subjects. 

Anderton,  Henry,  a  painter  of  portraits 
and  landscapes  in  the  17th  century;  his 
painting  of  Mrs.  Stuart,  afterwards  Duchess 
of  Richmond,  was  well  known. 

Anderton,  James,  author  of  several  con- 
troversial treatises,  flourished  in  the  early 
half  of  the  17th  century,  and  wrote  under 
th.e  pseudonym  of  "John  Brereley." 

Andocides  (&.  467  e.g.,  d.  397  e.g.), 
Athenian  orator,  one  of  the  ten  whose 
works  were  conta-ined  in  the  Alexandrine 
Canon.  He  was  four  times  driven  from 
Athens,  and  finally  died  in  exile. 

Andrada,  Antonio  (6.  1580,  d.  1633),  a 
Portuguese  Jesuit  who  went  as  missionary 
to  India,  and  penetrated  to  Thibet,  where 
he  was  w^ell  received  and  built  a  church. 
Died  at  Goa. 

Andrada,  Jacinto  Freire  d'  (6.  1597,  d. 
1057),  a  Portuguese  author  of  high  repute; 
he  was  oifered,  but  declined,  the  bishopric 
of  Viseu.  His  gi-eatest  work  is  the  Life  of 
I)om  Jodo  de  Castro. 

Andrada  E.  Silva,  Jose  Bonifacio  d'  (6. 
1765,  d.  1838),  a  Brazilian  statesman,  w'ho 
travelled  and  studied  in  Europe,  and  became 
professor  of  metallurgy  and  geognosy  at 
Coimbra,  and  general  intendant  of  the  Por- 
tuguese mines.  Returning  to  Brazil  in 
1819,  he  took  an  active  part  in  politics,  and 
was  for  a  time  minister  of  the  interior  to 
Dom  Pedro  I.,  and  afterwards  guardian  and 
tutor  to  his  successor,  Dom  Pedro  II.,  till 
1833,  when  he  was  displaced,  and  he  retired 
to  Paqueta,  where  he  died. 

Andral,  Gabriel  (6.  1797,  d.  1853),  a  dis- 
tinguished French  physician  and  author, 
who  in  1839  was  elected  to  the  chair  of 
pathology  and  therapeutics  in  the  Academy 
of  Medicine  at  Paris. 

Andrassy,  Julius,  Count  (6. 1823,  d.  1890), 
an  eminent  Hungarian,  who  in  1847  entered 
the  Hungarian  Diet  as  member  for  liis 
native  town  of  Zemplin.  In  politics  a 
Liberal,  he  supported  the  policy  of  Kossuth 
as  well  by  liis  eloquence,  which  was  con- 
siderable, as  by  his  activity  in  organisation, 
and  in  the  Held.     Upon  the  collapse  of  the 

Hungarian  insurrection  he  was  sentenced 
to  death,  but  escaping  to  France,  passed 
seven  years  (1849 — 18.)G)  in  that  country, 
and  in  England.  Api^ointed  premier  of  the 
first  separate  Hungarian  cabinet,  by  a  series 
of  wise  and  liberal  measures  he  transformed 
Hungary  from  a  turbulent  and  revolu- 
tionary province  to  the  most  trustworthy 
portion  of  the  empire.  Through  his 
influence  Austria  and  Hungary  refused 
to  take  part  w^ith  France  in  the  Franco - 
German  w^ar,  from  w^hich  two  important 
results  followed :  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina 
were  annexed  to  the  empii-e,  and  Gennauy 
found  herself  compelled  to  effect  an  Austrian 
alliance.  Andrassy  took  a  leading  part  in 
the  Berlin  Conference  (1878),  but  in  the 
following  year  resigned  office  suddenly  and 
unexpectedly,  and  retired  into  private  life, 
from  which  he  was  never  recalled  to  power. 

Andre,  Christian  Karl  {b.  1763,  d.  1831), 
a  German  educational  writer,  who  worked 
at  Schnepfenthal  and  Briinn,  and  left  nu- 
merous and  valuable  works. 

Andre,  Johann  {h.  1741,  d.  1799),  an 
eminent  musical  composer  and  publisher, 
was  director  of  the  opera  at  Berlin,  and 
kapellmeister  to  the  Prince  of  Prussia  and 
the  Margrave  of  Brandenburg. 

Andre,  Johann  Anton  {b.  1775,  d.  1842), 
son  of  the  preceding,  also  a  composer  and 
publisher  of  music. 

Andre,  John  {b.  1751,  d.  1780),  a  British 
soldier  who  served  in  the  war  with  America, 
and  rose  to  the  rank  of  major.  He  con- 
ducted the  negotiations  wdth  Benedict  Ar- 
nold for  the  betrayal  of  West  Point,but  being 
discovered  in  disguise,  was  arrested  and  put 
to  death  as  a  spy.  His  remains  lie  in  West- 
minster Abbey,  where  a  cenotaph  was  erected 
to  his  memory. 

Andre,  Yves-Marie  (6.  1675,  d.  1764),  a 
French  i>hilosopher  and  man  of  letters,  who 
was  suspected  by  his  brother  Jesuits  of  Car- 
tesian tendencies,  and  narrowly  escaped  a 
prosecution.  His  works,  which  have  been 
republished,  include  a  treatise  of  great  merit. 
Sur  le  Beau. 

Andrea  Pisano  (6.  1270,  d.  1345),  an 
Italian  architect  and  sculptor,  who  pro- 
duced many  fine  works  in  Florence,  his 
greatest  being  the  bronze  figures  in  relief 
for  the  baj)tistery  of  h'  t.  John's. 

Andrea  del  Sarto,  or  Vannucci,  an  Italian 
painter  of  humble  birth  ;  he  was  a  pupil  of 
Peter  da  Cosimo.  He  worked  at  Florence 
and  in  France,  where  Francis  I.  loaded  him 
with  honours. 

Andrese,  Abraham  {d.  1007),  was  conse- 
crated Archbishop  of  IJpsala  in  lo94,  after 
which   he  crowned  Sigismund.     He  was  a 




reformer,  and  under  the  regency  of  Duke 
Cliarles  was  thrown  into  prison,  wliere  he 

Andrese,  Jacob  (b.  1528,  d.  Io90),  a 
Lutheran  divine  who  took  a  prominent  part 
in  tlie  religious  controversies  of  Germany. 
He  was  a  proKfic  writer,  and  drew  up  the 
I'on/i/ila  Concordice,  or  summary  of  faith  for 
tlie  Lutheran  Church. 

Andrese,  Johannes,  or  Giovanni  (Ij.  1272, 
d.  1348),  filled  the  chair  of  canon  law  at 
Bologna,  and  enjoyed  the  highest  rejiuta- 
tion  as  a  teacher  and  author. 

Adreani,  Andrew  (6.  1540,  d.  1G23),  an 
Italian  painter  and  engraver,  whose  prints 
are  numerous  and  valuable. 

Andreas,  Archbishop  of  Craj^a  in  Cariu- 
thia  {d.  1484),  who  made  zealous  but  un- 
successfvd  attempts  to  reform  the  Church 
iu  the  loth  century.  For  his  boldness  in 
rebuking  Pope  Sixtiis  IV.  and  the  cardinals 
he  was  imprisoned,  but  on  his  release  re- 
newed his  exertions,  was  excommunicated, 
and  imprisoned. 

Andreini,  Francesco,  an  actor  and  writer 
of  comedies  in  the  IGth  century,  and  head 
of  the  company  known  as  "  De'  Gelosi." 

Andreini,  Giovanni  Battista  (6.  1568,  d. 
lGo2),  son  of  the  preceding,  dramatic  author 
and  performer;  Milton's  I'ltrudise  Lost  is 
said  to  have  been  suggested  by  his  drama  of 

Andreini,  Isabella  (b.  Padua,  1562,  d.  1604), 
a  distinguished  poetess  and  actress,  remark- 
able alike  for  her  beauty  and  blameless  life. 

Andrelini  (d.  1518),  Publio  Fausto,  an 
ItaUan  poet,  was  professor  of  classical 
literature  in  Paris,  and  patronised  by 
Charles  VIII. 

Andreossy,  Antoine  Fran9ois,  Comte  d' 
(6.  1701,  d.  1828),  a  Fi-ench  officer  of  en- 
gineers, and  a  learned  and  honoinable  man. 
He  served  iu  the  wais  under  Napoleon,  and 
was  afterwards  employed  diplomatically, 
and  was  one  of  the  commissioners  appointed 
to  negotiate  an  armistice  after  the  battle  of 
Waterloo,  and  took  office  under  Louis 

Addreozzi,  Gaetauo  (6.  1763,  d.  1826),  a 
popular  Italian  composer,  who  wrote  many 
operas  and  several  oratorios. 

Andres,  Juan  (6.  1740,  d.  1817),  a  learned 
Spanish  Jesuit,  who  devoted  himself  to 
literature  and  literary  history. 

Andres  de  Uztarroz,  Juan  Francisco  {b. 
1606,  d.  1653),  a  learned  Spanish  historian, 
was  appointed  chronicler  of  Aragon  iu 
1647,  and  left  many  valuable  works. 

Andrew,  Saint,  one  of  the  twelve  apostles, 
who  before  his  call  was  a  disciple  of  John 
the  Baptist.  He  was  the  means  of  bringing 
his  brother,  Simon  Peter,  to  Christ,  and  is 
said  to  have  preached  the  Gospel  in  various 
countiies,  and  to  have  been  at  last  crucified 
at  Patrai  in  Achaia. 

Andrew,  Yurevich  (h.  1110,  d.  1174),  a 
brave  and  ambitious  Kussian  prince,  who 
distinguished  himself  in  wars  against  Kiev, 
and  steadily  extended  the  boundaries  of  his 

Andrew  I.  {d.  1061),  King  of  Hungary, 
ruled  at  first  in  conjunction  with  his  brother 
Leventa,  whom  he  survived,  but  in  1060 
was  defeated  and  dethroned  by  another 
brother,  Bela. 

Andrew  II.  {h.  1175,  d.  1235),  King  of 
Hungary,  succeeded  to  the  throne  on  the 
death  of  his  infant  ward  and  nephew 
Ladislaus  in  1205.  At  the  command  of  the 
Pope  he  undertook  a  costly  crusade  to  the 
Holy  Laud,  but  effected  nothing.  In  1222 
he  published  the  famous  "Golden  Bull," 
the  charter  of  Hungarian  freedom. 

Andrew  III.  {d.  1301),  grandson  of  the 
preceding,  ascended  the  throne  iu  1290, 
and  defeated  the  rival  claimants  supported 
by  Germany  and  the  Pope,  but  died  whilst 
preparing  to  resist  another  attack. 

Andrewes,  Lancelot,  Bishop  of  Winches- 
ter (Jj.  1555,  d.  1626),  an  eminently  learned 
and  pious  man,  and  one  of  the  greatest 
preachers  of  his  day.  He  assisted  m  the 
translation  of  the  Bible,  and  besides  seraions 
and  lectures  left  a  popular  Manual  of 
Fnvate  JJevolioyts. 

Andrews,  James  Pettit  {h.  1737,  d.  1797\ 
an  historical  and  imscellaneous  writer, 
author  of  The  Ilislor//  of  Great  Britain  and 
Anecdotes  Ancient  and  Modern. 

Andrews,  Stephen  Pearl  (&.  1812,  d. 
1886),  an  American  lawyer  and  linguist, 
who  introduced  phonography  into  America, 
and  devoted  many  years  of  his  life  to  an 
attempt  to  evolve  a  "scientific"  and 
"  universal  language,"  which  he  termed 

Andrieu,  Bertrand  (6.  1761,  d.  1822),  an 
eminent  French  medallist,  who  did  much  to 
elevate  his  art,  and  was  made  Chevalier  of 
the  Order  of  St.  Michael. 

Andrieux,  Frani;ois  Guillaume  Jean  Stan- 
islas (6.  1759,  d.  183 J),  an  endneut  French 
writer,  was  secretary  to  the  Freuch  Aca- 
demy, and  professor  of  literature  in  the 
College  of  France.  He  left  numerous 

Andronicus  Comnenus  [h.  1110,  d.  1185), 
Emperor  of  Constautiuoijle,  after  quarrels 




auJ  reconciliations  Avith  Mauuel  Comueuus, 
asceuded  the  throue  iu  1183,  putting  to 
death  Alexis  II.  ;  Avas  killed  during  an 
insurrection  roused  by  his  cruelty. 

Andronicus  of  Rhodes,  a  peripatetic  phi- 
losoplier  of  the  1st  century  B.C. 

Andronicus,  Johannes  Callistus,  a  scholar 
of  Thessalouica  who  taught  at  Bologna  and 
Rome,  and  tinally  in  Paris,  where  he  became 
professor  of  Greek.  He  followed  the  phi- 
losophy of  Aristotle. 

Andronicus,  Marcus  Livius,  a  native  of 
Tareutum,  wlio  wi'ote  Latin  dramas  iu  the 
3rd  century  B.C. ;  he  translated  the  Ocbjs- 
ney  and  wrote  several  popular  poems. 

Andronicus  I.  {<l.  1235),  Emperor  of  Tre- 
bizond,  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1222. 
He  was  defeated  and  made  tributary  by 

Andronicus  II.  {d.  1267),  Emperor  of 
Trebizond,  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1263. 

Andronicus  III.  {d.  1332),  Emperor  of 
Trebizond,  succeeded  his  father,  Alexis  IL, 
iu  1330,  and  during  liis  short  reign  put  two 
uncles  to  death. 

Andronicus  II.  (Palaeologus)  {().  1200,  d. 
1332),  called  "the  Elder,"  Emperor  of 
Constantinople ;  ruled  jointly  with  his 
father  Michael  for  ten  years,  but  in  1283 
assumed  the  entire  power.  His  reign  was 
disturbed  by  the  dissensions  of  the  Greek 
and  Latin  Churches,  the  inroads  of  the 
Turks  and  the  revolt  of  the  Emperor's 
grandson,  who  seized  the  crown  iu  1328, 
wlieu  he  took  refuge  in  a  monastery,  where 
he  died. 

Andronicus  III.  (Palaeologus)  Q).  1295,  d. 
1341),  called  "  the  Younger,"  the  grandson 
of  the  preceding,  whom  he  deposed,  was  a 
brave  and  popular  prince,  though  his  early 
liistory  is  marred  with  crime  ;  he  was  de- 
feated in  a  war  with  Servia  and  Turkey. 

Andros,  Sir  Edmund  {b.  1637,  d.  1713), 
an  Euglisli  officer  Avho  served  in  the 
wars  with  the  Dutch,  and  afterwards  went 
as  governor  to  various  provinces  of  North 
America.  He  was  recalled  iu  1098  from 
Virginia,  but  was  afterwards  appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Guernsey. 

Androuet-Ducerceau,  Jacques,  a  French 
architect  of  the  10th  century,  wlio  studied  in 
Italy,  and  was  employed  by  Henry  III.  and 
Henry  IV.  to  erect  several  of  the  public 
buildings  of  Paris.  The  Pont  Neuf  and  the 
gallery  of  the  Louvre  were  begun  by 

Andry,  Charles  Louis  Fran(^ois  (/;.  1741, 
d.  182'J),  a  distinguished  and  benevolent 
French  physician,  who  held  an  appointment 

at  the  Foundling  hospital  of  Paris,  and  was 
consulting  physician  to  Napoleon. 

Andry,  Xicolas,  orDe  Boisreg-ard  (6.  1058, 
d.  1742),  a  physician  of  reputation,  one  of 
the  editors  of  the  JoHrnai  </r.v  iSi^avunt>i, 
and  dean  of  the  faculty  of  medicine  in  the 
Royal  College  at  Paris. 

Aneau,  Barthelemy,  a  native  of  Bourges, 
principal  of  the  College  of  the  Trinity  at 
L3'ons,  in  the  10th  century,  but  was  sus- 
pected of  favouring  the  reformers,  and  was 
seized  and  put  to  death  by  the  mob.  He 
ra  islated  Sir  Thomas  More's  JJtopia. 

Anel,  Dominique  (6.  1679,  d.  1730),  a 
celebrated  surgeon,  who  performed  success- 
fully several  new  and  difficult  operations,  and 
tinally  settled  iu  Paris,  where  he  had  a  large 
practice  as  an  oculist. 

Aneurin,  a  Welsh  poet  of  the  0th  century, 
known  as  the  author  of  Gododin.  Another 
poem.  Verves  on  the  Months,  is  also  attri- 
buted to  him. 

Anfossi,  Pasquale  (h.  1729  or  1736,  d. 
1795),  an  Italian  opera  writer  and  pupil  of 
Piccini,  travelled  in  Europe,  and  was  ap- 
pointed maestro  di  capella  to  St.  Giovanni 
Laterano.  His  most  popular  opera  was 
VIncog)iita  Fcrseguitatd  (1773),  his  great 
OUmpiade  meeting  with  but  a  poor  re- 

Ange,  Joseph  de  Saint  (6.  1030,  d.  1097), 
a  French  Carmelite  friar,  who  spent  many 
years  in  missionary  labours  in  the  East,  and 
tinally  returning  to  France  was  made  prior 
of  the  convent  of  Perpignan. 

Angela  of  Brescia  or  Merici  (6.  1511,  d. 
1540),  a  Franciscan  nun,  foundress  of  the 
order  of  Ursulines  at  Brescia. 

Angeli,  Filippo  d'  {h.  1000,  d.  1640), 
called  Napoletau,  a  painter  of  battles  and 
landscapes,  who  resided  at  Rome  and 
Florence  under  the  patronage  of  Cosimo 

Angelio,  or  Belli  Angeli,  Pietro  {h.  1517, 
d.  1590),  a  renowned  Italian  scholar,  known 
as  Petrus  Borgoeus,  Avho  in  1549  was  ap- 
pointed professor  at  Pisa.  Being  pensioned 
by  Henry  III.  of  France  he  was  enabled 
to  devote  the  end  of  his  life  to  literature, 
and  left  many  works  in  prose  and 

Angeloni,  Luigi  (6.  1758,  d.  1842),  an 
Italian  republican  and  political  writer, 
one  of  the  tribunes  under  the  Roman  re- 
public iu  1798.  He  afterwards  went  to 
Paris,  but  was  expelled,  and  took  refuge  in 
London,  where  he  died. 

Angely,  Ludwig  (6.  c'lrca  1775,  d.  1835), 
a  popular    German    dramatic  writer,   and 




director  of    tlie   KoBigstiidter    theatre    at 

Angerstein,  John  Julius  (b.  1735,  d. 
1822),  a  Russian  merchant  whose  fine 
collection  of  pictures  was  purchased  by  the 
English  Governnient,  and  formed  the 
nucleus  of  the  National  Gallery. 

AngMera,  Pietro  Martire  (b.  1455,  d. 
1526),  historian  and  diplomatist,  resided 
chiefly  in  Spain. 

Angilbert  or  Engilbert,  Saint  {d.  814), 
Abbot  of  Centule,  near  Abbeville,  the  pupil 
of  Alcuiu,  and  the  friend  and  confidential 
adviser  of  the  Emperor  Charlemagne,  whose 
daughter  Bertha  he  is  said  to  have  married. 

Anglada,  Joseph  (b.  1775,  d.  1833),  pro- 
fessor of  chemistry  at  the  university  of 
Montpellier,  and  remembered  for  his  inves- 
tigations respecting  "glairine,"  and  the 
analysis  of  medical  springs ;  he  also  left  a 
valuable  work  on  Toxicology. 

Angouleme,  Charles  de  Valois,  Due  d' 
(6.  1573,  d.  1650),  natural  son  of  Charles 
IX.,  was  grand  prior  of  the  order  of  the 
Knights  of  Malta  in  1589,  but  afterwards 
left  the  order,  and  distinguished  himself, 
as  Count  of  Auvergne,  at  the  battles 
of  Ivry  and  Fontaine-Fran^oise.  Being 
concerned  in  several  plots,  he  was  sen- 
tenced to  perpetual  imprisonment  in  the 
Basti  li,  but  on  the  death  of  Henry  IV. 
was  released,  and  again  served  in  the  army, 
and  commanded  at  the  siege  of  Rochelle. 

Angouldme,  Louis  Antoine  de  Bourbon, 
Due  d'  (b.  1775,  d.  1844),  dauphin  of  France 
and  son  of  Charles  X.  He  married  his  cousin, 
the  daughter  of  Louis  XVI.,  in  1799.  At 
the  restoration  he  was  made  Grand  Admiral 
of  France,  and  opposed  the  Bonapartists 
with  promptness  and  vigour.  He  showed 
great  coolness  and  gallantry  in  Spain  in 
1823,  whither  he  led  an  army  against  the 
Constitutionalists.  On  the  death  of  his 
father  in  exile  he  resigned  all  right  to  the 
succession  in  favour  of  his  nephew,  the  Duke 
of  Bordeaux. 

Angouleme,  Marie  Therfese  Charlotte, 
Duchesse  d'  (6.  1778,  d.  1851),  daughter  of 
Louis  XVI.  and  Marie  Antoinette,  and 
wife  of  the  preceding ;  she  shared  the  im- 
prisonment of  her  parents,  and  kept  a  diary, 
from  which  the  details  of  that  time  are 
known.  After  some  months  of  solitary  con- 
fiuement  she  was  released  in  exchange  for 
the  commissioners  of  the  convention,  mar- 
ried her  cousin,  and  accompanied  Louis 
XVIII.  on  his  public  entry  into  Paris  in 

Angstrom,  Anders  Jonas  (6.  1814,  d. 
1874),  a  Swedish  astronomer,  and  professor 
of  physics  at  Upsala,  who  made  important 
discoveries  by  means  of  the  spectroi5cope. 

He  showed  that  the  fixed  lines  of  the  spec- 
tra depend  only  upon  the  nature  of  the 
luminous  substance,  and  was  the  first  to 
notice,  though  he  did  not  explain,  the 
"  Frauenhofer  lines"  of  the  solar  spec- 

Anguier,  Francois  (6.  1604,  d.  16G9), 
a  celebrated  French  sculptor,  who  visited 
England  and  Home,  where  he  attained  a 
high  reputation  ;  Louis  XII.  appouited  him 
keeper  of  the  Cabinet  of  Antiquities. 

Angular,  Michel  (6.  1612,  d.  1686),  brother 
of  the  1  receding,  also  noted  as  a  sculptor, 
was  rector  of  the  Academy  of  Arts  in  Paris. 

Anguisciola,  Sofonisba  (6.  1535,  d.  1620), 
a  native  of  Cremona,  and  a  portrait  painter 
of  much  renown;  she  painted  Philip  II.  of 
Spain  and  many  of  his  court,  and  on  her 
marriage  she  received  a  munificent  dowry 
and  an  increased  pension. 

Anhalt-Bernburg,  '""hristiau  I.,  Duke  of 
(6.  1568,  d.  1630),  to(  &  a  leading  part  in  the 
contests  which  led  to  the  Thirty  Years' 
Avar,  aud  as  commander-in-chief  of  Fre- 
derick V.  of  Bohemia,  fought  successfully 
against  the  imperial  forces  till  defeated  at 
Prague  in  1620. 

Anhalt-Bernburg,  Christian  II.,  Duke  of 
(J).  1599,  d.  1656),  son  of  the  preceding, 
with  whom  he  took  part  in  the  battle  of 
Prague,  and  was  made  prisoner,  but  par- 
doned by  the  emperor.  He  succeeded  his 
father  in  1630. 

Anbalt-Dessau,  Leopold  (&.  1676,  d. 
1747),  a  Prussian  field-marshal,  who  dis- 
tinguished himself  in  the  war  of  the  Spanish 
succession.  He  also  obtained  victories  in 
behalf  of  Frederick  II.  over  the  Austriaus 
and  Saxons,  aud  concluded  the  war  by  the 
peace  of  Dresden. 

Anhalt-Dessau,  Leopold  Frederick  T  ranz 
d'  (6.  1740,  cZ.  1817),  served  under  Frederick 
II.  in  the  Seven  Years'  war,  and  did  much 
to  reform  the  laws  and  promote  agriculture 
in  liis  principality. 

Anhalt  Zerbst-Dessau,  George  IV.  (6. 
loU7,  d.  1553),  took  holy  orders,  and  became 
one  of  the  eminent  divines  and  reformers 
of  his  day. 

Anilseus  and  Asinseus,  two  Babylonian 
Jews,  who  in  the  1st  century  a.d.  headed  a 
band  of  freebooters,  and  were  persuaded  by 
Artabanus,  King  of  Parthia,  to  enter  his 
service.  Asinseus  met  his  death  by  poison 
at  the  hands  of  his  brother's  wife,  while 
Auilgeus  Avith  many  of  his  followers  was 
slain  by  Mithridates,  whom  they  had  pre- 
viously attacked  and  imprisoned. 

Animuccia,  Giovanni  (6.  1500,  d.  1571), 
a  celebrated  Italian  composer,  maestro,  di 




capello  of  the  Vatican,  may  be  considered 
the  founder  of  the  oratorio. 

Anisson,  an  ancient  family  of  Lyons, 
renowned  as  typographers,  the  inost  (hs- 
tiuguished  member  being  Etieune  Alexandre 
Jacques,  known  as  AnissonTDuperon  (1748- 
1794),  inventor  of  the  "  presse  a  un  coup ; "  he 
was  put  to  death  during  the  republic. 

Ankarkrona,  Theodor  {b.  1GS7,  d.  1750), 
distinguished  Swedish  naval  officer  and  man 
of  science. 

Ankerstrom,  Johann  Jakob  (?>.  17G1, 
d.  1792),  a  Swedish  noble,  remembered  as 
the  assassin  of  Gustavus  III.  of  Sweden  ;  he 
was  detected,  tortured  and  beheaded. 

Anna  Comnena  (6. 1083,  d.  1148),  daugh- 
ter of  the  Emperor  Alexis  Comneuus  I., 
conspired  on  her  father's  death  to  place 
her  husband,  Nicephorus  Bryennius,  on  the 
throne.  She  failed  in  this,  however,  and 
devoting  herself  to  literature,  wrote  a  his- 
tory of  her  father's  reign,  entitled  the 

Anna  Ivanovna,  Empress  of  Eussia  (6. 
1693-4,  d.  174U),  daughter  of  Ivan  Alexo- 
witch,  succeeded  to  the  throne  on  the  death 
of  Peter  II.  in  1730,  but  allowed  the  govern- 
ment to  be  really  in  the  hands  of  her 
favourite,  Biren,  who  ruled  cruelly  and 

Anna  Petrovna  (&.  1708,  rf.  1728),  the 
eldest  and  favourite  daughter  of  Peter  the 
Great,  and  mother  of  Peter  III.  The  order 
of  St.  Anne  was  instituted  in  her  honour, 

Anna  of  Austria,  Queen  of  France  {h. 
1601,  (/.  1666),  was  the  eldest  daughter  of 
Philip  III.  of  Spain,  and  was  married  in 
1615  to  Louis  XIII.  of  France.  On  the 
death  of  Louis  in  1643,  Anna  acted  as 
regent,  with  Cardinal  Mazarin  as  her  chief 
minister;  she  provoked  the  famous  wars 
of  the  "Fronde,"  in  which  she  was  ulti- 
mately victorious.  In  1661  she  resigned 
the  government  to  her  son,  and  passed  the 
rest  of  her  life  in  retirement. 

An-nasir     LidiniUah     Mohammed    {d. 

1215),  fourth  Sultan  of  Africa  and  Spain,  of 
the  dynasty  Almohades,  succeeded  to  the 
throne  in  1199.  He  was  continually  en- 
gaged in  war,  and  finally  being  defeated  at 
Las  Navas  by  the  united  forces  of  Castile, 
Navarre  'and  Aragon,  fled  to  Africa,  where 
he  died. 

An-nasir,  Abdul  Abbas  Ahmed  {h.  1156, 
d.  1225),  Caliph  of  the  Abbasides,  began  to 
reign  in  1180  ;  he  was  a  pious,  learned,  and 
j  ust  piiuce. 

^Anne,  Queen  of  Great  Britain  (6.  1664,  d. 
1714),  was  tlie  second  daughter  of  James  II. 
by  his  first  wife,  Anne  Hyde.     She  married 

Prince  George  of  Denmark,  and  succeeded 
to  the  throne  on  the  death  of  her  brother- 
in-law,  William  III.,  in  1702.  Her  reign  is 
distinguished  abroad  by  the  brilliant  ex- 
ploits of  the  British  army  in  the  Low 
Countries  under  Marlborough,  and  in  Spain 
under  Lord  Peterborough ;  the  victories  of 
Blenheim,  Oudenard,  and  Malplaquet  being 
won  in  the  war  of  the  Spanish  succession ; 
while  at  home,  though  political  contentions 
ran  high,  the  legislative  union  of  England 
and  Scotland  was  effected,  and  many  emi- 
nent names  adorn  the  list  of  contemporary 
writers,  notably  Addison,  Pope,  and  Steele. 
The  queen,  who  was  weak  and  yielding, 
was  controlled  at  first  by  the  imperious 
Duchess  of  Marlborough,  and  afterwards 
by  Abigail  Hill  (Mrs.  Masham). 

Anne  of  Beaujeu  (6.  1461,  d.  1522),  eldest 
daughter  of  Louis  XI.,  acted  as  regent 
during  the  minority  of  Charles  VIII.,  and 
displayed  great  energy  and  decision  of 

Anne  of  Bohemia  (J>.  1367,  (/.  1394),  "the 
good  Queen  Anne,"  was  wife  of  Eichard  II. 
of  England,  and  a  protector  of  Wiclif  and 
his  followers. 

Anne  of  Bretagne  {h.  1476,  d.  1514), 
daughter  and  heiress  of  Francis  II.  of 
Bretagne  ;  though  married  by  procuration 
to  Maximdian,  King  of  the  'Eomans,  she 
married  Charles  VIII.  (1 191),  and  Louis  XIL 
of  France  (1499).  She  displayed  consider- 
able justice  and  ability  in  the  management 
of  her  own  dominions. 

Anne  of  Cleves  {h.  1516,  d.  1557),  daughter 
of  John  III.,  Duke  of  Cleves,  and  fourth 
wife  of  Henry  VIII.  of  England,  from  whom 
she  was  shortly  divorced,  but  lived  con- 
tentedly in  England,  where  she  died. 

Anne  of  Denmark  (6.  1574,  d.  1619), 
daughter  of  Frederick  II.  of  Denmark, 
and  wife  of  James  VI.  of  Scotland  and  I. 
of  England. 

Anne  of  Warwick  (Jb.  1454,  d.  1485),  the 
widow  of  Edward  of  Lancaster,  son  of 
Henry  VI.,  was  first  married  to  Edward  of 
Lancaster,  son  of  Henry  VI.,  and  then 
against  her  will  to  Eichard  III.,  with  whom 
she  was  crowned  with  great  ceremony  in 
1483.     Her  death  is  attributed  to  poison, 

Annese,  Gennaro,  a  Neapolitan  gun- 
smith, who  succeeded  Masaniello  as  leader 
of  the  populace  in  the  insurrection  of  1648. 
He  at  first  joined  the  Duke  of  Guise,  and 
afterwards  betrayed  him  to  the  Spaniards, 
and  was  himself  soon  after  seized  and 

Annesley,  Arthur  (6.  1614,  d.  1686),  Earl 
of  Anglesey,  took  part  in  the  Civil  wars  of 
Charles  I.,   and  went  as  commissioner  for 




the  ParliaraenicTy  party  to  Ireland.  He 
afterwards  supported  Monk  iu  his  efforts 
for  the  Restoration,  and  filled  high  offices 
under  Charles  II.,  by  whom  he  was  created 
Baron  Annesley.  He  had  some  literary 
ability  and  wrote  a  History  of  the  Wars 
in  Ireland. 

Anno  or  Hanno,  Saint,  Archbishop  of 
Cologne  in  the  11th  century;  he  had  great 
influence  over  the  Emperor  Henry  III.,  in 
whose  name  he  for  some  time  administered 
the  government. 

An-nuwayri  {h.  1283,  d.  1332),  a  learned 
Arab  writer,  who  left  many  works,  amongst 
them  being  a  valuable  historical  cyclo- 

Anquetil,  Abraham  Hj^acinthe  {h.  1731, 
d.  1805),  a  French  orientalist,  who  for 
purposes  of  study  went  to  India  as  a  private 
soklier,  and  took  part  in  the  capture  of 
Pondicherry.  Ou  his  return  to  France  he 
was  appointed  oriental  interpreter  in  the 
king's  bbrary.  His  principal  work  was  a 
translation  of  the  Zend-Avesta,  published  iu 

Ansaldo,  Andrea  {h.  1584,  d.  1638),  au 
eminent  Genoese  painter ;  his  principal 
works  are  in  the  churches  and  palaces  of 

Ansaloni,  Giordano  (d.  1G34),  a  Sicilian 
missionary  of  the  order  of  prea<;hers,.who 
went  to  Japan,  and  adopting  the  dress  and 
language  of  the  people,  passed  for  two 
years  for  a  Japanese  priest,  but  was  at 
length  discovered  and  put  to  death. 

Anscarius,  Saint  (6.  801,  d.  864),  a  Bene- 
dictine monk  who  did  much  to  promulgate 
Christianity  iu  Denmark  and  Sweden,  and 
has  been  called  "  the  Apostle  of  the  Xorth." 
He  was  afterwards  made  Bishop  of  Ham- 

Anselm,  Saint  (6.  1034,  d.  1109),  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  during  the  reigns  of 
Wilham  Rufus  and  Henry  I.,  to  which  post 
he  was  summoned  from  his  position  as 
Abbot  of  Bee  in  Xormaudy.  He  was  a  man 
of  great  piety  and  intellectual  power,  and 
firmly  resisted  the  efforts  of  the  king  to 
despoil  the  Church  of  her  dignity  or 
revenues.  He  died  at  Canterbury  and  was 
canonised  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII. 

Anselme  of  Laon  (cZ.  1117),  an  eminent 
teacher  of  theology  in  the  11th  century,  and 
said  to  have  studied  under  Anselm  at  Bee, 
taught  for  some  time  in  Paris,  and  then 
returning  to  his  native  town  of  Laon,  made 
the  school  of  theology  there  the  most  re- 
nowned in  Europe, 

Anselmi,  Michael-Angelo  (6. 1491,  (i.  loo4), 
an  Italian  painter  in  the  style  of  Correggio, 

several  of  whose  pictures  are  in  the  churches 
of  Parma. 

Anselmo,  Saint  (6.  1036,  d.  1086),  Bishop 
of  Lucca,  supported  Gregory  VII.  against 
the  antipope,  Guibert,  and  left  a  collection 
of  canons  in  thirteen  books. 

Ansiaux,  Jean  Joseph  Eleonor  Antoine 
(6.  1764,  d.  1840),  one  of  the  best 
portrait  and  historical  painters  of  the 
modem  French  school ;  he  studied  at  Ant- 
werp, and  in  Paris  under  David.  In  1801 
his  Sappho  and  Leda  attracted  attention, 
and  he  afterwards  painted  an  Assumption 
and  other  fine  historical  works,  as  well  as 
portraits  of  many  prominent  men. 

Anslo,  Reinier  (6.  1626,  d.  1669),  a  Dutch 
poet  of  reputation ;  he  was  patronised  by 
Christina  of  Sweden  and  Innocent  X.,  and 
spent  the  end  of  his  life  in  Rome,  where  he 
became  a  Roman  Catholic.  Among  his  early 
productions  were  a  Martyrdom  of  S(.  Sfephen 
and  g,  poem  on  the  massacre  of  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's Day. 

Anson,  George,  Lord  (6. 1697,  d.  1762),  an 
eminent  naval  commander,  whose  popular 
Voyage  Round  the  World  has  undergone 
several  translations.  He  entered  the  navy 
in  1711,  seeing  much  active  service,  and 
in  1739  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  a 
squadron  despatched  to  the  Philippine  Is- 
lands. The  ships  were  badly  equipped,  and 
of  three  vessels  which  reached  Juan  Fer- 
nandez two  were  destroyed  as  xaisea- 
worthy.  With  his  one  remaining  ship. 
The  Centurion,  he  eventually  reached 
Manilla,  succeeded  in  capturing  the  gi-eat 
Spanish  galleon  Acupulco,  and  returned  to 
England  with  £500,000  in  prize-money. 
Here  he  was  eagerly  welcomed,  at  once 
appointed  rear-admiral,  and  henceforth  had 
a  large  share  in  the  direction  of  naval  af- 
fairs. In  1746  he  was  appointed  to  the 
command  of  the  Channel  fleet,  and  the 
following  year  defeated  the  French  off 
Cape  Finisterre,  for  w^hich  service  he  was 
raised  to  the  peerage.  He  possessed  con- 
siderable administrative  abiUty,  and  was 
made  admiral  of  the  fleet  in  1761. 

Anson,  George  (6.  1797,  d.  1857),  an 
English  general,  commander-in-chief  of  the 
Indian  army  at  the  time  of  the  mutiny.  He 
collected  a  force  at  Umballah  for  the  re- 
lief of  Delhi,  but  died  while  on  the  march. 

Anspach,  Elizabeth  Berkeley,  Margravine 
of  (6.  1750,  d.  1828),  was  married  first  to 
Lord  Craven  (1767),  and  secondly  to  the 
Margrave  of  Anspach  iu  1791.  In  1821  she 
gave  shelter  to  Queen  Caroline  of  England; 
she  left  some  amusiug  memoirs. 

.Ansted,  David  Thomas  (6.  1814,  d.  1880), 
a  geologist  of  some  repute,  whose  writinga 
did  much  to  popularise  geology. 




Anster,  John,  LL.D.  {b.  circa  1806,  d. 
1867),  au  Irish  poet  who  coutribiited  largely 
to  periodical  literature,  and  made  an  excel- 
lent translation  of  Goethe's  Fnust.  He 
held  the  chair  of  civil  law  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Dublin. 

Anstey,  Christopher  {b.  1724,  d.  180-5), 
author  of  the  New  Bath  Guide,  a  very 
popular  poem. 

Antagoias,  a  Greek  poet  of  the  3rd 
century  B.C.  He  was  author  of  a  poem 
called  TJtebais  and  other  Avorks,  all  of 
which  are  lost  except  a  few  epigrams. 

Antalcidas,  a  Spartan  politician,  who 
effected  the  peace  between  Greece  and  Ar- 
taxerxes  II.  (b.c.  387)  which  is  known  by 
his  name. 

Antar,  or  Antarah  Ibn  Sheddad,  Arabian 
poet  and  warrior,  who  acquired  great  dis- 
tinction in  the  forty  years'  wars  against 
the  Beni  Dhobyau,  while  his  great, work, 
a  poem,  was  highly  esteemed  by  Mahomet, 
and  has  been  translated  into  Latin,  German, 
and  EngUsh. 

Antenor,  a  wise  Trojan  chief  who  re- 
ceived the  ambassadors  Meuelaus  and 
Ulysses,  and  is  charged  with  having  betrayed 
Troy  to  the  Greeks,  especially  as  his  own 
house  was  untouched  by  the  enemy.  He 
is  said  to  have  afterwards  founded  some 
towns  on  the  west  coast  of  the  Adriatic. 

Anthemius,  Emperor  of  the  West  in  the 
5th  century,  a  distinguished  general,  quar- 
relled with  his  son-in-law,  Ricimer,  who 
led  au  array  against  Rome,  and  defeated 
and  slew  Anthemius. 

Anthemius,  a  native  of  Lydia,  and  an 
enainent  architect  and  sculptor.  He  was  em- 
ployed by  Justinian,  and  designed  thefamous 
church  of  Saint  Sophia  at  Constantinople. 

Antheric,  King  of  the  Lombards  {d.  590), 
surnamed  Flavius,  was  engaged  in  wars 
during  his  reign  of  six  years,  and  defeated 
an  invasion  of  the  Franks  under  Childebert 
in  588,  but  died  during  a  second,  having 
done  much  to  consolidate  his  dominions. 

Antbon,  Charles,  LL.D.  {h.  1797,  d. 
18G7),  American  classical  scholar,  was  called 
to  the  bar  in  1819,  but  forsook  law  for  clas- 
sics, which  he  taught  in  New  York.  He 
was  a  voluminous  writer,  and  author  of  A 
Classical  Bictionani  and  numerous  other 
text-books,  as  well  as  of  an  edition  of 

Antigonus,  King  of  Jud.x'a  {d.  B.C.  37), 
son  of  Aristobulus  II.,  was  driven  from  his 
throne  by  Autipater,  and  regained  Jeru- 
salem only  to  be  besieged  by  Horod,  wheti 
he  was  compelled  to  surrender,  and  Avas 
put  to  death. 

Antigonus  (Cyclops  or  "one-eyed  ")  {d. 
B.C.  301),  a  distinguished  general  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great,  on  whose  death  he  became 
Governor  of  Phrygia,  Lycia,  and  Pamphyha, 
and  after  defeating  and  slaying  Eumeues, 
and  waging  other  successful  wars,  assumed 
the  title  of  king.  His  ambitious  schemes 
united  his  rivals,  and  he  was  slain  in  battle 
at  Ipsus. 

Antigonus  Doson  (J,  b.c.  220),  King  of 
Macedonia,  and  grandson  of  Demetrius 
Poliorcetes,  was  appointed  regent  during 
the  minority  of  Philip,  son  of  Demetrius 
II.,  but  assumed  the  government,  married 
the  queen-dowager  Chrysses,  and  treated 
Philip  as  his  son  and  heir.  He  co-operated 
with  the  Achean  league  against  Sparta,  of 
which  the  victory  of  Sellasia  made  him 
master ;  and  he  also  repelled  an  invasion  of 
the  Illyx-ians. 

Antigonus  Gonatas,  King  of  Macedonia 
{d.  B.C.  239),  and  sou  of  Demetrius  Polior- 
cetes, ascended  the  throne  B.C.  277,  six 
years  after  his  father's  death.  He  was 
twice  driven  from  his  throne,  first  by 
Pyrrhus,  King  of  Epirus,  and  then  by 
Alexander,  son  of  Pyrrhus. 

Antillon,  Isidoro  d'  (6.  1760,  d.  1820),  a 
learned  Spaniard,  who  defended  Saragossa 
against  the  French,  but  was  afterwards 
forced  to  fly  before  them.  His  liberal 
opinions  drew  upon  him  the  displeasure  of 
Ferdinand  VII.,  and  he  was  arrested,  but 
died  before  his  trial.  He  left  several  works, 
the  most  valuable  being  a  geography  of 
Spain  and  Portugal. 

Antimachus,  an  epic  poet  of  Claros,  in 
Greece,  author  of  Thebais  and  the 

Antimaco,  Marc  Anthony  (6.  1473, 
d.  1552),  a  learned  Italian,  who  taught 
Greek  at  Ferrara  and  Paris,  and  left  some 
Latin  poems  and  translations  from  the 

Antinous,  a  favourite  page  of  the  Emperor 
Hadrian,  was  drowned  in  the  Nile. 

Antiochus  I.,  King  of  Commagene,  in 
SjTia.  In  B.C.  64  Pompey  concluded  a 
peace  with  this  state,  and  increased  its 

Antiochus  IV.,  of  Commagene,  surnamed 
Epiphanes,  was  sometimes  king,  sometimes 
governor,  according  as  Commagene  was 
created  a  province  or  a  kingdom.  He  aided 
Nero  against  the  Parthians,  and  Titus 
against  the  JeWs,  but  was  deposed  in  72. 

Antioclius  I.,  of  Syria  (Soter)  (d.  B.C. 
261),  was  constantly  engaged  in  wars,  and 
finally  killed  in  battle  'v\-ith  the  Gauls.  The 
story  of  his  passion  for  his  stepmother,  whom 




his  father  gave  him  to  save  his  life,  is  well 

Antiochus  II.,  of  Syria  {d.  B.C.  246), 
brother  of  the  preceding,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded. He  engaged  iu  a  war  with 
Ptolemy  Philadelphus,  which  was  ter- 
miimtecl  by  the  marriage  of  Antiochus  and 
Berenice.     He  died  of  poison. 

Antiochus  Hierax  (6.  260  b.c,  d.  227  b.c), 
second  son  of  the  preceding,  and  King  of 
Cilicia.  He  is  sometimes  called  Antio- 
chus III.,  though  he  never  succeeded  in 
driving  his  brother  Seleucus  Calhnicus  from 
the  throne. 

Antiochus  III., King  of  Syria  {d.  b.c.  187), 
suruamed  the  Great,  succeeded  his  brother 
in  223  B.C.  He  was  continually  engaged 
in  war,  and  though  at  first  defeated  by  the 
Egyptians  at  Raphia,  he  was  afterwards 
victorious,  and  gained  the  provinces  of 
Coele-Syria  and  Palestine.  He  was  worsted 
in  his  wars  with  the  Romans;  and  was 
killed  by  the  citizens  of  Elymius  while  pil- 
laging the  temple  of  Jupiter. 

Antiochus  IV.,  Epiphanes,  King  of  Syria, 
son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  brother 
B.C.  17o.  A.  cruel  and  vicious  prince,  he 
carried  on  a  war  with  Egj-pt,  and  his  con- 
duct to  the  Jews  provoked  the  Maccabsean 

Antiochus  V.,  of  S3T:ia,  surnamed  Eupator 
(6.  172  B.C.,  d.  162  B.C.),  son  of  the  preced- 
ing, whom  he  succeeded  when  only  eight 
years  old,  but  was  slain  two  years  after  his 
accession,  and  his  throne  seized  by  Deme- 

Antiochus  VI.,  of  Syria,  was  the  son  of 
Alexander  Balas,  who  had  fled  with  him  to 
Arabia.  In  144  B.C.  Antiochus  was  brought 
back,  and  set  up  by  the  Syrians  and  Jews 
as  a  rival  to  Demetrius  Nicator.  He  reigned 
only  two  years,  being  assassinated  in  142  B.C. 

Antiochus  VII.,  of  Syria  (6.  164  B.C.,  d. 
129  B.C.),  was  surnamed  Sidetes.  Whilst 
his  brother  Demetrius  Nicator  was  a  pri- 
soner iu  Parthia,  Antiochus  married  his 
wife  and  seized  his  throne,  but  after  several 
victories  over  the  Parthians,  was  beaten  and 
slain  by  Demetrius. 

Antiochus  VIII.  {h.  141  b.c,  d.  96  b.c), 
surnamed  Grypus,  was  the  son  of  Demetrius 
Xicator  and  Cleopatra.  He  married  the 
daughter  of  his  ally,  Ptolemy  Physcon,  and 
was  successful  in  his  Syrian  wars.  His 
half-brother,  Cyzicenus,  laid  claim  to  his 
throne,  and  after  reigning  jointly  with  him 
for  five  years,  Antiochus  was  assassinated. 

Antiochus  IX.,  surnamed  Cyzicenus,  was 
defeated  by  his  rival  Seleucus  in  B.C.  95,  and 
slew  himself  rather  than  fall  into  the  hands 
of  his  enemy. 

Antiochus  X.  (6.  Ill  b.c,  d.  lb  B.C.),  sur- 
named Eusebes,  son  of  the  preceding,  de- 
feated and  slew  Seleucus,  whose  brothers 
then  became  his  rivals,  till  Tigranes,  King 
of    Armenia,    assimied   the    crown,   iu    83 


Antiochus  XI.  (Epiphanes),  (6.  118  B.C., 
d.  93  B.C.),  a  son  of  Antiochus  Grypus, 
during  the  reign  of  the  preceding  gained 
possession  of  a  part  of  Syria,  and  assumed 
the  title  of  king.  He  was  defeated  by 
Antiochus  X.,  and  drowned  in  the  Orontes. 

Antiochus  XII.  (Dionysius)  (6.  112  b.c,  d. 
So  B.C.),  youngest  sou  of  Antiochus  Gryjjus. 
He  reigned  in  Damascus,  and  was  slaiu  iu 
battle  with  Aretas,  King  of  the  Arabians. 

Antiochus  XIII.  (Asiaticus),  son  of  Antio- 
chus Eusebes,  assumed  the  government  upon 
the  withdi'awal  of  the  Ai-menian  troops  B.C. 
69,  but  his  kingdom  was  reduced  to  a  pro- 
vince B.C.  65,  and  he  died  in  49  B.C. 

Antipater  (6.  b.c  390,  d.  319  b.c),  the 
Macedonian,  the  friend  and  minister  of 
Philij)  and  Alexander  the  Great,  during  the 
absence  of  the  latter  was  appointed  regent 
of  Macedonia  and  Greece,  and  in  that 
capacity  defeated  the  Greeks.  On  the 
death  of  Alexander  Antipater  received  the 
government  of  Macedonia. 

Antipater  {d.  b.c  4),  eldest  son  of  Herod 
the  Great.  His  life  is  a  series  of  conspiracies 
and  crimes;  he  compassed  the  death  of  his 
half  brothers,  but  being  detected  in  a  plot 
against  his  father's  life,  was  tried  before 
the  Roman  governor  of  Syria,  and  con- 
demned to  death. 

Antipater  of  Idumea  {d.  b.c.  43),  father 
of  Herod  the  Great,  took  part  in  the  dis- 
putes between  Hyrcanus  II.  and  Aris- 
tobulus  II.  He  assisted  in  placing  Hyr- 
canus on  the  throne  of  Judaea  B.C.  63,  and 
contrived  to  get  the  power  in  his  own  hands. 
He  was  afterwards  appointed  Procurator  of 
all  Judaea. 

Antiphanes,  an  Athenian  poet  of  the 
4th  century  B.C.,  and  a  prolific  writer  of 
middle  comedy. 

Antiphilus,  a  native  of  Egypt  of  the 
4th  century  B.C.,  and  one  of  the  greatest 
painters  of  the  age,  visited  Greece,  and 
painted  portraits  of  PhiUp  of  Macedon  and 
Alexander  the  Great,  and  on  his  return  to 
Egypt  painted  Ptolemy,  the  son  of  Lagos. 

Antiphon  {b.  b.c  479,  d.  b.c  411),  the 
Rhamnusian,  an  Athenian  orator,  who 
taught  at  Athens,  and  is  said  to  have  num- 
bered Thucydides  among  his  pupils.  He 
opposed  the  tyi-anny  of  the  Four  Hundred, 
and  was  put  to  death  upon  the  restoration 
of  the  popular  government. 




Antiquus,  Johannes  {h.  1702,  d.  1750],  a 
Dutch  painter  of  portraits  and  historical 
pieces.  He  studied  at  Amsterdam,  and 
after  travelling  in  Italy,  finally  settled  at 

Antisthenes,  a  Greek  philosopher,  a  pupil 
of  Socrates,  and  founder  of  the  Cynic  school. 
He  was  op])osed  to  speculative  inquiries,  and 
taught  that  virtue  was  the  one  thing  needful. 

Antoine  de  Bourbon,  King  of  Navarre 
(h.  lol8,  d.  l.')62),  succeeded  his  father  to 
the  duchy  of  Vendome,  and  acquired  Na- 
varre in  right  of  his  wife,  Jeanne  d'  Albret. 
Though  at  first  inclined  to  favour  the  Re- 
formers, political  considerations  induced 
him  to  banish  the  Lutheran  preachers,  and 
as  Lieuteuaut-Geueral  of  France  to  oppose 
the  progress  of  the  Reformation.  In  1'562, 
while  commanding  the  royal  army,  he  was 
fatally  wounded  at  the  siege  of  Rouen. 

Antommarclii,  Francesco  {d.  1838),  a 
Corsican  surgeon,  assistant  of  the  celebrated 
anatomist  Paolo  Mascagni  at  Florence,  was 
for  some  time  physician  to  Napoleon  at  St. 
Helena,  and  after  the  ex-emperor's  death, 
published  a  cast  of  his  head,  which  occa- 
sioned much  dispute  as  to  its  geniuneness. 

Anton,  Karl  Gottlieb  von  (^.  \'lo\,d.  181S), 
an  erudite  German  historian,  and  one  of  the 
best  critics  of  his  time. 

Anton,  Ulrich,  Duke  of  Saxe-Coburg- 
Meiniugeu  {b.  1G87,  d.  1763),  ancestor  of 
the  house  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,  a  brave 
soldier  and  accomplished  scholar,  served 
with  distinction  in  the  imperial  army,  and 
did  much  to  encourage  literature  and  art. 

Anton  I.,  Clemens  Theodor,  King  of 
Saxouy  {b.  1755,  d.  183G),  succeeded  to  the 
throne  in  1827,  was  of  a  retired  and  un- 
ambitious disposition,  and  being  childless 
associated  his  nephew,  Friedrich  Augustus, 
with  him  in  the  government.  Large  reforms 
were  carried  out  during  his  reign. 

Antonelli,  Giacomo  {b.  1806,  d.  1876),  a 
man  of  humble  birth,  who  attracted  the 
notice  of  Gregory  XVI.,  and  after  holding 
various  posts,  was  made  a  cardinal  in  1847 
by  Pius  IX. ,  over  whom  he  had  great  in- 
fluence. It  was  by  his  advice  that  the 
flight  to  Gaeta  was  undertaken,  and  on  the 
return  of  the  Pope  to  Rome  he  was  named 
secretary  of  state  for  foreign  affairs,  and 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  steadily 
opposing  Italian  unity  and  the  abandon- 
ment of  Rome  by  the  Pope. 

Antoni,  Alessandro  Vittorio  Papacino  d' 
{h.  1714,  f/.  178G),  an  artillery  officer  of  great 
skill  and  learning  ;  in  1 755  he  was  appointed 
director  of  the  royal  school  of  artillery, 
Turin,  and  in  ex])erimeuting  with  gun- 
powder made  important  discoveries. 

Antonia,  the  Younger  {b.  b.c.  36,  d.  a.d. 
37),  daughter  of  Mark  Antony  by  his  w^ife 
Octavia,  sister  of  Augustus,  w^as  the  wife  of 
Drusus,  mother  of  Claudius,  and  grand- 
mother of  Caligula. 

Antoniano,  Silvio,  Cardinal  {b.  1540,  d. 
1603),  a  precocious  genius,  who  at  seven- 
teen was  professor  of  classical  literature  at 
Ferrara,  and  afterwards  lectured  at  Rome. 

Antonilez,  Jose  {b.  1636,  d.  1676),  a 
Spanish  painter  of  landscapes,  portraits, 
and  historical  pieces. 

Antonilez  de  Sarabia,  Francesco  {d.  17' '0), 
nephew  and  pupil  of  the  preceding,  fol- 
lowed the  style  of  Murillo,  and  acquired 
considerable  reputation  as  an  historical  and 
landscape  j)ainter. 

Antonina  (/>.  499,  d.  565),  wife  of  Belisa- 
rius,  her  second  husband,  over  whom  she 
possessed  great  influence,  and  after  whose 
death  she  founded  a  convent,  where  she  died. 

Antoninus,  Saint  {b.  1389,  d.  1459),  Arch- 
bishop of  Florence,  belonged  to  the  order  of 
the  Dominicans ,  he  left  several  works. 

Antoninus  Pius,  Titus  (b.  86,  d.  161), 
Emperor  of  Rome,  succeeded  his  friend 
Hadrian  in  138,  and  enjoyed  a  prosperous 
and  uneventful  reign  of  tweuty- three  years. 

Antonio,  Dom  (6.  1531,  d.  1595),  an 
illegitimate  son  of  Dom  Luis  of  Portugal, 
who  asserted  his  legitimacy  and  consequeut 
right  to  the  throne  in  the  room  of  his  uncle 
Dom  Henrique,  on  whose  death  he  was  pro- 
claimed king  at  Lisbon.  He  was  defeated 
by  his  rival,  the  Duke  of  Alva,  at  Alcantara 
in  1580,  and  help  from  France  and  England 
13ro\'ing  equally  unsuccessful,  Antonio  re- 
tired to  Paris. 

Antonio,  Nicholas  {b.  1617,  d.  1684), 
Spanish  bibliographer,  lived  for  many  years 
at  Rome,  and  afterwards  held  office  at 

Antonio  of  Padua,  Saint  (6.  1195,  d. 
Padua,  1231),  a  Franciscan  monk,  and  a 
disciple  of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi ;  numerous 
miracles  are  attributed  to  him,  and  he  is  the 
patron  saint  of  Padua. 

Antonio  Veneziano  {b.  1310,  (/.  1384), 
Venetian  painter  in  fresco  who  takes  the 
foremost  place  amongst  his  contemporaries, 
and  left  several  works  at  Venice,  Florence, 
and  Pisa. 

Antonius,  Caius,  surnamed  Hybrida  [d. 
circa  45  B.C.),  was  the  son  of  Antonius  the 
orator,  and  colleague  of  Cicero  in  the 
consulship.  He  took  part  with  Sulla  in 
the  war  against  Mithridates,  but  oppressed 
and  plundered  the  people,  and  some  time 
afterward  was  banished  by  the  senate. 




siipeiiiiteud  the  geographical  studies  of  the 
Dukes  of  Chartres  aud  Orleaus. 

Anwari,  a  Persian  poet  of  the  1 2th  ceutury, 
aud  author  of  Tears  of  IC/iordss'in,  oue  of 
the  most  beautiful  poems  in  the  Persiau  lan- 

Aoust,  Jeau  Marie,  Marquis  d'  (h.  1740,  d. 
1812),  a  republicau  noble  who  voted  for  the 
death  of  Louis  XVI.,  aud  uuder  the  Con- 
sulate was  appointed  maj^or  of  Quincy. 

Apelles.the  greatest  of  theancient  painters, 
flourished  in  the  4th  century  B.C.  He  was  a 
friend  of  Alexander  the  Great,  who  forbade 
any  other  to  take  his  portrait.  The  pictures 
I  of  Alexander  and  Antigones  by  Apelles  were 
very  celebrated,  but  his  masterpiece  was  the 
Fen/ci  Anadi/oinene,  which  was  taken  to 
Rome  by  Augustus. 

Apjohn,  James,  M.D.  (6.  1795),  an 
eminent  chemist,  professor  in  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons  in  Ireland,  aud  after- 
wards at  Trinity  College,  Dublm. 

Apocaucus,  Alexis,  commander-in-chief 
of  the  Byzantine  armies  in  the  14th  cen- 
tuiy.  He  Avas  the  rival  of  his  benefactor 
John  Cantacuzenus  in  the  struggle  for  the 
empire,  and  though  at  tirst  successful,  was 
eventually  defeated  and  assassinated  in 

Apollinaris,  Bishop  of  Laodicea  {d.  392), 
a  learned  man,  and  zealous  opponent  of  the 
Arians,  is  remembered  in  counectiou  with 
the  heresy  that  bears  his  name. 

Apollodorus  of  Athens,  a  famous  gram- 
marian and  author  of  a  standard  work  on 
heathen  mythology. 

Apollodorus  of  Carystus,  a  distinguished 
comic  poet  of  the  school  of  middle  Attic 
comedy,  iu  the  4th  century  B.C.,  and  author 
of  forty-seven  comedies,  of  which  only  frag- 
ments of  a  few  remain. 

Apollodorus  of  Damascus,  a  great  archi- 
tect of  the  2nd  century,  worked  at  Rome 
for  the  Emperor  Tiajan,  aud  built  the 
forum  and  col  umn  which  bear  that  monarch's 
name,  but  his  greatest  work  wasa  huge  bridge 
over  the  Danube  at  its  confluence  with  the 
Alt.  He  was  banished  and  put  to  death  by 

Apollonius  Dyscolus(the  Morose),  a  native 
of  Alexandria  and  a  great  granmiarian  of 
the  reigns  of  Hadrian  and  Antoninus,  whose 
most  valuable  work  is  On  the  Construction  of 
an  Oration. 

Apollonius  PergS3US,  "the  great  geo- 
meter," was  a  native  of  Perga  in  Pam- 
phyiia,  and  flourished  in  the  ind  century 
B.C.  He  was  author  of  a  treatise  on  conio 
sections  which  is  still  extant. 

Antonius,  Marcus,  the  triumvir  (6.  83  B.C., 
d.  30  B.C.),  after  serving  as  a  soldier  in 
Syria,  joined  Julius  Cresar  in  Gaul,  became 
his  wai'm  partisan,  and  being  elected  consul 
with  him  in  B.C.  44,  offered  him  the  kingly 
title,  which  however  he  declined.  After  the 
murder  of  Caesar,  Antony  was  opposed  aud 
defeated  by  Octavius  (Augustus),  but  the 
rivals  came  to  terms,  and  with  Lepidus 
formed  the  second  triumvirate.  Under 
their  government  Brutus  and  Cassius  were 
defeated  and  slain  at  Philippi,  and  Antony 
was  mainly  responsible  for  the  death  of 
Cicero.  The  civil  war  ended  in  his  defeat 
at  Actium,  and  the  triumph  of  Octavius. 
Whilst  in  Egypt  Antony  met  and  was 
ciiarmed  by  Cleopatra,  and  for  her  sake  he 
shamefully  divoi-ced  his  second  wife,  the 
sister  of  Octavius,  and  lie  died  in  Egypt  by 
his  own  hand. 

Antonius,  Marcus,  the  orator  (6.  143  B.C., 
d.  87  B.C.),  one  of  the  greatest  orators  of 
Rome;  he  served  as  quaestor  and  praetor, 
and  for  his  services  in  Cilicia  was  awarded  a 
triumph.     He  was  beheaded  by  Marius. 

Antonius  or  Antony,  Saint,  an  Egyptian 
Christian,  and  the  reputed  founder  of  mon- 
asticism,  lived  for  many  years  in  seclusion, 
and  his  biographer  Athanasius  records  the 
popular  story  of  his  temptation  and  actual 
conflict  with  the  devil.  His  fame  drew 
crowds  to  hear  him  preach  aud  reached  the 
Emperor  Constantino  ;  he  died  at  the  ad- 
vanced age  of  105,  leaving  directions  for  a 
secret  burial. 

Antonius  Nebrissensis  (6.  1444,  d.  1522), 
an  eminent  Spanish  writer,  studied  in  Italy, 
was  appointed  ])rc>fessur  at  the  university 
of  Alcara  de  He  u  ares, 

Antraigues,  Emmanuel  Louis  Henri  de 
Launy,  Count  d'  (6.  1755,  d.  1812),  a  French 
political  adventurer,  who  was  exiled  as  a 
Royalist,  and  becoming  possessed  of  some 
information  respectiug  the  treaty  of  Tilsit, 
entered  into  a  correspondence  with  Canning, 
but  Avas  betrayed  and  murdered  by  his  ser- 

Anund  or  Amund  id.  7G0),  King  of 
Sweden,  called  Biaut-Aiiund  from  the  num- 
ber of  public  roads  he  constructed.  He 
made  other  peaceful  improvements,  and 
was  a  brave  and  valiant  prince. 

Anund  or  Amund,  King  of  Sweden,  as- 
cended the  throne  about  830,  and  as  a  viking 
invaded  the  neighbouring  states  and  is  said 
to  have  defeated  Ethelwulf  of  England. 
He  was  slain  in  battle  with  his  brother 

Anvllle,  Jean  Baptiste  Bourguignon  d'  (/>. 
1697,  d.  1782),  a  geographer  of  great  emi- 
nence ;  he  w-as  encouraged  in  his  studies  by 
the  Abb^  de  Longuerue,  and  appointed  to 




Apollonius  Rliodius,  a  Greek  epic  poet  of 
the  3rd  century  B.C.,  author  of  the  Argo- 
)iaicticn,  was  in  his  later  years  keeper  of 
the  library  at  Alexandria. 

Apollonius  Tyanaeus,  a  Pythagorean  phi- 
losopher of  the  1st  century  who  professed 
miraculous  powers,  an^l  attracted  numerous 

ApoUos  or  Apollonius,  a  Jew  of  Alex- 
andria, who  was  converted  to  Christianity 
about  o4,  and  acquired  greai  reputation  as 
a  teacher.  He  is  twice  alluded  to  in  St. 
Paul's  Epistles. 

Apostool,  Samuel  [h.  1638),  a  Dutch  Men- 
nonite  divine  of  Amsterdam,  who  entered 
into  a  controversy  with  Galenus,  which 
gave  rise  to  the  rival  sects  of  Apostooliaus 
and  Galenians. 

Appendini,  Francesco  Maria  (6.  1768,  d. 
1837),  historian,  a  native  of  Piedmont,  de- 
voted himself  to  teaching,  and  settled  in 
Dalmatia.  He  published  a  history  of  the 
Republic,  and  several  educational  works  in 

Apperley,  Charles  James  (6.  1777,  d. 
184o),  English  authority  on  horses,  who  con- 
tributed to  the  Sporting  Magazine  and  other 
papers,  and  wi'ote  under  the  pseudonym  of 
"  Nimrod." 

Appert,  Benjamin  Xicholas  Marie  (6.  Paris 
1797),  a  philanthropic  educationalist,  who 
did  much  for  the  education  of  soldiers  and 
the  poor. 

Appiani,  Andrea  {h.  1754,  d.  1817),  a 
Milanese  painter,  pupil  of  Cavalier  Guidei, 
whose  style  almost  rivals  that  of  Correggio. 
He  excelled  in  oil  and  fresco,  and  several  of 
his  compositions  ai«e  in  the  churches  and 
palaces  of  Milan.    Died  in  poverty. 

Appiani,  Andrea  (6.  1812),  grandson  of 
the  preceding,  maintained  the  artistic  repu- 
tation of  his  family,  and  gained  several 
medals  both  at  Rome  and  Milan. 

Appiano,  Gherardo  {d.  1405),  Captain- 
General  of  Pisa  in  1398.  He  sold  the  re- 
public the  following  year  to  the  Visconti, 
and  retired  to  Piombino,  where  he  died. 

Appiano,  Vanni  d',  born  in  the  14th  cen- 
tury, of  humble  parents,  went  to  Pisa  and 
attached  himself  to  the  family  of  Giam- 
bacorti,  and  was  beheaded  by  Charles  IV.  of 
Germany.  His  descendants  were  princes  of 
Piombino  and  Elba. 

Appianus,  a  native  of  Alexandria,  lived 
in  the  2nd  century,  and  was  the  author  of  a 
history  of  Rome  in  the  Greek  language. 

Appius  Claudius.     {See  Claudius.] 

Applegarth,  Augustus  {d.  1871),  inventor 

of  the  steam  press,  and  other  important 
improvements  in  the  art  of  printing ;  he 
also  designed  the  peculiarly  inimitable  bank 
note  used  by  the  Bank  of  England,  as  well 
as  methods  for  printing  silk  and  cotton 
simultaneously  in  several  colours. 

Apraxin,  Feodor,  or  Theodor  (&.  1671,  d. 
1728),  a  Russian  noble,  the  favourite  of 
Peter  the  Great,  to  whom  he  was  of  great 
service  in  naval  affairs.  He  was  brave, 
prudent,  and  victorious  in  battle,  and  at- 
tained to  the  highest  honours,  though  twice 
convicted  of  misappropriation  of  the  public 

Apraxin,  Stepan  (?;.  1702,  d.  1758J,  com- 
mander of  the  Russian  army  against  Fre- 
derick the  Great,  whose  troops  he  defeated 
in  1757,  but  purposely  failing  to  follow  up 
his  advantage  was  tried  and  put  to  death. 

Apres  de  Mannevillette,  Jean  Baptiste 
Nicolas  Denis  d'  (6.  1707,  d.  1780).  distin- 
guished French  hydrographer,  served  in 
various  parts  of  the  world,  and  published 
the  results  of  his  observations  in  the  Nep- 
tune Orientale,  and  other  valuable  works. 

Apries,  King  of  EgjTDt  in  the  6th  century 
B.C.,  and  eighth  king  of  the  Saite  dynasty. 
The  Pharaoh-hophra  of  Scripture. 

Apsyrtus,  a  distinguished  veterinary  sur- 
geon of  the  4th  century.  He  was  a  native 
of  Bithynia,  and  served  mider  Constantino 
the  Great  in  his  Danubian  campaign. 

Apthorp,  East,  D.D.  (6.  1733,  d.  1816), 
a  learned  theologian,  who  was  educated  in 
England,  where  he  held  several  livings  ;  he 
engaged  with  Gibbon  in  a  controversy 
respecting  Christianity. 

Apuleus,  or  Appuleius,  Lucius,  a  phi- 
losopher and  Platonist  of  the  2nd  century, 
whose  most  celebrated  work  is  the  3[eta- 
morjyhoses,  or  the  Golden  Ass,  which 
includes  the  beautiful  story  of  Psyche,  and 
seems  to  be  intended  as  a  satire  on  the 
crimes  and  follies  of  the  age.  He  was  bom 
in  Numidia,  studied  at  Car'thage  and  Athens, 
and  finally  at  Roriie. 

Aquila,  a  native  of  Sinope,  of  the  reign  of 
Hadrian,  who  was  converted  to  Christianity 
and  afterwards  to  Judaism.  He  studied 
Hebrew,  of  which  he  made  himself  master, 
and  translated  the  Old  Testament  into 

Aquila,  a  Christian  Jew  of  Pontus,  who 
took  refuge  in  Corinth  when  Claudius  ex- 
pelled the  Jews  from  Rome,  and  meeting 
there  with  St.  Paul,  worked  with  him  at 
their  common  trade  of  tent-making.  With 
his  wife  Priscilla,  Aquila  was  instrumental 
in  converting  Apollos  to  Christianity,  and  i^ 
said  to  have  suffered  martyrdom. 




Aquila,  Caspar  [h.  U88,  d.  1560),  the 
Latinised  nauie  of  Adler,  a  Reformer,  and 
friend  of  Luther,  whom  he  assisted  in  his 
translation  of  the  Old  Testament.  His 
opinions  exposed  him  to  much  persecu- 
tion, but  he  spent  the  end  of  his  life  in 

Aquila,  Serafino  dell'  (6.  1466,  d.  1500), 
an  Italian  poet,  of  the  school  of  Dante  and 
Petrarch ;  he  was  patronised  by  Ferdinand 
of  Naples,  and  was  the  friend  of  Cardinal 
Ascanio  Sforza. 

Aquin,  Louis  Claude  d'  (6. 1698,  d.  1772), 
a  precocious  musical  genius,  who  at  eight 
years  old  had  learned  all  that  his  master 
could  teach  him.  Handel  went  to  Paris  to 
hear  him. 

Aquinas,  Thomas,  Saint  {h.  circa  1227,  d. 
1274),  a  celebrated  scholastic  divine,  called 
the  ' '  angelic  doctor, ' '  a  member  of  the  order 
of  Dominicans,  studied  at  Cologne  under 
Albertus  Magnus,  whom  he  afterwards  ac- 
companied to  Paris.  At  the  age  of  twenty- 
four  he  lectured  in  that  city  on  philosophy 
and  theology,  endeavouring  to  show  the 
accord  of  religion  and  reason,  and  acquiring 
the  highest  reputation.  He  died  in  1274, 
while  on  his  way  to  the  Council  of  Lyons, 
and  was  canonised  in  1323  by  John  XXII. 
Of  his  works,  which  occupy  seventeen 
voliunes  folio,  the  principal  is  his  Sum  ma 

Araby,  Ahmed  Pasha,  "  Araby  the  Egyp- 
tian" (6.  1839),  is  the  son  of  a  village 
sheykh,  and  claims  to  be  descended  from 
Mahommed.  After  studying  at  the  military 
school  at  Cairo,  he  served  under  Said  Pasha 
in  Abyssinia  and  the  Soudan,  being  the 
first  native  Egyptian  to  attain  the  rank  of 
lieutenant- colonel.  With  two  others  he  led 
the  first  mihtary  demonstration  of  1881,  and 
became  the  acknowledged  spokesman  of  the 
National  party ;  and  as  head  of  the  second 
military  demonstration  he  secured  his  three 
demands,  the  fall  of  Riaz,  an  increase  of  the 
army,  and  a  Hberal  constitution.  He  Avas 
shortly  afterwards  appointed  minister  of 
war,  and  as  commander-in-chief  under  the 
provisional  government  of  Cairo  he  con- 
ducted the  defence  of  Egypt  from  July  to 
September.  He  was,  however,  defeated  by 
Sir  Garnet  Wolseley  at  Tel-el-Kebir  (1882), 
and  surrendered  himself  to  the  British, 
who  persuaded  him  to  accept  perpetual 
exile,  and  he  left  Egypt  for  Ceylon  in  1883. 

Arago,  Dominique  EranQois  (6.  1786,  d. 
1853),  a  celebrated  French  astronomer  and 
politician,  who  accompanied  Biot  to  the 
Eastern  Pyrenees  in  1806,  and  on  his  return 
journey  met  with  a  series  of  dangerous  ad- 
ventures. In  1809  he  was  elected  member 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  distin- 
guished himself   by  his  researches  ia  the 

undxilatory  theory  of  light,  galvanism,  mag- 
netism, astronomy,  etc.  As  a  pohtician  he 
took  a  prominent  part  in  the  July  revolu- 
tion of  1830,  and  in  1848  he  was  appointed 
minister  of  war  and  marine.  After  the 
coup  d'etat  of  Louis  Napoleon  he  refused 
to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance,  though  still 
retaining  the  personal  friendship  of  the 

Arago,  Etienne  {h.  1802),  brother  of  the 
preceding,  a  dramatist  and  politician,  was 
editor  of  the  Figaro,  and  director  of  the 
theatre  du  Vaudeville,  and  in  1848,  as  head 
of  the  post-ofiice,  introduced  the  cheap 
postal  system.  His  opposition  to  Napoleon 
di'ove  him  into  exile,  but  he  returned,  and 
was  for  a  short  time  mayor  of  Paris  (1870), 
and  in  1878  was  appointed  archivist  to  the 
Ecole  des  Beaux  Aits. 

Aragona,  TuUia  d',  an  accomplished  and 
learned  poetess  of  the  16th  century,  a  native 
of  Fei-rara,  who,  besides  some  elegant  son- 
nets, WTL'ote  several  poems  and  a  romance. 

Arakcheev,  Alexay  Andre wich  (6.  1769, 
d.  1833),  a  Russian  count,  who  rose  from 
the  ranks  to  the  position  of  major-general, 
and  to  whom  Alexander  entrusted  the  ad- 
ministration of  military  affairs.  He  suc- 
ceeded in  effectiug  great  reforms  in  the 
army,  and  showed  both  zeal  and  cruelty  in 
his  scheme  for  the  development  of  military 

Aram,  Eugene  (6. 1704,  d.  1759),  notorious 
for  his  learning  and  his  tragical  end,  was 
the  son  of  a  Yorkshire  gardener,  and  became 
proficient  in  ancient  languages,  studying 
also  hterature  and  mathematics.  For  many 
years  he  was  a  schoolmaster  in  London  and 
elsewhere,  but  in  1759  lie  was  arrested  for 
the  murder  of  Daniel  Clark,  a  shoemaker  of 
Knaresborough,  about  thirteen  years  pre- 
viously, and  in  spite  of  an  able  defence, 
was  condemned  and  executed. 

Aranda,  Pedi-o  de  Bolea,  Count  of  (6. 
1718,  d.  1799),  prime  minister  of  Spain  under 
Charles  III.,  showed  firmness  and  vigour  in 
effecting  reforms  and  improvements.  He 
was  finally  displaced  by  Godoy,  and  retired 
to  Ai'agon,  where  he  died. 

Arantius,  Giulio  Cesare  Aranzio  (6.  1530, 
d.  1589),  professor  of  anatomy  and  medicine 
in  the  University  of  Bologna,  was  known 
for  his  investigations  respecting  the  human 
foetus,  on  which  he  published  a  valuable 

Arany,  Janos  (6.  1819,  d.  1882),  Hun- 
garian poet  of  humble  birth.  He  was  the 
author  of  a  popular  satire  on  the  Lost 
L'o)isiiti(tiou,  and  of  a  trilogy  called 
Toldi;  and  became  a  professor  of  liter- 
ature, and  member  of  the  Hungariajg 




Aratus  of  Sicyon  (6.  271  b.c,  d.  213), 
one  of  the  autliors  of  the  Achgean  cou- 
federation,  drove  Nicholas,  tyrant  of  Sicyon, 
from  the  city,  but  was  himself  defeated  by 
Cleomeues  ill.  of  Sparta.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  i^oisoned  by  order  of  Philip  II,  of 

Aratus  of  Soli,  a  Greek  poet  and  as- 
tronomer of  the  ord  centuiy,  author  of 
two  poems  on  astronomical  subjects  entitled 
FhcBHomena  and  Dioatiutia. 

Araujo  d'  Azevedo,  Antonio,  Count  of 
Barca  {It.  ITol,  d.  1817),  a  learned  Potuguese 
diplomatist,  who  became  head  of  the  aaaiin- 
istration  in  180li,  but  mismanaged  alfairs, 
and  upon  the  invasion  of  the  French  fled 
■with  the  royal  faniily  to  Brazil,  where  he 
did  much  to  promote  art  and  commerce. 

Arbaces,  a  Median  general,  who  in  the 
9th  century  B.C.  joined  Belesis,  a  Chaldean 
priest,  in  a  revolt  against  Sardanapalus,  and 
on  the  defeat  and  suicide  of  that  monarch 
assumed  the  sovereignty,  and  reigned  with 
justice  and  moderation  for  twenty-eight 
years.  He  is  generally  considered  the 
founder  of  the  Median  kingdom. 

Arbasia,  Cesare  {d.  1601),  an  Italian 
painter  in  fresco  and  oils,  worked  at  Malaga 
and  Cordova. 

Arbetio,  a  Roman  general  of  low  birth, 
who  rose  to  be  consul  and  magister 
equitum.  He  defeated  the  Alemanni,  and 
in  his  old  age  led  an  army  against  Pro- 
copius,  the  usurper  of  the  throne  of  Valens. 

Arborio,  Mercuriano,  Count  di  Gattinara 
(6.  14(3.3,  d.  looO),  an  eminent  statesman  and 
diplomatist,  was  employed  by  the  Emperor 
Maximilian,  and  afterwards  by  Charles  Y., 
who  reposed  unlimited  confidence  in  him, 
and  raised  him  to  the  post  of  chancellor  of 
the  empire.  Towards  the  Reformers  Ar- 
borio advised  conciliation ;  he  v,-as  made  a 
cardinal  in  1529. 

Arborio  di  Gattinara,  Luigi  (6.  1781,  d. 
l82Uj,  an  accomplished  man  and  elegant 
scholar ;  he  early  entered  the  Church,  and 
is  known  as  the  xVbbe  di  Breme,  and  a  con- 
tributor to  the  Milan  journal  II  Concili- 

Abrissel,  Robert  (6.  1047,  d.  1117),  vicar- 
general  of  the  diocese  of  Rennes ;  his  at- 
tempts to  reform  the  morals  of  both  clergy 
and  laity  were  so  badly  received  that  he  re- 
tired mto  seclusion,  but  his  well-known  piety 
and  eloquence  induced  Urban  II.  to  com- 
mission him  to  preach  before  the  world.  In 
1101  he  founded  the  celebrated  Abbey  and 
Order  of  Fontevrault. 

Arbutlinot,  Alexander  (6.  1538,  d.  1583), 
a  Scottish  divine  and  poet;  he  was  originally 
e'iucated  for  the  law,  and  took  an  active 

part  in  the  religious  controversies  of  Ms 

Arbuthnot,  Sir  Alexander  (6. 1796),  a  gal- 
lant  naval  officer,  who  served  at  Trafalgar 
and  elsewhere,  and  accompanied  the  British 
Legion  to  Spain, 

Arbutlmot,  General  Sir  Hugh,  K.CB, 
(6.  1781),  a  distinguished  soldier,  who  w^as 
present  at  the  siege  of  Copenhagen,  and 
served  in  the  Peniusula  under  Moore  and 
Wellington,  For  his  services  at  Busaco  he 
received  a  gold  medal. 

Arbuthnot,  John  (6.  1673,  d.  1735),  a 
Scottish  phj' aieian  and  miscellaneous  writer ; 
appointed  in  1709  physician  to  Queen  Anne, 
was  a  contemporary  and  friend  of  Pope 
and  Swift,  and  author  of  a  witty  political 
jmmphlet,  The  History  of  Jolin  Bull.,  and 
other  works. 

Arbuthnot,  Mariot  (6.  1711,  d.  1794),  a 
British  admiral  who  served  with  distinction 
under  Hawke  in  the  war  with  the  French. 
The  taking  of  Charleston  and  capture  of 
several  I'rench  vessels,  earned  him  the 
thanks  of  Parliament ;  he  was  made  f uU 
admiral  in  1793, 

Arcadius  (6,  3S3,  d.  408),  Emperor  of  the 
East,  and  eider  son  of  Theodosius  I.,  a  weak 
prince,  was  ruled  by  his  successive  lavoiu'- 
ites,  Rutinus  and  Eutropius,  and  after  their 
deaths  gave  himself  up  to  the  influence  of 
his  wife  Eudoxia,  who  is  notorious  as  a 
persecutor  of  St.  Chrysostom. 

Arcesilaus  (6,  316  b.c,  d.  241  b.c),  a 
Greek  philosopher,  who  founded  the  second 
or  middle  academy,  and  taught  in  Athens. 
He  maintained  the  delusiveness  of  the 
senses  and  the  impossibility  of  attaining 
to  truth. 

Arcesilaus,  a  sculptor  of  Rome  during  the 
last  days  of  the  republic ;  he  was  patronised 
by  Lucullus,  and  his  works  were  eagerly 
sought  after,  but  none  have  survived. 

Arcesilaus  I,  {d.  583),  King  of  Cyrene,  of 
the  dynasty  of  the  Battyadse,  succeeded  to 
the  throne  B.C.  599,  and  reigned  peacefully 
for  sixteen  years. 

Arcesilaus  II.,  King  of  Cj-rene,  sumamed 
Chalepus,  succeeded  to  the  throne  about 
560  B.C.  He  failed  to  quell  a  revolt  of  the 
Libyans,  and  was  put  to  death  by  Learchus 
about  550  B.C. 

Arcesilaus  III,,  King  of  Cyrene  {d.  514 
B.C.),  a  cruel  lU'  narch,  whose  submission  to 
Cambyses  provoked  an  insurrection.  The 
king  took  refuge  m  Barca,  where  he  was 

i^rcesilaus  IV.,  King  of  CjTene  {d.  431 
B.C.),  last  of  the  dynasty  of  Batt^'adse,  au4 




a  contemporary  of  Pindar.     His   severity- 
resulted  in  his  assassination. 

Arch,  Joseph  (b.  1826),  leader  of  the 
English  agricultural  labourers'  movement 
in  1872,  and  president  of  their  union.  In 
1885  he  was  returned  to  Parliament  as 
member  for  the  north-west  division  of 
Norfolk,  but  was  not  re-elected  the  follow- 
ing year. 

Archadelt,  Jacques,  a  Flemish  musician 
of  the  16th  century,  whose  madrigals  were 
the  most  popular  of  his  time. 

Archagathus,  a  Greek  physician  and  sur- 
geon, who  practised  at  Home  in  the  3rd 
century  B.C.,  and  was  the  first  to  introduce 
there  the  systematic  practice  of  medicine. 

Archdale,  George  (6.  1848),  a  Scottish 
chemist,  who  went  to  the  United  States  in 
1881,  and  made  important  investigations 
respecting  the  manufacture  of  starch. 

Archdale,  .John,  was  appointed  English 
governor  of  North  Carolina  in  1695.  He 
introduced  the  culture  of  rice,  and  during 
the  two  years  he  held  office  did  much  to 
improve  the  condition  of  the  colonists.  He 
left  an  historical  and  descriptive  accoimt  of 

ArchdaU,  Mervj-^n  (6.  1723,  d.  1791),  a 
learned  Irish  divine  and  antiquary,  author 
of  a  history  of  the  abbeys,  priories,  etc., 
of  Ireland,  entitled  Monasticum  Hiber- 

Arclielaus  {d.  a.d.  7),  sou  of  Herod  the 
Great,  succeeded  to  the  government  of 
Judsea,  Idumea,  and  Samaria,  and  was  re- 
cognised as  ethnarch  of  those  countries  by 
the  Roman  emperor,  B.C.  3.  Numerous 
complaints  of  his  tyrannical  rule  induced 
Augustus  to  deprive  him  of  his  office,  and 
banish  him  to  France,  where  he  died.  He 
rebuilt  Jericho,  and  founded  the  town  of 

Arclielaus  {d.  399),  King  of  Macedonia, 
was  an  illegitimate  son  of  Perdiccas  II., 
to  whose  throne  he  succeeded  in  413  B.C. 
He  then  married  Cleopatra,  his  father's 
widow,  having  previously  murdered  the 
legitimate  son  of  Perdiccas,  as  well  as  his 
uncle  and  cousin.  He  ruled  successfully, 
and  was  killed  while  hunting,  whether  by 
axjcident  or  design  is  unknown. 

Ardielaus,  a  Cappadocian,  the  distin- 
guished general  of  Mithridates  VI.,  flou- 
rished in  the  1  st  century  b.  c.  After  defeating 
Nicomedes  III.  at  Amnias,  B.C.  88,  he  sailed 
to  Greece,  captured  Delos  and  other  towns, 
and  induced  Achaia,  Lacedemon,  and  Boeo- 
tia  to  form  an  alliance  with  Mithridates 
against  Rome,  Sulla  besieged  him  in  the 
Piraeus,  and  compelled  him  to  withdraw  his 

forces.  Returning  to  the  contest  with  a 
still  larger  army,  Archelaus  was  again  de- 
feated and  forced  to  retire,  when,  acting 
upon  instructions  received  from  Mithri- 
dates, he  concluded  peace  with  Sulla,  but 
upon  tenns  unsatisfactory  to  the  king,  and 
he  finally  deserted  to  the  Romans,  after 
which  little  is  known  of  him. 

Archelaus  I.,  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
high  priest  of  the  goddess  Enyo  at  Comana 
in  Pontus,  who  in  right  of  his  wife  Berenice, 
Queen  of  Egj-pt,  assumed  the  sovereignty  of 
that  country  also.  He  was  defeated  and 
slain  by  Aulus  Gabinius,  pro-consul  of 
Syria,  about  B.C.  56. 

Archelaus  II.,  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
high  priest  of  Comana,  was  defeated  by 
Cicero  in  a  war  with  Cappadocia,  and  in 
B.C.  47  was  deposed  by  Julius  Caesar. 

Archelaus,  King  of  Cappadocia  {d.  a.d. 
17),  son  of  the  preceding,  supported  Antony 
against  Octavius,  and  on  the  accession  of 
Tiberius  was  induced  to  come  to  Rome, 
where  he  was  detained  till  his  death. 

Arclielaus  of  Miletus  first  introduced 
physical  philosophy  into  Athens.  He  was 
the  pupil  of  Anaxagoras,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  the  preceptor  of  Socrates. 

Archenholz,  Johann  Wilhelm  (6.  1741,  d. 
1812),  a  German  soldier,  traveller,  and 
voluminous  writer,  was  author  of  a  Ilistory 
of  the  Seven  Years'  War,  and  of  the  popular 
i^ngland  iind  Italien. 

Archer,  John  Wykeham  (6. 1808,  d.  1864), 
an  EugHsh  engraver  and  painter,  who 
adopted  the  pseudonym  of  ' '  Mr.  Zigzag  the 

Archer,  Sir  Symon  (6.  1581,  d.  circa 
1688),  an  English  antiquary  who  assisted 
Dugdaleinhis  Antiquities  of  Warivickshire, 
and  was  knighted  by  James  I. 

Archer,  Thomas,  English  architect,  de- 
signed, amongst  other  works,  the  churches 
of  St.  Philip  at  Birmingham  and  St.  Jolm 
at  "Westminster,  and  died  in  1743. 

Archiac,  Etienne  Jules  Adolphe,  Desmier 
de  St.  Simon,  Viscount  d'  (6.  1802),  an 
eminent  French  geologist,  author  of  a 
History  of  Geology  from  1834  to  1851. 

Archibald,  Hon.  Sir  Adams  George  [h. 
1814),  Canadian  jurist,  was  for  sotne  years 
member  of  the  executive  council  of  Nova 
Scotia,-  and  several  times  employed  as 
delegate.  He  held  many  political  posts, 
and  was  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Cana- 
dian Pacific  Railway  (1873).  He  was  also 
governor  of  Manitoba,  and  afterwards  of 
Nova  Scotia,  and  was  knighted  in  1885. 

Archidamus  I.,  King  of  Sparta,  ascended 




the  throne  about  B.C.  630,  and  enjoyed  a 
peaceful  and  uneventfid  reign. 

ArcMdamus  II.,  King  of  Sparta  {d.  B.C. 
427),  ascended  the  throne  B.C.  469,  took  an 
important  part  in  the  Peloponnesian  Avar, 
and  three  times  invaded  Attica. 

ArcMdamus  III.,  King  of  Sparta  {d.  b.c. 
338),  a  warlike  prince,  who  took  part  in 
many  wars,  and  defeated  the  Thebans 
under  Epaminondas.  He  was  slain  iu 
battle  with  the  Lucanians. 

Archidamus  IV.,  King  of  Sparta,  and 
grandson  of  the  preceding,  was  defeated 
near  Mantinea  by  Demetrius  Poliorcetes, 
B.C.  296. 

Archidamus  V.,  King  of  Sparta,  succeeded 
liis  brother  Agis  IV.  B.C.  240,  but  was  soon 
after  assassinated. 

Archigenes,  a  Greek  physician  of  the  1st 
century  a.d.  He  came  to  Rome  duiing  the 
reign  of  Domitian,  and  enjoyed  a  consider- 
able reputation. 

Archilocus  of  Pares,  a  lyric  poet  of  the 
7th  century  B.C.,  and  one  of  the  earliest 
writers  of  elegiac  poetiy.  He  was  killed  in 
war  with  the  people  of  Xaxos. 

Archimedes  (6.  b.c.  287,  d.  b.c.  212),  was 
educated  under  Conon  at  Alexandria, 
and  early  devoted  himself  to  the  mathe- 
matical investigations  for  which  he  is 
famed.  He  was  the  friend,  and  perhaps  the 
relative,  of  Hieron  II.,  King  of  Syracuse,  in 
whose  ser^^ce  he  constantly  exercised  his 
ingenuity.  He  was  amongst  those  slain  in 
the  general  massacre  which  followed  the 
taking  of  Syracuse,  having  been,  says  the 
story,  too  intent  on  some  geometrical  prob- 
lem to  give  that  explanation  of  his  identity 
which  would  have  secured  his  safety.  His 
tomb,  marked  as  he  had  directed  by  a  cy- 
linder with  inscribed  sphere,  was  discovered 
by  Cicero  (7o  B.C.) .  Of  his  numerous  works, 
nine  of  the  most  important  are  extant,  in- 
cluding treatises  on  hydi'ostatics,  the  mea- 
sure of  the  circle  and  the  quadrature  of  the 
parabola,  and  show  their  author  to  have 
been  undoubtedly  the  greatest  mathema- 
tician of  antiquity. 

Archytas,  an  accomplished  and  learned 
Pythagorean  philosopher,  and  a  skilled 
military  commander  who  is  said  never  to 
have  lost  a  battle.  He  wrote  many 
treatises,  and  according  to  Horace  was 
drowned  off  the  coast  of  Apulia, 

ArciszewsM,  Krzysztof  [d.  1656),  a  Polish 
general,  who  joined  the  French  army,  and 
took  part  in  the  siege  of  Rochelle,  in  1628. 
He  afterwards  went  to  Brazil  in  the  service  of 
the  Dutch  West  India  Company,  and  was 
distinguished  for  his  bravery  and"  judgment. 

He  finally  returned  to  Poland,  where  he  was 
appointed  master  of  the  ordnance. 

Arckenholtz,  Johann  (6.  1695,  d.  1177),  a 
Swedish  Finlander,  whose  Considerations 
on  France  and  Us  Relatiotis  to  Sweden  led 
to  his  dismissal  from  his  post  in  the  chan- 
cery at  Stockliolm,  He  was  ultimately 
appointed  royal  historiographer  at  Stock- 

Arco,  Giambattista  Gherardo  d'  (6.  Arco, 
1739,  d.  1791),  one  of  the  greatest  political 
ecouomists  of  his  time ;  he  left  nimierous 
and  valuable  worl<s,  and  was  governor  of 
the  Duchy  of  Mantua. 

Arcon,  Jean  Claude  Eleanore  Lemichaud 
d'  (6.  1733,  d.  1800),  a  distinguished  F^-ench 
military  engineer,  who  conceived  the  idea 
of  emplopng  floating  batteries  for  the 
attack  on  Gibraltar  in  1 782.  He  also  served 
in  the  Bepublican  army  which  invaded 
Holland,  and  captured  Breda  and  other 

Arcos,  Rodrigo  Ponz  de  Leon,  Duke  of,  a 
Spanish  nobleman  who  so  mismanaged  the 
government  of  Naples  under  Philip  IV. 
as  to  provoke  two  rebellions,  which  were 
with  difficulty  suppressed,  and  he  was  re- 
called in  disgrace. 

Arctinus  of  Miletus,  an  epic  poet  of 
Greece,  who  Mved  in  the  8th  century  B.C., 
and  wrote  a  conlinuation  of  the  Iliad,  acd 
the  Destruction  of  the  Ilion. 

Ardemans,  Teodoro  {h.  Madrid,  1664,  d. 
1726),  a  painter  and  architect  of  considerable 
merit,  many  of  whose  architectural  works 
are  to  be  found  in  Madrid. 

Arden,  Richard  Pepper,  Lord  Alvanley, 
(6.  1745,  d.  1804),  an  eminent  EngUsh 
lawy^er,  and  an  able  judge ;  in  1801  he 
succeeded  Lord  Eldon  as  chief  justice  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas,  with  the  title  of 
Baron  Alvanley. 

Ardem,  John,  a  London  surgeon  of  the 
14th  century,  said  to  have  been  the  first  to 
introduce  a  rational  practice.  He  was  a 
skilful  operator,  and  made  many  improve- 
ments in  surgery. 

Arditi,  Luigi  {h.  1822),  Italian  com- 
poser, studied  at  Milan.  After  visiting 
America  he  came  to  England,  and  Avas 
conductor  of  the  splendid  orchestra  of  Her 
Majesty's  theatre  (1857—1878).  His  waltzes 
are  extremely  popular. 

Ardshir  Babegan,  a  descendant  of  Darius, 
and  one  of  the  Avisest  and  most  vaHant  of  the 
Persian  kings.  He  defeated  and  slew  his 
predecessor,  ArdaA'an,  seized  his  throne,  and 
after  thirty  years  of  victorious  warfare 
established  his  sway  from  the  Euphrates 
to  the  Oxus.    In  the  internal  administration 




of  his  kingdom  he  proved  vigilant  and  just ; 
he  died  or  abdicated  about  260. 

Arduin  or  Ardoin,  Marquis  of  Ivrea  {d. 
1015),  was  elected  King  of  Italy  in  1002, 
and  for  thirteen  years  maintained  his  claim 
in  opposition  to  Henry  II.  of  Germany  and 
others.  Worn  out  at  length  by  repeated 
reverses,  and  the  desertion  of  his  friends, 
he  retired  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Benigno, 
where  he  died. 

Aremberg",  Johann  von  Ligne  {d.  1568), 
served  in  the  Spanish  army  during  the  war 
of  Independence  in  the  Netherlands.  He 
was  defeated  at  the  battle  of  Groningen, 
where,  after  exhibiting  the  greatest  personal 
valour,  he  fell  covered  with  wounds. 

Aremberg,  Leopold  Philip  Karl  Joseph 
von  Ligne,  Duke  of  (6.  1690,  d.  1754),  dis- 
tinguished himself  under  Prince  Eugene  at 
the  battle  of  Belgrade.  After  the  peace  of 
Utrecht  he  devoted  himself  for  a  time  to 
literatui'e,  but  afterwards  commanded  the 
forces  of  Maria  Theresa,  in  Flanders,  in  the 
war  of  the  Austrian  succession. 

Arena,  Bartolomeo  (6.  1760,  d.  1829),  a 
Corsican  advocate,  a  violent  republican,  and 
the  enemy  of  Paoli.  He  was  one  of  the  Five 
Hundred  in  1798,  and  being  charged  with 
an  attempt  to  stab  Bonaparte,  retired  to 
Leghorn,  where  he  died. 

Arena,  Giuseppe  (rf,  1801),  brother  of  the 
preceding,  served  in  the  French  army,  and 
distinguished  himself  at  the  siege  of  Toulon. 
He  was  arrested  on  a  charge  of  conspiring 
against  the  life  of  the  First  Consul,  and 

Arends,  Jan  (6.  1738,  d.  1805),  a  Dutch 
painter,  pupil  of  Ponse,  painted  marine 
and  other  subjects. 

Arents,  Albert  (6.  1840),  an  eminent 
metallurgist ;  he  was  educated  in  Germany, 
but  in  1882  was  elected  member  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers. 
He  is  the  inventor  of  the  siphon  tap  for 
lead  furnaces,  the  Eureka  lead  furnace,  and 
the  well-known  roasting  furnace  which  bears 
his  name. 

Areschong,  Johan  Erhard  (6.  1811,  (7. 
1887),  an  eminent  Swedish  botanist,  for  some 
time  professor  of  botany  at  Upsala.  He  is 
especially  devoted  to  the  study  of  the 
mariue  algse,  and  is  author  of  Syniholoc 
Algarum  iScandlnavlcey  and  other  works. 

Areskin,  Eobert  {d.  1718),  Scottish  physi- 
cian, went  to  Russia,  and  under  the  patron- 
age of  Peter  the  Great  did  much  for  the 
advancement  of  medicine  in  that  country. 

Areson,  Jon  (6.  1484,  d.  1550),  a  violent 
opponent  of  the  reformed  religion,  was 
after   much   opposition  consecrated  bishop 

of  Holum.  He  led  an  armed  expedition 
into  the  diocese  of  Skalholt,  and  captured 
and  ill-treated  its  Protestant  bishop,  Einars- 
son,  and  continued  his  deiDredations  till  he 
himself  was  made  pi-isoner,  and  beheaded. 
He  introduced  the  printing  press  into  Ice- 
land, and  was  the  best  Icelandic  poet  of  his 

Aretseus  of  Cappadocia,  an  eminent 
physician  of  the  1st  or  2nd  century  of  the 
Christian  era,  whose  one  extant  work  is 
very  valuable,  and  has  gone  through  varioi>s 

Aretas  II.,  King  of  Arabia  Petrsea  in  the 
1st  century  B.C.,  was  victorious  in  an  ex- 
pedition against  Judsea,  but  was  defeated 
by  the  Romans  under  the  legate  Scaurus. 

Aretas  III.,  King  of  Arabia  Petrsea  and 
father-in-law  of  Herod  Antipas,  against 
whom  he  waged  a  successful  war. 

Aretino,  Leonardo  (Bruni)  (6.  1369,  d. 
1444)  a  scholar  and  author,  whose  reputa- 
tion was  such  that  in  1405  he  was  appointed 
secretary  of  correspondence  to  Innocent 
YIL,  and  remained  for  many  years  in  his 
service  and  that  of  the  three  succeeding 
popes.  The  end  of  his  life  was  spent  in 
Florence,  of  which  city  he  was  appointed 

Aretino,  Pietro  (Bacci)  (6.  1492,  d. 
1556),  an  adventurer  who  in  his  time  ac- 
quired an  imdeserved  reputation  as  a  writer 
and  politician.  He  was  a  self-educated  but 
audacious  man,  and  contrived  to  ingratiate 
himself  with  several  princes  and  noblemen, 
finally  settling  at  Venice,  where  he  devoted 
himself  to  the  acquisition  of  wealth. 

Aretius,  Benedict  (6.  1505,  d.  1574),  a 
Swiss  theologian  and  botanist ;  he  embraced 
the  opinions  of  Calvin,  and  devoted  his 
leisure  to  botany,  on  which  he  wrote  many 
works.  He  was  the  first  to  describe  the 
plant  Aretia  Helvetica,  which  was  named  in 
his  honour. 

Arezzo,  Guittone  d'  {d.  1294),  an  Italian 
noble,  known  as  Fra  Guittone,  who  may  be 
regarded  as  one  of  the  founders  of  Itahan 
poetry  and  peri ecter  of  the  sonnet. 

Arezzo,  Tommasi  (6.  1756,  d.  1832),  a 
distinguished  Italian  ecclesiastic,  who  was 
employed  by  Paul  I.  on  an  important 
mission  to  Russia;  he  was  also  employed 
by  Napoleon,  who  imprisoned  him  for  re- 
vealing his  plans ;  he  Avas  made  a  cardinal 
in  1816,  and  vice-chancellor  of  the  Church 
in  1830. 

Arfe,  Hemique  de,  with  his  son  Antonio, 
was  a  celebrated  worker  in  silver  in  the 
16th  century.  He  settled  in  Spain,  and 
wrought  silver  tabernacles  for  the  cathedrals 
of  Leon,  Cordova  and  Toledo. 




Arfa,  Juau  de  (b.  1535,  d.  1595),  grandson 
of  the  preceding,  surpassed  his  father  and 
grandfather  in  the  beauty  and  elegance  of 
his  work.  The  beautiful  silver  tabernacles 
in  the  cathedrals  of  Avila  and  Seville  are  his 

Arfian,  Antonio  de,  a  Spanish  artist  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  who  especially  ex- 
celled in  fresco. 

ArgaU,  Sir  Samuel  (b.  1572,  d.  1639), 
English  deputy  governor  of  Virginia 
(1617 — 1619),  whose  tyranny  and  rapacity 
resulted  in  his  recall  two  j'ears  after  his 
appointment.  He  afterwards  took  part  in 
an  expedition  against  the  Algerines,  and 
was  knighted  in  1623. 

Argand,  Aime  (b.  1755,  d.  1803),  a  chemist 
of  Geneva,  inventor  of  the  Argand  lamp, 
which  he  brought  out  in  England  in  1782. 
The  patent  was  also  claimed  by  a  French- 
man, Ambroise  Lange,  and  finally  taken 
out  in  France  in  their  joint  names,  the 
priority  of  invention  being  conceded  to 
Argancl.  The  French  Eevolution,  how- 
ever, deprived  him  of  all  profit  from  his 

Argelander,  Friedrich  Wilhelm  Auguste 
(6.  1799,  d.  1875),  German  astronomer  of 
repute,  published  in  1843  an  atlas  of  those 
stars  which  are  visible  to  the  naked  eye 
(Uranometria  Nova).  He  also  continued 
Bessel's  work,  fixing  the  position  of  some 
22,000  stars  in  the  zone  45''  to  80=". 

ArgeUati,  Filippo  (6.  1685,  d.  Milan, 
1755),  a  learned  and  eminent  printer  and 
author,  whose  name  was  especially  asso- 
ciated with  the  printing  of  Muratori's 
Reruin  Italicarum  Scriptores. 

Argens,  Jean-Baptiste  de  Boyer,  Marquis 
de  (6.  1704,  d.  1771),  a  witty  French,  writer, 
who  attracted  the  attention  of  Frederick  II. 
of  Prussia,  and  sjient  some  years  at  Berlin, 
but  having  incurred  that  monarch's  dis- 
pleasure, and  forfeited  his  pension,  he  re- 
turned to  Provence,  where  he  died.  Among 
his  best  known  writings  are  the  Lettres 
Juives,  and  the  Lettres  Cabalistiques. 

Argensola,  Bartolome  Leonardo  y  (6. 
1564,  d.  1631),  a  Spanish  poet  and  man  of 
letters,  whose  Runas  obtained  for  him 
the  title  of  "The  Phoenix  of  Castilian 

Argensola,  Lupercio  Leonardo  y  (&.  1563, 
d.  1613),  brother  of  the  preceding:  he  was 
patronised  by  Pliilip  III.  His  tragedies  are 
highly  spoken  of  by  Cervantes,  and  he  also 
wrote  lyrical  and  historical  works. 

Argentelle,  Louis  Marc  Antoine  (h.  Mil, 
d.  1828).  a  celebrated  French  modeller,  Avho 
made  a  valuable  collection  of  wax  models  of 

the  India  flora.     His  secret  unfortunately 
perished  with  him. 

Argenterio,  Giovanni  (6.  1513,  d.  1572), 
"  The  Great  Physician,"  practised  at  Lyons 
and  Antwerp,  acquiring  so  great  a  reputa- 
tion that  he  was  invited  to  Italy,  and  filled 
the  chair  of  medicine  at  Naples,  Pisa,  Rome, 
and  Turin. 

Argentre,  Bertrand  d'  (6. 1519,  d.  1590),  a 
learned  jurist  and  historian  of  Brittany, 
author  of  a  History  of  BrUtany,  and  other 

Argote  de  Molina,  Gonzalo  (6.  1549,  d. 
15y0j,  a  SjDanish  historian,  and  author  of 
some  valuable  works  on  the  geography  of 
the  East.  In  early  life  he  served  in  thu 
army,  but  afterwards  devoted  himself  tc» 
literature,  and  died  in  poverty. 

Arguelles,  Augustin  (6.  1775,  d.  1844),  a 
distmguished  Spanish  statesman  whose 
I  speeches  and  writings  against  the  French 
^  obtained  for  him  the  title  of  "Divino." 
In  1814  he  was  amongst  the  proscribed, 
and  condemned  to  the  galleys,  but  some 
six  years  later  was  made  Minister  of  the 
Interior.  His  royalist  principles  induced 
him  to  retire  to  London,  till  the  amnesty  of 
1832,  after  which  he  became  a  member  of 
Cortes,  and  tutor  to  the  young  queen  and 
her  sister. 

Argyll,  Archibald  Campbell  (6.  1598,  d. 
1661),  eighth  Earl  of;  a  popular  Highland 
leader,  who  took  part  in  the  Civil  wars  of 
the  17th  century.  At  first  he  sided  with  the 
Covenantei-s,  whose  forces  he  commanded 
for  a  short  time,  but  on  the  execution  of 
Charles  I.  he  broke  with  the  English 
parliament,  and  did  all  in  his  power  to  pro- 
mote the  Restoration.  In  spite  of  this 
he  was  committed  to  the  Tower  by  Charles 
II.  on  a  charge  of  high  treason,  and  exe- 

Argyll,  Archibald  (d.  1685),  ninth  Earl  of, 
son  of  the  preceding,  and  a  staunch  royalist. 
He  refused,  however,  to  give  complete 
compliance  with  the  requirements  of  the  Test 
Acts,  and  at  the  instigation  of  the  Duke  of 
York  was  tried  for  high  treason,  and  sen- 
tenced to  death  in  1681,  but  succeeded  in 
escaping  to  Holland.  Returning  to  Scotland 
at  the  head  of  a  considerable  force,  he  was 
taken  prisoner,  and  executed  on  his  former 

^Argyll,  John,  second  Duke  of  (6.  1678,  d. 
1743),  a  distinguished  statesman  and  soldier, 
who  served  with  distinction  under  Marl- 
borough in  the  Low  Countries.  As  a  poli- 
tician he  assisted  in  effecting  the  union 
between  England  and  Scotland,  and  also 
promoted  the  accession  of  George  I.  He  was 
afterwards  appointed   commander-in-chief 




in  Scotland,  aud  defeated  the  Earl  of  Mar 
at  Sheriff niuir  in  1715. 

Argyll,  George  Douglas  Campbell,  eighth 
Duke  of  (A.  1823),  author  and  politician,  was 
born  at  Ardeulaple  Castle,  Dumbartonshire. 
As  Marquis  of  Lome  he  took  a  strong 
interest  in  the  question  of  ecclesiastical  pa- 
tronage then  agitated  in  the  Scottish  Church, 
and  which  occasioned  the  secession  of  the 
Free  Kirk,  being  a  supporter  of  Dr. 
Chalmers  and  the  evangelical  party.  He 
became  duke  in  1847,  and  in  1851  chancellor 
of  the  University  of  St.  Andrew's.  In  the 
following  year  he  was  appoiuted  Lord  Privy 
Seal  in  the  Cabinet  of  Lord  Aberdeen,  in 
1856  Postmaster-General,  aud  again  in  1859 
Lord  Privy  Seal  in  the  Administration  of 
Lord  Palmerston.  From  1868  to  1874  he 
was  a  member  of  Mr.  Gladstone's  Govern- 
ment as  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  and 
for  the  thii'd  time  accepted  the  office  of  Lord 
Privy  Seal  in  1880,  but  resigned  on  certain 
clauses  of  the  Irish  Land  Bill  which  he 
considered  destructive  of  ownership.  Be- 
sides much  he  has  written  of  the  land  ques- 
tion, a  subject  with  which  he  is  intimately 
acquainted,  his  principal  works  are  a  history 
of  the  Scottish  Church,  and,  in  religious  and 
scientific  inquiry,  the  Reign  of  Law  (1866), 
and  the  Unity  of  Nature  (18i4). 

Ari,  orAra(6.  1068,  d.  1U8),  surnamed 
"  the  Learned/'  an  Icelandic  historian,  and 
pupil  of  Hall  Thorarinsson,  whose  history 
and  chronology  are  very  valuable. 

Ariadne,  Empress  of  the  East  in  the 
fifth  and  sixth  centuries,  was  the  daughter 
of  Leo  I.,  aud  on  his  death,  and  that 
of  her  infant  son,  vigorously  maintained 
the  claims  of  her  husband,  Zeno,  to  the 
throne,  who  died  in  491,  and  she  then 
married  his  successor,  Anastatius  I.,  over 
whom  she  had  great  influence. 

Arialdus  {d.  1066),  a  deacon  of  Milan  in  the 
11th  century,  who,  in  company  with  Liudul- 
fus,  determinedly  opposed  the  marriage  and 
simony  of  the  clergy.  Though  excommu- 
nicated, their  sentence  was  annulled  on 
appeal,  but  a  violent  agitation  at  Milan 
induced  the  archbishop  to  lay  that  city  uuder 
an  interdict,  when  the  terrified  people  turned 
against  Arialdus,  who  was  arrested,  and 

Ariamnes  I.,  King  or  Satrap  of  Cappa- 
docia,  was  the  father  of  Ariarathes  I. ,  and 
reigned  fifty  years. 

Ariamnes  II.,  King  of  Cappadocia,  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  Ariarathes  II.,  and  asso- 
ciated in  the  government  his  son,  Aria- 
rathes III. 

Ariarathes  I.,  King  of  Cappadocia  (6.  b.c. 
404,  d.  B.C.  322/,  succeeded  his  father,  Ari- 
amnes I.  ;  he  was  unmolested  by  Alexander 

the  Great,  though  afterwards  attacked  and 
defeated  by  Perdiccas,  who  caused  him  to 
be  crucified. 

Ariarathes  II.,  King  of  Cappadocia, 
nephew  of  the  preceding,  upon  whose  death 
he  ried  to  Ardoates,  King  of  Armenia,  who 
supplied  him  with  the  means  of  expelling 
the  Macedonians  andregaiuiug  his  kingdom. 

Ariarathes  III.,  King  of  Cappadocia  {d. 
B.C.  220),  son  of  Ariamnes  II. ;  he  married 
Stratouice,  daughter  of  Antiochus  II.  of 

Ariarathes  IV.,  King  of  Cappadocia  {d. 
B.C.  163),  son  of  the  preceding,  aided 
Antiochus  III.  against  the  Romans,  but 
afterwards  formed  an  alliance  with  them. 

Ariarathes  V.,  King  of  Cappadocia  {d.  b.c. 
130),  called  at  first  Mithridates,  and  sur- 
named Philopater,  was  driven  from  his 
throne  by  Holofernes  aud  fled  to  liome, 
but  was  afterwards  restored  in  conjunction 
with  his  rival,  but  soon  regained  entire 

Ariarathes  VI.,  King  of  Cappadocia  {d. 
B.C.  96),  son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded, was  assassinated  at  the  instigation 
of  his  father- in -laAV,  Mithridates. 

Ariarathes  VII.,  Kiug  of  Cappadocia,  son 
of  the  preceding,  was  placed  on  the  throne 
by  Mithridates,  as  a  means  of  securing  it 
for  himself.  He,  however,  resisted,  and 
raised  an  army,  but  was  assassinated  by 

Ariarathes  VIII. ,  King  of  Cappadocia, 
son  of  Ariarathes  VI.,  was  attacked  by 
]\'Iithridates  and  driven  from  the  throne. 

Ariarathes  XI.,  King  of  Cappadocia  [d. 
B.C.  36),  son  of  Ariobarzanes  II.,  succeeded 
to  the  throne  B.C.  42,  but  was  deposed  and 
put  to  death  by  Antony. 

Arias  Montanus  Benedictus,  Benito  Arias 
Montano  (ft.  1527,  d.  1598),  a  learned  biblical 
scholar,  who  in  1568  superintended  the 
printing  of  the  great  polyglot  Bible. 

Aribert,  Duke  of  Aquitaine  {d.  630),  and 
son-  of  Clotaire  II.  of  France,  obtained  pos- 
session of  Aquitaine  on  his  father's  death, 
and  held  it  till  his  death. 

Aribert  I.,  King  of  the  Longobards  {d. 
661),  elected  in  653,  devoted  himself  to  the 
convei'sion  of  his  Arian  subjects  to  the  or- 
thodox faith. 

Aribert  II.,  King  of  the  Longobards,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  throne  in  701,  and  the  following 
year  was  attacked  by  Liniti^ert,  whom  he 
defeated  and  jjut  to  death.  In  712,  however, 
he  Avas  defeated  by  Ausprand,  and  di'owued 
in  the  Ticmo. 




Arigisius  I.,  Dul^e  of  Beneventum,  a  war- 
like and  able  prince,  who  ruled  from  591 
to  641. 

Arigisius  II.,  Duke  of  Beneventum,  a  man 
of  learning  and  ability,  assumed  the  title 
of  prince  in  774,  but  two  years  afterwards 
submitted  to  Charlemagne. 

Ariobarzanes  I.,  King  of  Cappadocia, 
surnamed  Philoromseus,  was  elected  in  B.C. 
93,  and  after  being  four  times  di'iven  from 
his  throne,  and  as  often  restored  by  the 
Romans,  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  son, 
B.C.  63. 

Ariobarzanes  11.,  King  of  Cappadocia, 
son  of  the  preceding,  died  by  violence  before 
B.C.  51. 

Ariobarzanes  III,,  King  of  Cappadocia 
(d.  B.C.  42),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  favour- 
ably treated  by  Caesar,  who  increased  his 
dominions,  though  he  had  previously  assisted 
Pompey.     He  was  put  to  death  by  Cassius. 

Ariobarzanes  I.,  King  or  Satrap  of  Pontus, 
who  may  be  confounded  by  Xenophon  with 
another  of  the  same  name,  was  betrayed  by 
his  son,  Mithridates  I.,  to  the  King  of 

w^iobarzanes  II.,  King  of  Pontus,  and 
son  of  Mithridates  I.,  in  362  B.C.  revolted 
from  Ai'taxerxes  II.  of  Persia,  and  estab- 
lished his  independence. 

Ariobarzanes  III.,  King  of  Pontus  (d. 
B.C.  240),  succeeded  his  father,  Mithridates 
III.,  B.C.  266.  With  assistance  from  the 
Gauls  he  defeated  an  invasion  of  the 

Ariosti,  Attilio  (6.  Bologna,  1660,  d.  1740), 
a  musical  composer,  the  friend  and  rival  of 
Handel.  He  was  for  some  years  in  the 
service  of  the  Electress  of  Brandenburg,  and 
twice  visited  England,  on  one  occasion  being 
employed  with  Handel  at  the  Eoyal  Aca- 
demy of  Music.  Of  the  fifteen  operas  he 
composed,  the  most  popular  was  his  C'orio- 

Ariosto,Lodovico  (6.  Eeggio,  1474,  d.  1533) , 
one  of  the  foremost  poets  of  Italy,  and  author 
of  the  great  epic  poem  Orlando  Furioso, 
which  was  written  in  his  intervals  of  leisure 
whilst  employed  by  Cardinal  Ippolyto  of 
Este  in  various  political  negotiations.  The 
Orlando  celebrates  the  achievements  of  the 
Paladins  of  Charlemagne  in  the  wars  be- 
tween the  Christians  and  Moors ;  besides 
this  work  he  produced  two  comedies  and 
some  sonnets  and  other  small  pieces. 

Ariovistus  [Ehrenvist],  a  chief  of  the 
Suevi  in  the  first  century  B.C.,  who  gained 
many  victories  over  the  Sequani  and  -^Edui, 
till  forced  by  Julius  Cajsar  across  the 

Arista,  Mariano  (6. 1802,  d.  1855),  a  Mexi- 
can general  who  distinguished  himself  in 
the  Slexican  wars  of  Independence.  In 
the  war  with  the  United  States  he  com- 
manded at  Palo  Alto  and  Resaca  de  la 
Palma,  and  in  1850  was  elected  President 
of  Mexico,  but  resigned  his  office  in  1853, 
and  was  banished  shortly  afterwards. 

Aristagoras  of  Miletus,  governor  of  Mi- 
letus during  the  absence  of  Histiseus.  An 
expedition  against  Naxos  having  failed,  he 
instigated  a  revolt  against  Persia,  and 
with  the  aid  of  the  Athenians  attacked 
Sardis,  which  he  captured  and  burnt,  but 
was  shortly  afterwards  killed  at  the  siege 
of  Amphipolis. 

Aristarchus  the  Grammarian,  a  native 
of  Samothrace,  and  a  renowned  grammarian 
and  critic  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  centuries  B.C., 
was  tutor  to  the  son  of  Ptolemy  IV.,  but 
his  great  work  was  a  critical  examination  of 
the  Greek  classics,  the  present  form  of  the 
Odyssey  and  Iliad  being  attributed  to  him. 

Aristides,  a  Greek  orator  of  the  2nd 
century  B.C.,  was  a  native  of  Bithynia,  but 
settled  in  Smyrna,  where  he  taught  oratory. 

Aristides,  surnamed  The  Just,  the  son  ot 
Lysimachus,  of  a  noble  Athenian  family,  was 
one  of  the  ten  Athenian  generals  at  Mara- 
thon, and  the  next  year  was  chief  Archon. 
Though  banished  through  the  influence  and 
jealousy  of  Themistocles,  was  recalled  three 
years  later,  upon  the  invasion  of  Greece 
by  the  Persians,  and  was  present  at  the 
battles  of  Salamis  (b.c.  480)  andPlateea  (b.c. 
479),  the  victory  of  his  countrymen  being 
largely  due  to  hi'm.  It  was  principally  ow- 
ing to  his  high  reputation  for  integrity  that 
the  Confederate  States  with  two  exceptions 
appealed  to  the  Athenians  to  lead  them. 
He  died  about  408  B.C.,  in  such  poverty 
that  he  was  buried  at  the  public  expense. 

Aristides  of  Thebes,  a  Greek  painter  of 
the  4th  century  B.C.,  whose  pictures  fetched 
immense  prices. 

Aristion,  a  native  of  Athens,  and  teacher 
of  philosoi^hy  in  the  1st  century  B.C.  He 
headed  a  revolt  of  the  Athenians  against 
Rome,  and  being  appointed  general,  used  his 
power  for  purposes  of  tyranny  and  plunder. 
On  the  arrival  of  Sulla,  B.C.  87,  Aristion 
was  besieged  at  Athens  and  put  to  death. 

Aristippus,  a  Greek  philosopher,  native 
of  Cyreue,  and  pupil  of  Socrates.  He  dif- 
fered materially  from  his  great  master, 
and  founded  the  school  of  the  Cyrenaics, 
teaching  by  precept  and  example  that 
pleasure  is  the  only  end  of  action. 

Aristobulus  I.,  suraamed  Philhellene, 
high  priest  of  the  Jews,  B.C.  107 ;  assumed 
the  title  of  king,  and  defeated  Antiochua 




Cyzicenus  at  the  siege  of  Samaria.  He 
also  caused  the  death  of  his  mother,  and 
afterwards  of  his  brother  Autigouus,  who 
had  been  associated  with  him.  in  the 

Aristobulus  II.  {d.  B.C.  49),  high  priest 
and  king  of  the  Jews,  son  of  Alexander 
Janneeus,  usurped  his  brother's  throne,  but 
was  attacked  by  Pompey,  who  took  Jeru- 
salem, and  earned  him  to  Rome.  After 
various  attempts  to  regain  the  throne,  he 
died  of  poison. 

Aristobulus  of  Cassandrea,  a  Greek  his- 
torian of  the  4th  century  b.  c.  ;  one  of  the 
generals  of  Alexander  the  Great. 

Aristocles,  bom  at  Messene,  a  peripatetic 
philosopher  of  the  2nd  century,  and  author 
of  several  philosophical  works. 

Aristodemus,  a  contemporary  of  Tar- 
quinius  Superbus,  tyrant  of  Cuma  in  Cam- 
pania, and  a  brave  and  victorious  general. 
He  proclaimed  a  democratic  government, 
but  assumed  absolute  power  and  ruled  with 
great  severity. 

Aristogeiton,  an  Athenian  patriot,  famed 
in  Greek  song  as  one  of  the  assassins  of  the 
tyrannical  Hipparchus ;  he  was  captured 
and  put  to  death,  but  a  statue  was  erected 
to  his  memory  by  the  Athenians. 

Aristophanes  (6.  circa  b.c.  448),  the  cele- 
brated Greek  comic  poet,  the  contemporary 
of  Socrates,  Demosthenes,  and  Euripides, 
and  a  prolific  and  brilHant  writer  of  satirical 
plays.  For  purity  and  elegance  of  style  he  is 
unsurpassed,  and  his  works  present  a  vivid 
picture  of  Athenian  life  and  manners,  ridi- 
culing the  evils  of  the  time,  and  many  of 
the  leadhig  men,  especially  Socrates  in  T/te 
Clouds,  and  Cleon,  the  popular  favourite, 
in  The  Knights.  Of  his  fifty-four  plays 
only  eleven  remain.  Nothing  is  known  of 
his  personal  life. 

Aristophanes  of  Byzantium,  a  great  gram- 
marian and  critic  of  the  third  century  B.C., 
and  author  of  the  Greek  system  of  punc- 
tuation and  accentuation ;  he  was  superin- 
tendent of  the  library  at  Alexandria. 

Aristotile,  Bastiano  da  San  Gallo  (6. 
1481,  d.  1551),  an  Italian  painter  and  archi- 
tect; he  was  a  pupil  of  Perugino  and 
Michael  Angelo,  and  was  remarkable  for 
his  skill  in  perspective. 

Aristotle  (6.  b.c.  384,  d.  b.c.  322),  born  at 
Stagira,  in  Macedonia,  one  of  the  greatest 
intellects  that  the  world  has  kuown,  and 
founder  of  the  peripatetic  school  of  phi- 
losophy, possibly  so  called  from  its  great 
master's  habit  of  walking  up  and  down 
while  lecturing.  A  pupil  of  Plato,  who 
called  him  the  "mind"  of  his  school, 
Aristotle  became  exceedingly  proficient  in 

physics,  metaphysics,  rhetoric,  politics, 
ethics,  and  natural  history,  while  of  logic 
he  justly  claims  to  be  the  founder.  His 
fame  reached  Philip  of  Macedon,  who 
appointed  him  tutor  to  his  son,  Alexander 
the  Great,  and  when  no  longer  required  in 
that  capacity,  Aristotle  returned  to  Athens 
and  established  a  school  in  the  Lyceum. 
An  accusation  of  impiety,  and  perhaps  poli- 
tical sympath}^  with  Macedonia,  induced 
him  to  retire  to  Chalcis,  where  he  died  in  the 
sixty -third  year  of  his  age.  The  philosophj- 
of  Aristotle  has  exercised  an  immense  influ- 
ence over  the  world,  and  till  the  advent  of 
the  revival  of  learning  and  the  Reformation, 
its  power  in  Europe  was  supreme. 

Aristoxemus,  a  native  of  Tarentum  in 
the  4th  century  B.C.,  and  the  earliest  Greek 
writer  on  music  whose  works  are  extant. 
As  a  peripatetic  philosopher  he  had  a  great 

Arius  {d.  336),  theologian  and  heresiarch, 
was  a  presbyter  of  Alexandria  in  the  4th  cen- 
tury, whose  teaching  denied  the  diviaity  of 
Christ.  This  doctrine  was  pronounced  here- 
tical, and  Arius  and  his  followers  excom- 
municated, and  at  the  great  Council  of 
Nicgea  (325),  at  which  the  Emperor  Con- 
stantine  was  present,  and  Athanasius,  after- 
wards bishop  of  Alexandria,  took  a  leading 
part ;  these  decisions  were  confii-med,  and 
the  Nicene  Creed  drawn  up  for  the  future 
guidance  of  the  Church.  Arius  several 
times  applied  for  readmission  to  the  Church, 
which  was  about  to  be  granted  when  he 
died  suddenly. 

Arkharov,  Nikolai  Petrovich  (6.  1742,  d. 
1814),  a  general  in  the  Russian  army,  who, 
under  the  Emperor  Paul,  was  governor- 
general  of  St.  Petersburg, 

Arkwright,  Sir  Richard  (6.  1732,  d. 
1792),  a  Lancashire  barber,  renowned  as 
the  inventor  of  the  spinning-frame.  Of 
humble  bu-th,  he  exhibited  considerable 
mechanical  skill,  joined  with  the  greatest 
industry.  In  1767  he  attempted  to  solve 
the  problem  of  perpetual  motion,  and  soon 
after,  with  the  help  of  a  clockmaker  named 
Kay,  his  spinning  inventions  began  to  take 
shape.  He  then  entered  into  partnership 
with  a  firm  of  stocking-manufacturers,  and 
his  invention  was  patented  in  1769,  and 
though  many  difficulties  arose,  from  infringe- 
ments of  the  patent,  the  hostihty  of  the 
work-people,  and  disputes  to  his  claim  as 
the  inventor  of  his  machines,  Aikwright  was 
enabled  to  rise  from  poverty,  and  was 
chosen  to  present  a  congratula'toiy  address 
to  George  III.  in  1786,  on  which  occasion  he 
was  knighted. 

Arlaud,  Jacques  Antoine  (6.  1688,  d. 
1746),  a  Swiss  miniature  and  portrait 
paiater,  who  was  patronised  by  the  Duke  of 




Orleans.  In  1721  he  visited  England,  where 
he  was  warmly  received,  and  employed  to 
paiat  the  portrait  of  Caroline,  Princess  of 
Wales.  His  masterpiece  was  a  Leda,  \ 
copied  by  him  in  Paris,  with  which  he  ' 
refused  to  part,  and  tiually  destroyed  by 
cutting  it  t )  pieces.  Some  fragments  are 
still  preserved  in  the  public  library  at 

Arlincourt,  Charles  Victor  Prevot,Vicomte 
d'  (Jj.  178 J,  d.  18oG),  poet,  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  Napoleon  by  a  poem  entitled  Une 
Matinee  de  Charlem'ig^ne,  which  secured  for 
him  several  appointments.  On  the  restora- 
tion he  devot-d  himself  to  literature,  and 
published  many  poems  and  romances,  of 
which  Le  Solitaire  was  the  most  popular. 

Arlotto,  Mainardi  (Jb.  139o,  d.  1483), 
" Arlotto  il  Piovano,"  or,  "the  Curate,"  a 
witty  Italian  priest  of  humble  birth,  who 
travelled  largely  in  Europe ;  his  bon-mots 
have  been  collected  under  the  title  of 
Facetice  Piacecole. 

Armagnac,  Bernard,  Count  d',  a  man  of 
noble  family,  and  of  almost  absolute 
power  over  his  own  territories  in  Gascony. 
Bold  and  ambitious,  he  largely  increas  'd 
his  possessions,  and  after  the  murder 
of  the  Duke  of  Orleans  in  1407,  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  party  rivalries  of  the 
Country,  and  having  gained  possession  of 
Paris,  caused  himself  to  be  appointed  con- 
stable of  France.  His  cruelty  and  violence, 
however,  made  him  hated  by  the  people, 
who  betrayed  the  city  to  the  Duke  of  Bur- 
gundy, 1417,  and  Armagnac  was  imprisoned 
and  afterwards  massacred  by  the  mob. 

Armagnac,  George  d'  (6.  1501,  d.  1585), 
Cardinal  d' Armagnac ;  an  able  and  learned 
man,  who  was  employed  diplomatically 
by  Francis  I.  and  Charles  IX.,  and  was 
ultimately  made  archbishop  of  Avignon. 

Armagnac,  Jean  I.,  Count  of,  a  distin- 
guished French  soldier  of  the  14th  century  ; 
he  served  against  the  English,  and  also 
under  the  Black  Prince  in  Spain. 

Armand,  Pierre  Damian  (6. 1778,  d.  1855), 
an  Italian  soldier,  who  distinguished  himself 
in  the  wars  of  the  French  Republic,  serving 
under  Massena  in  1799  ;  he  was  afterwards 
engaged  in  the  Italian  struggles  for  liberty, 
and  on  his  return  to  France  was  appointed 
librarian  to  St.  Cloud. 

Armansperg,  Joseph  Ludwig  (6.  1787,  d. 
1853),  a  Bavarian  statesman,  who  as  min- 
ister of  finance  (182G — 1831)  succeeded  in 
establishing  the  financial  credit  of  his  coun- 
try. Upon  the  accession  of  Ludwig's  second 
son,  Otho,  to  the  throue  of  Greece,  Ar- 
mans]icrg  accompanied  him  as  President  of 
the  Regency  (1833),  but  was  dismissed  in 
1837,  and  retired  to  Bavaria,  where  he  died. 

Armati,  Sal  vino  {d.  1317),  a  native  of 
Florence,  said  to  have  invented  spectacles 
in  the  13th  century. 

ArmeUini,  Carlo  {h.  mrca  1780,  d.  18G3), 
an  Italian  patriot,  who  with  Mazzini  and 
Saffi  formed  the  Triumvirate  in  Rome, 
1849.  Upon  the  restoration  of  the  Pope's 
authority  he  was  driven  into  exile. 

Armfelt,  Carl  (6.  1666,  d.  1736),  a  skilful 
and  determined  Swedish  general,  who  op- 
posed the  Russian  invasions  under  Peter  the 

Armfelt,  Gustave  Mauritz  (6.  1757,  d. 
1814),  a  distinguished  Swedish  general  and 
politiciar ,  who  experienced  several  reverses 
of  fortune,  and  was  twice  c-mpelled  on 
account  of  his  intrigues  to  take  refuge  in 
Russia,  where  he  died. 

Arminius  or  Hermann  {h.  b.c.  16,  d.  a.d. 
20),  "the  deliverer  of  Germany,"  son  of  a 
chief  of  the  Cherusci,  was  sent  to  Rome  as 
a  hostage,  and  entered  the  Roman  army, 
where  he  attained  high  rank.  He,  however, 
revolted  from  Rome,  and  becoming  one  of  the 
most  powerful  leaders  of  the  German  tribes, 
defeated  and  slew  Varus,  and  for  some  time 
baffled  Germanicus,  but  was  twice  defeated 
by  the  Romans.  He  was  assassinated  by  one 
of  his  own  countr^anen. 

Arminius,  Jacobus,  Jakob  Harmensen 
(6.  1560,  d.  1609),  founder  of  the  sect 
of  Arminians.  He  studied  at  Geneva 
under  Beza,  but  his  adoption  of  the  philo- 
sophical views  of  Peter  Ramus  brought  him 
into  disrepute,  and  he  retired  to  Bale,  and 
was  ordained  minister  at  Amsterdam  (1588). 
He  was  chosen  to  defend  Beza's  doctrine  of 
predestination,  but  the  study  of  the  subject 
resulted  in  his  own  conversion.  In  spite 
of  fierce  opposition  to  his  doctrine,  in  1603 
he  was  professor  of  theology,  and  in  1606 
rector  magnificus  at  Leyden. 

Armitage,  Edward  (&.  1817),  an  historical 
and  mural  painter,  and  a  pupil  of  Paul 
Delaroche,  whom  he  assisted  in  the  famous 
Hem  icy  de.  His  first  exhibit  was  Pro- 
metheus Bound  (1842),  and  he  has  since 
won  many  prizes,  and  has  been  a  con- 
stant exhibitor  in  the  Royal  Academy  and 
elsewhere.  He  executed  two  frescoes.  The 
Thames  icith  its  Tributaries,  and  the 
Death  of  Marmion,  in  the  upper  wait- 
ing hall  of  the  Palace  of  Westminster,  as 
well  as  mural  paintings  elsewhere.  R.A. 

Armstead,  Henry  Hugh  (6.  1828),  de- 
signer, modeller,  and  chaser  in  gold, 
silver,  and  jewellery,  but  best  kno\\Ti 
as  a  sculptor.  Besides  the  marble  work  of 
the  south  and  east  sides  of  the  podium  of 
the  Albert  Memorial  in  Hyde  Park,  and 
the  four  large  bronze  figures  of  Chemistry, 




Astronomy,  Medicine,  and  Rhetoric,  he  has 
dec^igned  and  executed  many  statues  and 
decoi'ative  work  of  various  kinds.  E..A. 

Armstrong,  Sir  Alexander  (&.  1822), 
K.C.B.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  honorary  phy- 
sician to  the  Queen  and  Prince  of  Wales. 
He  was  knighted  in  1871,  and  has  written 
on  subjects  c  mnected  with  the  polar  regions, 
where  he  spent  live  c  msecutive  years,  having 
been  surgeon  of  H.M.S.  Invest ujatoi\  during 
the  discovery  of  the  north-west  passage  by 
Sir  Eobert  McClure  in  18-33-54. 

Armstrong,  John  (6.  1784,  d.  1829),  an 
eminent  physician  and  lecturer  on  medicine ; 
his  works  on  brain  fever  and  puerperal  fever 
are  especially  valuable. 

Armstrong,  Johnnie,  famous  Scottish 
freebooter,  celebrated  in  minstrelsy,  was 
put  to  death  by  James  V. 

Armstrong,  William  (Kinmount  Willie), 
a  famous  border  freebooter  of  the  16th 
century,  was  captured  by  the  English  dur- 
ing a  truce,  but  was  rescued  by  the  Scots 
under  Lord  Buccleuch,  in  the  daring  exploit 
known  as  the  "  Raid  of  CarUsle." 

Armstrong,  William  George,  Barou  (6. 
1810),  inventor  of  the  well-known  breech- 
loading  gun  adopted  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment, was  educated  for  the  law,  and  entered 
a  firm  of  solicitors,  which  he  left  in  1S46,  and 
established  the  Els  wick  Engineering  Works 
on  the  Tyne.  In  1859  he  was  knighted,  and 
appointed  chief  engineer  of  ordnance,  but 
in  1863  he  resigned  that  post,  and  retired 
to  Els  wick,  where  he  has  since  devoted 
himself  to  the  manufacture  of  ordnance. 
Created  a  peer  1887. 

Amaldo  of  Brescia,  a  monk  of 
the  12th  century,  was  banished  by  In- 
nocent II.  for  his  bold  attempts  to  reform 
.ne  lives  of  the  clergy,  and  took  refuge 
with  Abelard  and  then  at  Zurich.  On  the 
death  of  the  Pope  he  went  to  Rome,  and 
encouraged  a  revolt  against  the  temj^oral 
rule  of  the  Church  (1143-1154),  but  was 
made  prisoner  and  then  cruelly  put  to 

Arnaldus,  Yillanovanus  (Arnauld)  (6. 1240, 
d.  1313),  a  celebrated  physician  and  chemist, 
who,  in  spite  of  his  reputed  heresy,  was 
summoned  to  the  deathbed  of  Pope  Clement 
v.,  but  died  on  his  way. 

Amason,  Jon  (&.  Hof,  Iceland,  1819),  an 
eminent  historian  and  author  of  many  tales 
and  Icelandic  legends. 

Arnaud,  Franc^ois  (6.  1721,  d.  1784),  a 
French  writer  and  critic,  and  a  great 
authority  on  music,  was  one  of  the  con- 
ductors of  the  Journal  Stranger  and  Gazette 

Arnaud,  Francois  Thomas  Marie  de  Bacu- 
lard  d'  (6.  Paris,  1718,  d.  18J5),  a  man  of  pre- 
cocious intellect,  and  of  considerable  celebrity 
as  a  miscellaneous  writer.  He  was  impri- 
soned during  the  Reign  of  Terror,  but  af  ter- 
vv'ards  released. 

Arnaud,  Henri  (6.  1641,  d.  1721),  pastor 
and  leader  of  the  Vaudois  Protestants, 
whom  after  incredible  hardships  he  suc- 
ceeded in  bringing  back  to  their  native  Pied- 
montese  valleys,  just  at  the  time  when  Victor 
Amadeus  II.,  having  broken  with  France, 
was  glad  not  only  to  cease  his  persecutions, 
but  even  to  engage  their  services.  But 
thougli  he  led  a  detachment  against  the 
French,  on  the  renewal  of  peace  the  Vaudois 
were  again  driven  from  their  homes  and 
forced  to  take  shelter  with  the  Duke  of 
Wurtemburg,  where  he  spent  the  rest 
of  his  days  in  the  compilation  of  his  His- 
tory of  the  Glorious  Return. 

Arnauld,  Angelique  [h.  1624,  d.  1684), 
Abbess  of  Port  Royal,  and  niece  of  the  cele- 
brated Mere  Angelique,  was  a  woman 
of  great  piety,  learning,  and  fortitude,  and 
nobly  sustained  the  courage  of  her  nuns  un- 
der the  persecutions  to  which  they  were 

Arnauld,  Antoine  (6.  1612,  d.  1694),  sui-- 
named  "le  Grand,"  a  doctor  of  theology, 
and  member  of  the  Sorbonne,  and  a  power- 
ful advocate  of  the  Jansenists.  During 
twelve  years  of  comparative  seclusion  he 
alone,  or  with  Nicole,  Pascal,  or  Lancelot, 
composed  those  works  on  logic,  metaphysics, 
and  theology,  which  made  Port  Royal  famous, 
and  when  "  the  Peace  of  the  Church  "  was 
obtained  he  attacked  the  Calvinists,  against 
whom  he  and  Nicole  directed  their  great 
work,  Perpetuite  de  la  Foi.  In  1679  he  was 
forced  to  flee,  and  took  refuge  at  Brussels, 
where  he  died. 

Arnauld,  Jacqueline  Marie  (Mere  Angel- 
ique) (6.1591,^.  1661),  sister  of  the  preceding; 
she  was  made  abbess  of  Port  Royal  in  her 
eleventh  year,  and  was  distinguished  as  well 
for  her  kindness  and  benevolence  as  for  her 
piety,  and  the  strict  discipline  she  main- 

Arnauld,  Jeanne  Catherine  Agnes  (La  Mere 
Agnes)  (6.  1593,  d.  1671),  sister  of  the  pre- 
ceding ;  at  five  years  old  she  was  made  abbess 
of  St.  Cyr,  which  post  she  resigned  and  joined 
her  sister  at  Port  Royal,  where  she  was 
several  times  elected  abbess. 

Arnault,  Vincent  Antoine  (6.  1766,  d. 
1834),  a  French  dramatic  writer,  author  of 
the  tragedies  of  Jlarius  and  Lucrece  and 
!  other  W(n-ks.  He  escaped  from  France 
j  during  the  revolution,  was  afterwards  em- 
I  ployed  by  Bonaparte,  and  in  1883  became 
I  secretary  co  the  Acad^-mie  FrauQaise. 




Amdor  Arndt,  JohaBu  (6.  Id55,  d.  1621), 
German  theologian  and  distinguished  re- 
former, was  author  of  an  admirable  trea- 
tise 0)t  Time  Christiamtij,  and  was  finally 
appointed  superintendent-general  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  at  Zelle. 

Arne,  Cecilia  [d.  1776),  wife  of  the  follow- 
ing, whom  she  married  in  1 740.  She  was  one 
of  the  best  vocalists  of  her  day,  and  as  Miss 
Young  appeared  at  Drury  L^ine  in  1730. 

Ame,  Thomas  Augustine  {b.  London, 
1710,  d.  1778),  a  distinguished  musical 
composer,  who  relinquished  the  study 
of  law  for  that  of  music.  His  genius  first 
showed  itself  in  the  music  of  Com  !(■'<, 
1788,  and  among  other  popular  productions 
of  this  writer  is  the  well-known  Hide 
Britannia  from  The  Masque  of  Alfred,  Ar- 
taxerxes,  and  Love  in  a  Village. 

Arngrim,  Jonasen,  an  Icelandic  historian 
of  the  16th  and  17th  centuries ;  a  pupil  of 
Tycho  Brahe. 

Arngrimsson,  Eystein  {d.  1361),  an  Ice- 
landic poet,  author  of  a  poem  in  honour  of 
the  Virgin  Mary,  The  Lily,  said  to  be 
the  finest  in  the  language. 

Arnheim  or  Arnim,  George,  Baron  von 
{b.  1581,  d.  1641),  a  distinguished  general  and 
politician,  who  took  part  in  the  Thirty  Years' 
war,  serving  successively  under  Gustavus 
Adolphus,  Wallenstein,  and  the  Elector  of 
Saxony.  After  gaining  the  decisive  victory 
of  Liegnitz  (1634)  he  retu'ed  to  his  estates, 
but  was  seized  and  imprisoned  by  the  King 
of  Sweden ;  he  escaped,  however,  but  died 
soon  after. 

Arnim,  Anna  Elizabeth  von  (Bettina) 
{b.  1785,  d.  1859),  the  friend  of  Goethe,  a 
clever  but  eccentric  Gei-man  poetess  and 
writer,  who  published  in  1837  her  corre- 
spondence with  Goethe,  Correspondence  with 
a  Child. 

Arnim,  Harry  Karl  Edouard,  Count  von 
{b.  1824,  d.  1881),  a  Prussian  diplomatist, 
ambassador  at  Rome  1864,  whose  support  of 
Dr.  DoUinger,  and  resolute  opposition  to  the 
doctrine  of  Infallibility  whilst  at  Home,  in- 
duced the  government  to  bestow  upon  him 
the  title  of  count.  He  was  afterwards  sent 
as  ambassador  of  the  German  Empire  to 
Paris,  but  on  liis  recall  various  charges  in 
connection  with  his  discharge  of  the  duties 
of  that  office  were  brought  against  him,  and 
so  aggravatf  d  by  a  violent  attack  upon  the 
government  made  by  an  anonymous  writer, 
presumably  the  count  himself,  that  he 
was  ti'ied  on  a  charge  of  high  treason  and 
insolent  libel,  and  sentenced  in  absence  to 
five  years'  penal  servitude.  He  was  at  the 
time  living  in  Lausanne,  and  prudently  re- 
mained in  exile  till  his  death,  all  attempts 
at  reconciliation  Droving  futile. 

Arnim,  Ludwig  Joachim  von  {b.  1781,  d. 
1831),  an  eminent  German  poet  and  miscel- 
laneous writer,  who  in  conjunction  with 
Clemens  Brentano  produced  the  famous 
collection  of  songs  entitled  Den  Knaben 

Arnold,  Arthur  {b.  1833), politician,  author, 
and  social  reformer,  first  iDccame  prominent 
during  the  cotton  famine.  He  was  the  first 
editor  of  the  £cho,  which  under  his  manage- 
ment had  a  wide  circulation;  he  has  also 
written  several  articles  and  books,  and  was 
elected  member  for  Salford  in  1880. 

Arnold,  Benedict  (5.  1740,  d.  1801), 
American  general,  a  brave  but  unprincipled 
man.  At  fifteen  he  enlisted  in  the  English 
army,  but  soon  deserted,  and  adopted  a 
mercantile  life.  In  the  Anglo-American 
war  Arnold  took  an  extremely  active  part, 
his  skill  and  gallantry  being  especially 
exhibited  in  the  siege  of  Quebec  and  the 
victories  of  Eidgefield  and  Benis.  Mean- 
while a  party  hostile  to  him  had  been 
growing  ujp ;  his  due  promotion  was  de- 
ferred, several  serious  charges  were  brought 
against  him,  the  fortunes  of  the  Americans 
grew  worse  and  worse,  and  he  became 
affected  with  the  prevalent  spirit  of  de- 
sertion. Accordingly  he  entered  into 
negotiation  with  the  British  commander, 
and  treacherously  asked  and  obtained  the 
command  of  West  Point,  with  the  intention 
of  surrendering  it  to  the  enemy ;  the  capture 
of  Andi-e  betrayed  his  duplicity,  ancl  the 
traitor  fled  in  disgrace  to  the  English  army 
at  New  York.  Here  he  was  appointed 
brigadier -general,  and  after  serving  against 
his  countrymen,  retired  to  London. 

Arnold,  Christoph  (b.  1646,  d.  1695),  a 
German  farmer  who  devoted  his  leisure  to 
astronomy,  and  made  some  remarkably  exact 
calculations ;    he  discovered  the  comet  of 


Arnold,  Sir  Edwin,  K.C.LE.,  {b.  1832), 
journalist  and  poet,  educated  at  King's 
College,  London,  and  Oxford,  where 
he  won  tlie  Newdigate  prize  in  1852. 
He  was  for  several  years  principal 
of  the  Government  Sanscrit  college  at 
Poonah,  Bombay  Presidency,  but  resigned 
his  post  in  1861,  when  he  first  became  con- 
nected with  the  Daili/  Telegrajih,  for  which 
he  has  continued  to  write  ever  since, 
being  appointed  editor.  His  Light  of  Asia 
*(1879)  achieved  extraordinary  popularity, 
and  obtained  him  a  high  place  amongst  the 
poets  of  the  day. 

Arnold,  Duke  of  Gueldres  {b.  1410,  d. 
1473),  was  engaged  in  continual  warfare 
with  Duke  Adolphus  of  Berg,  and  his  suc- 
cessor Gerhard  V.,  who  inflicted  a  crushing 
defeat  on  him  upon  St.  Hubert's  Day,  1444. 
He  afterwards  had  much  trouble  with  his 




rebellious  son,  Adolphus,  and  finally  sold  liis 
duchy  to  Charles  the  Bold  in  1472. 

Arnold,  Johann  Gottfried  {b.  Hohenlohe, 
1773,  d.  1801),  musician  and  composer,  es- 
pecially skilled  on  the  violoncello. 

Arnold,  John  (b.  1744,  d.  1799),  an  English 
chronometrician,  inventor  of  the  detached 
escapement,  the  compensation  balance,  and 
the  cylindrical  balance- spring. 

Arnold,  Matthew  {b.  1822,  d.  1888),  eldest 
son  of  Dr.  Arnold  of  Bugby,  vi'^as  educated 
at  Winchester,  Kugby,  and  IBalliol  College, 
Oxford,  and  was  a  distinguished  critic,  poet, 
scholar,  and  theologian.  He  was  elected 
Fellow  of  Oriel  College  1845,  and  in  1851, 
after  having  been  for  some  time  private 
secretary  to  Lord  Lansdo\\Tie,  he  was  ap- 
pointed Lay  Inspector  of  Schools  under  the 
Committee  of  Council  on  Education,  in 
which  capacity  he  twice  visited  the  Con- 
tinent for  the  purpose  of  collecting  informa- 
tion, and  which  appointment  he  resigned  in 
1886.  His  poetic  activity  was  manifested  in 
early  life ;  for  ten  years  (1857-18(37)  he  held 
the  chair  of  poetry  at  Oxford,  and  amongst 
hie  productions  may  be  noted  his  Newdigate 
prize  poem  Cromwell  (1843),  The  Strayed 
Reveller,  aud  a  volume  of  New  Poems  pub- 
lished in  1869.  As  a  critic  he  holds  a  very 
high  place.  His  later  works  were  chiefly 
theological,  being  attempts  to  grapple  with 
the  supernatural  aspects  of  Christianity 
from  a  rationalistic  standpoint.  St.  Paul 
and  Protestantism  (1871),  Literature  and 
Dogma  (1873),  and  God  and  the  Bible  (1875) 
are  among  his  writings. 

Arnold,  Samuel  (b.  1740,  d.  1802),  a 
prolific  musical  composer,  who,  after  hold- 
ing vaiious  ai^pointments,  in  1793  became 
organist  of  Westminster  Abbey,  Both  his 
operas  and  his  oratorios  were  well  received, 
and  he  produced  numerous  glees,  songs,  and 
other  minor  pieces. 

Arnold  (Strutthan  von  Winckelried) ,  an 
heroic  native  of  Unterwalden,  who  sacri- 
ficed his  life  for  his  country  at  the  battle 
of  Sempach,  1386,  by  throwing  himself  on 
the  Austrian  spears  and  thus  breaking  the 
ranks  of  the  enemy. 

Arnold,  Thomas,  D.D.  {b.  1795,  d.  1842), 
was  educated  at  Winchester,  and  Corpus 
Christi  College,  Oxford.  In  1815  he  became 
Fellow  of  Oriel,  obtaining  in  that  year  the 
Chancellor's  prize  for  the  Latin  and  in  1817 
for  the  English  essay.  After  taking  holy 
orders,  he  passed  nine  years  at  Laleham, 
near  Staines,  in  literary  occupations,  and  in 
preparing  young  men  for  the  universities. 
Appointed  head  master  of  Rugby  school  in 
1828,  he  raised  that  institution  beyond  all 
precedent,  both  by  the  remarkable  success 
of  his  pupils  and  by  the  introduction  of  new 

branches  of  study  into  the  Rugby  course. 
He  was  of  the  Broad  Church  school  of 
thought,  and  a  vigorous  opposer  of  the  then 
new  Tractarian  movement.  In  1841  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  modem  history  at 
Oxford.  The  best  known  of  Dr.  Arnold's 
works  are  his  edition  of  Thucydides,  his 
History  of  Rome  (unfinished),  and  his  ser- 
mons delivered  in  the  chapel  of  Rugby 

Amolfo  di  Lapo  {b.  1232,  d.  1300), 
architect  and  sculptor,  a  pupil  of  Nicolo 
Pisano,  erected  many  fine  works  in  Florence, 
especially  the  Santa  Croce  church  and  the 

Arnot,  Hugo  (Pollock)  {h.  1749,  d.  1786),  a 
Scottish  advocate,  author  of  a  History  of 
Edinburgh,  1779 ;  he  made  also  a  valuable 
collection  of  the  celebrated  criminal  trials 
of  Scotland. 

Arnott,NeU,Dr.  {b.  1788,  d.  1874),  Scottish 
surgeon,  inventor  of  the  stove  which  bears 
his  name,  and  author  of  the  Plemcnts  oj 
Physics  and  other  kindi-ed  works. 

Amoul  or  Amulf  (6.  1040,  d.  1124),  Bene- 
dictine monk  of  Beauvais,  came  to  England 
with  Lanfranc  in  1072,  and  was  afterwards 
made  bishop  of  Rochester,  1114. 

Arnould,  Ambroise  Marie  (6.  1750,  d. 
1812),  French  writer  on  political  economy, 
opposed  the  National  Convention  of  the 
Five  Hundred.  In  1798  was  a  member  of 
the  Council  of  Ancients  and  afterwards  sup- 
ported Bonaparte,  who  made  him  chan- 
cellor of  state. 

Amould,  Jean  Francois  Mussot  (6.  1743, 
d.  1795),  French  actor,  brought  out  numer- 
ous dramatic  pieces,  and  a  greatly  improved 
combination  of  ballet  and  pantomime. 

Arnould,  Madelaine  Sophie  {h.  Paris,  1740^ 
d.  1803),  singer  and  actress,  made  her  debut 
in  1757.     Her  salons  were  celebrated. 

Amulf  or  Amoul  {d.  899),  Duke  of  Carin- 
thia.  King  (887)  and  finally  Emperor  of 
Germany,  was  the  natural  son  of  Carlomau, 
King  of  Bavaria.  He  displayed  the  highest 
military  abilities,  overran  Lombardy,  aud 
afterward  sacked  Rome  (896). 

Aromatari,  Giuseppe  (6.  1586,  d.  1660), 
ItaUan  physician  and  naturalist. 

Aroudj  [h.  1473,  d.  1518),  the  first  Turk- 
ish  sovereign  of  Algiers,  for  some  years  a 
private,  afterward  entered  the  service  of 
the  Bey  of  Tunis,  and  was  invited  to  the 
assistance  of  the  Algerines.  Entering  the 
town,  Aroudj  caused  the  governor  to  be 
killed  and  himself  proclaimed  king,  but 
was  soon  afterwards  slain  in  an  encounter 
with  the  Spaniards, 




Arpad  {h.  869,  d.  907),  son  and  successor 
of  the  Magyar  chief,  Sahnutz  or  Ahnus, 
who  invaded  Hungary.  Ai-pad  extended 
his  conquests,  and  was  recognised  as  king 
of  Hungary,  and  thus  became  foxmder  of 
the  dynasty  of  the  Arpades. 

Arpino,  Giuseppe  Cesare,  Cavaliere  de  (6. 
1560,  d.  1640),  studied  under  Eoncalli  and 
Muziano,  and  became  the  first  painter  at 
Kome,  and  was  patronised  by  Henry  IV.  of 
France  and  Clement  VIII.  Among  his  pic- 
tures are  The  Ascension  at  San  Giovanni  in 
Laterano,  T/ie  Rape  of  the  Sabines,  and  The 
Combat  of  the  Iloratii. 

Ar-radhi  Billali  (6.  909,  d.  940),  twentieth 
caliph  of  the  Abbasides,  succeeded  in  934, 
but  the  administration  was  usurped  by 
Bahkam,  under  the  title  of  Chief  of  the 

Ar-rasliid,  Abu  Mohammed  Abd-1-Wahed 
II.  {d  1242),  an  African  sultan  of  the 
dynasty  of  the  Almohades  in  the  13th  cen- 
tury, attacked  and  defeated  Yahya  Annasir, 
and  took  Morocco ;  for  his  cruelty  he  was 
driven  from  his  throne,  while  Yahya  was 
proclaimed  sultan,  but  shortly  afterward 
the  latter  was  defeated  and  slain,  and  Ar- 
rashid  regaining  his  throne,  enjoyed  a  peace- 
ful reign. 

Arrhenuis,  Clas  {h.  1627,  d.  1695),  Swedish 
historian  and  professor  of  logic  and  meta- 
physics at  the  university  of  Upsala. 

ArrMdaeus  {d.  b.c.  317),  natural  sou  of 
Philip  of  Macedon,  on  the  death  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great  was  proclaimed  King  of 
Macedon.  Roxana  claimed  the  throne  for 
her  son  Alexander  IV.  ;  Arrhidaus  and  his 
wife  Eurydice  were  made  prisoners,  and  put 
to  death  by  Olympias. 

Arriaga,  Juan  Chrisostome  (6.  1808,  d. 
182o),  Spanish  composer  and  violinist;  his 
career  was  terminated  by  a  premature 

Arrianus,  Flavins,  Governor  of  Cappa- 
docia  in  the  reign  of  Hadrian,  but  remem- 
bered chiefly  for  his  numerous  works  of 
history,  philosophy,  and  travels. 

Arribas,  Pablo  Antonio  (6.  1771,  d.  1828), 
Spanish  lawyer,  procurator-general  of  the 
Alcades  del  Corte  under  Charles  IV.,  took 
office  under  Joseph  Bonaparte,  but  on  the 
accession  of  Ferdinand  VII.  retired  to 
France,  where  he  died. 

Arrig-hi  de  Casanova,  Giovanni,  Duke  of 
Padua  (6.  1778,  d.  1853),  a  general  of 
Napoleon,  served  in  Egypt  and  Italy,  and 
almost  all  Xapoleon's  wars,  ar.d  was  made 
Governor  of  Corsica.  After  the  final  abdi- 
cation of  Xapoleou  he  was  banished  from 
France,  but  allowed  to  return  in  1820, 

Arrigoni,  Carolo  {d.  circa  1743),  Floren- 
tine musician  and  composer,  and  one  of  the 
most  skilful  lutists  of  liis  age. 

Arrowsmitli,  John  (6.  1790,  d.  1873),  geo- 
grapher and  chartologist,  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society, 
whose  gold  medal  he  received  in  1863. 

Arsaces  I.,  founder  of  the  Parthian  Em- 
pire and  the  dynasty  of  the  Arsacidse. 
Varying  accounts  are  given  of  his  invasion 
of  Parthia,  and  he  is  said  to  have  founded 
the  city  of  Dora. 

Arsaces  II.  (Tiridates),  brother  of  the 
preceding,  tAvice  defeated  Seleucus  Calli- 
nicus,  and  extended  his  authority  over  the 
whole  of  Hyrcania. 

Arsaces  III.  (Artabanus  I.),  son  and  suc- 
cessor (B.C.  217)  of  the  preceding,  invaded 
Media,  but  was  repulsed,  and  peace  con- 
cluded B.C.  210. 

Arsaces  IV.  (Priapatius),  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, reigned,  according  to  Justin,  for 
fifteen  years  early  in  the  2nd  century  B.C. 

Arsaces  V.  (Phraates  I.),  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, conquered  the  Mardi,  and  left  iis 
throne  to  his  brother. 

Arsaces  VI.  (Mithridates  I.),  a  brave 
and  able  prince,  who  extended  his  domi- 
nions from  the  Caucasus  to  the  Euphrates. 

Arsaces  VII.  (Phraates  II.),  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  victorious  over  Antiochus 
VII.,  but  was  himself  defeated  and  slain  by 
some  Scythian  rebels. 

Arsaces  VIII.  (Artabanus  II.),  son  of 
Arsaces  IV.  and  nephew  of  the  preceding, 
whom  he  succeeded,  was  mortally  wounded 
whilst  repelling  a  Scythian  invasion. 

Arsaces  IX.  (Mithridates  II.),  surnamed 
"the  Great,"  son  of  the  preceding,  first 
established  poHtical  relations  with  Rome. 

Arsaces  X.,  supposed  to  have  been  a 
son  of  Arsaces  V.,  and  the  same  as 

Arsaces  XI,  (Sanatroeces),  after  many 
years  of  exile,  was  restored  to  his  throne  by 
the  Scythians  when  eighty  years  old  {circa 
B.C.  77). 

Arsaces  XII.  (Phraates  III.)  (fZ.  b.c.  60), 
son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he  succeeded 
B.C.  70.  He  refused  to  take  part  in  Arme- 
nian wars  against  Rome,  and  after  ten  years 
was  murdered  by  his  sons,  Mithridates  and 

Arsaces  XIII.  (Mithridates  III.)  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  but  was  expelled  and  put 
to  death  by  his  brother  Orodes. 

Arsaces  XIV    (Orodes   I.)    [d.   b.c.  37), 




brother  of  the  preceding,  defeated  the 
Romans  under  Crassus,  and  sent  a  large 
army  across  the  Euphrates  and  overran 
Syria.  He  was  murdered  by  his  sou 
Phraates,  whom  he  had  associated  with 
himself  in  the  government. 

Arsaces  XV.  (Phraates  IV.)  (d.  a.d.  4), 
son  of  the  preceding,  began  his  reign  by 
murdering  his  father,  his  thirty  brothers, 
and  his  own  grown-up  son.  He  was  success- 
ful in  repulsing  Antony  and  in  crushing  a 
rebellion,  but  was  at  last  poisoned  by  his 
wife  Thermusa  and  her  son. 

Arsaces  XVL  (Phraataces)  emulated  the 
crimes  of  his  father,  and  with  his  mother 
was  put  to  death  by  the  people,  though 
Josephus  says  he  was  only  expelled. 

Arsaces  XVII.  (Orodes  II.)  was  elected 
by  the  peoi:)le  as  successor  to  the  preceding, 
but  met  a  violent  death  a  few  months  after 
his  accession. 

Arsaces  XVIII.  (Vonones)  (d.  a.d.  19),  a 
son  of  Phraates  IV.,  who  had  spent  some 
time  in  Rome  as  a  hostage,  and  there  con- 
tracted Roman  habits  and  customs,  which 
made  him  hated  by  the  people.  These 
offered  the  throne  to  Artabanus,  w'hUe 
Vonones  was  elected  to  the  vacant  throne 
of  Armenia  (a.d.  16),  but  was  soon  after 
removed  and  slain  by  order  of  Germanicus. 

Arsaces  XIX.  (Artabanus  III.)  succeeded 
to  the  throne  a.d.  16,  and  on  the  death  of 
Germanicus  seized  also  the  government  of 
Armenia  for  his  son ;  he  was  twice  exjielled 
from  the  throne  and  as  often  restored. 

Arsaces  XX.  (Gotarzes),  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, put  to  death  his  brother  Artabanus 
and  his  family,  and  other  cruelties  provoked 
a  revolt  in  favour  of  Bardanes,  and  Gotarzes 
was  forced  to  retire  to  Hyrcania.  On  the 
death  of  Bardanes  he  again  contested  the 
throne,  this  time  with  Meherdates,  whom  he 

Arsaces  XXI.  (Bardanes)  {d.  ad.  47), 
brother  of  the  preceding.  His  cruelty  pro- 
voked his  assassination. 

Arsaces  XXII.  (Vonones  II.),  Satrap  of 
Media  and  successor  to  the  preceding. 

Arsaces  XXIII.  (Vologeses  T.)  (d.  a.d.  90), 
placed  his  brothers,  Pacorus  and  Tiridates, 
on  the  thrones  of  Media  and  Ai-meuia,  and 
defeated  Partus,  the  Roman  general,  but 
was  afterward  on  terms  of  friendship  with 
Vespasian  and  Titus. 

Arsaces  XXIV.  (Pacorus),  son  and  suc- 
cessor of  the  preceding,  ruled  for  about 
twenty  years. 

Arsaces  XXV.  (Chosroes)  (d.  circa  B.C. 
122),   brother    of   the    preceding,   invaded 

Armenia,  but  was  defeated  by  the  Emperor 
Trajan  and  driven  from  his  throne,  which, 
however,  he  regained  on  the  death  of  that 

Arsaces  XXVI.  (Vologeses  II.)  {d.  B.C. 
189),  son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded, in  161  made  war  with  Rome,  but 
having  been  defeated  by  Cassius  a  peace 
was  arranged  which  lasted  till  his  death. 

Arsaces  XXVII.  (Vologeses  III.),  suc- 
ceeded his  father  a.d.  189,  and  engaged  in 
wars  with  Rome. 

Arsaces  XXVIII.  (Artabanus  IV.)  was  in- 
volved in  a  war  with  Rome,  and  afterward 
with  Persia,  and  was  captured  and  put  to 
death  by  Artaxerxes. 

Arsaces  I.,  King  of  Armenia,  son  of  Ar- 
saces XIX.,  by  whom  he  was  placed  on  the 
throne  a.d.  35,  but  was  soon  after  murdered 
through  the  instrumentality  of  Mithridates. 

Arsaces  II.  was  placed  on  the  throne  by 
his  brother,  Arsaces  XXVIII.,  in  a.d.  222, 
and  reigned  nearly  forty  years. 

Arsaces  III.  {d.  a.d.  370),  the  son  and 
successor  of  Tiridates  III. ,  was  defeated  in 
a  war  with  Sapor,  King  of  Persia,  who  im- 
prisoned him.  He  was  slain  by  a  faithful 
servant  at  his  otvti  request. 

Arsaces  IV.  (d.  a.d.  389)  lost  much  of 
his  territory  to  Theodosius  the  Great,  and 
Sapor  III. ,  but  retained  the  western  part. 

Arsenius,  Greek  scholar  and  philologist 
of  the  17th  century,  attempted  church 
reforms  in  Russia,  which  caused  his  banish- 
ment in  1649  as  a  heretic,  but  was  after- 
ward recalled. 

Arsenius,  Patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
born  in  early  part  of  13th  century  (d.  1273), 
in  1259  was  appointed  by  the  emperor, 
Theodore  Lascaris  II.,  joint  guardian  with 
George  Muzalon  of  his  son,  John  Lascaris, 
On  the  death  of  Muzalon  Arsenius  was  in- 
duced to  admit  Michael  Palaeologus  to  co- 
guardianship,  and  that  crafty  man  soon 
assumed  the  purple,  and  put  out  the  eyes 
of  the  young  prince.  Arsenius  then  ex- 
communicated him,  when  Michael  retaliated 
by  deposing  the  prelate  and  banishing  him 
to  the  island  of  Marmora. 

Arsenius,  Saint  (6.  Rome,  354,  d.  449),  a 
pious  ascetic,  who  spent  forty  years  in  se- 
clusion and  abstinence  in  the  desert  of 
Scethis,  in  Idbya,  and  at  Troy  in  Egypt 
where  he  died. 

Arsenne,  Louis  Charles  (b.  Paris,  1790,  d. 
1855),  a  French  religious  painter,  author  of 
a  manual  on  painting  and  sculj^ture.  His 
best  known  pictures  are  the  Moli/  Women  at 
the  Tomb  of  Christ,  and  Jesus  in  the  Garden, 




Arslan  (Abu-1-Modhaffer  Zein-ed-diu) 
(cL  1172),  Sultan  of  Persia  and  nephew  and 
successor  of  Soliman. 

Arslan  Shah,  fifth  sultan  of  the  Seljuk 
dynasty  of  Kerman,  an  able  prince,  enjoyed 
a  long  and  prosperous  reign. 

Artabanus,  a  Hyrcanian,  a  captain  of  the 
body-guard  of  Xerxes,  endeavoured  to 
secure  the  throne  for  himself,  and  slew- 
Xerxes  and  Darius,  but  was  himself  slain 
while  attempting  the  Hf  e  of  Artaxerxes. 

Artabazus,  a  Persian  general,  Satrap  of 
Western  Asia,  who  served  with  distinction 
under  Artaxerxes  II.,  but  obstinately  re- 
volted from  Artaxerxes  III.  However,  after 
having  been  twice  defeated  and  pardoned, 
he  became  a  loyal  partisan  of  the  throne, 
and  was  rewarded  by  Alexander  with  the 
satrapy  of  Bactria. 

Artaphernes,  Satrap  of  Sardis,  son  of 
Hystaspes  and  brother  of  Darius,  several 
times  assisted  the  Athenians,  and  in  the 
government  of  the  troublesome  province  of 
Ionia  showed  himself  both  wise  and 

Artasires,  King  of  Armenia ;  his  cruel  and 
vicious  government  provoked  a  revolt,  and 
he  was  deposed  a.d.  428. 

Artaud  (Artaldus)  (d.  961),  a  Benedictine 
monk  of  the  10th  centuiy,  who  was  made 
Archbishop  of  Kemis.  He  was  compelled 
to  abdicate  by  Heribert,  Count  of  Verman- 
dois,  but  afterwards  restored. 

Artavasdes  (Ardawazt)  {d.  b.c,  31),  suc- 
ceeded his  father,  Tigranes,  to  the  throne  of 
Greater  Armenia  B.C.  36.  He  deserted  his 
ally,  Antony,  when  invading  Parthia,  who 
retaliated  by  enticing  him  into  his  camp, 
and  carrying  him  to  Alexandi'ia,  where  he 
was  put  to  death. 

Artavasdes  (Curopalates) ,  Emperor  of 
Constantinople,  son-in-law  of  Constantino 
v.,  headed  the  revolt  of  the  orthodox 
Christians,  and  was  proclaimed  emperor  at 
Constantinople.  He  was,  however,  besieged 
by  Constantine,  who  took  the  city  and  put 
Artavasdes  to  death. 

Artavasdes,  King  of  Media  (d.  b.c.  21), 
was  continually  at  war  with  Armenia,  and 
was  afterward  made  prisoner  by  Artaxias, 
but  recovered  his  liberty. 

Artavasdes  II.,  King  of  Armenia,  was 
placed  on  the  throne  by  Augustus  B.C.  6, 
but  expelled  by  his  own  people. 

Artavasdes  III.,  King  of  Armenia,  joined 
Sapor  I.  in  his  war  with  the  Romans 
A.D.  260. 

Makrokeir,  KLug  of  Persia  B.C.  465,  quelled 
an  Egyptian  revolt  in  456,  but  was  defeated 
by  the  Athenians  449. 

Artaxerxes  II.  (6.  455,  d.  362  b.c)  (Mne- 
mon),  King  of  Persia,  succeeded  his  father, 
Darius  II.,  B.C.  405.  At  the  battle  of 
Ciruaxa  he  crushed  a  revolt  of  his  brother 
Cyrus,  assisted  bj'  ten  thousand  Greeks.  He 
also  engaged  in  wars  with  the  Greeks,  with 
Cyprus,  and  with  Egypt,  while  his  last  days 
were  distuibed  by  the  misconduct  of  his 
son  Darius. 

Artaxerxes  III.,  or  Ochus  {d.  b.c.  339), 
son  and  successor  of  the  preceding,  to  secure 
his  position  put  the  rest  of  his  family  to 
death,  and  after  a  troubled  reign  was 
poisoned  by  his  eunuch  Bagoas. 

Artaxias  I.,  or  Artaxes,  a  general  of 
Antiochus  the  Great,  on  whose  defeat  (b.c. 
190)  he  set  up  an  independent  kingdom  in 
Armenia,  and  built  its  capital,  Artaxias. 
He  was  conquered  by  Antiochus  IV.  (b.c. 
165)  and  died  shortly  afterwards. 

Artaxias  II.,  King  of  Armenia  (d.  B.C.  20), 
was  di'iven  from  his  throne  by  Antony,  but 
with  the  aid  of  the  Parthians  regained  it, 
and  afterwards  defeated  the  Medes. 

Artaxias  III.,  King  of  Armenia  {d.  circa 
A.D.  35),  was  placed  on  the  throne  by  Ger- 
manicus  (a.d.  18). 

Arteaga  y  Alfaro,  Matias  {^d.  1704), 
Spanish  paiuter  and  engraver,  pupil  of 
Valdez,  founder  of  the  Academy  of  Seville. 

Artedi,  Peter  (6.  1705,  d.  1735),  Swedish 
naturalist,  a  fellow  student  of  Linnaeus. 
His  works  were  edited  and  published  by 

Artemidorus,  Daldianus,  a  learned  Ephe- 
sian  of  the  2nd  century,  author  of  a  celebrated 
book  on  dreams  entitled  Oneirocritica. 

Artemidorus  of  Ephesus,  a  geographer 
of  the  1st  century  B.C.,  of  whose  Avork 
Periplus  only  fragments  are  extant. 

Artemisia,  Queen  of  Halicarnassus  in 
Caria,  was  one  of  the  allies  of  Xerxes  at  the 
battle  of  Salamis  B.C.  480,  where  she  fought 
with  courage  and  dexterity. 

Artemisia,  Queen  of  Halicarnassus,  wife 
and  successor  of  Mausolus,  to  whose  mem- 
ory she  erected  a  splendid  monument,  which 
has  given  to  similar  erections  the  name  of 

Artemius  (d.  362),  a  Roman  commander 
in  Egypt  under  Constantine  and  Julian, 
who  is  named  both  as  a  Christian  martyr 
and  a  tyrant.  He  was  put  to  death  by 

Artaxerxes    I.    {d.  b.o.  425),   sumamed         Artemon,  a  heresiarch  of  the  3rd  century 




who  denied  the  divinity  of  Christ ;  his  fol- 
lowers were  called  Artemonites. 

Arteveld,  Jacob  van  {d.  1345),  popular 
Flemish  leader  in  the  14th  century,  assisted 
Edward  III.  in  his  French  wars,  and  for 
nine  years  was  practically  ruler  of  Flanders. 
He  determined  to  convert  his  country  into 
a  kingdom,  and  offered  the  crown  to  the 
Prince  of  Wales,  which  led  to  a  tumult  iu 
which  he  was  slain. 

Arteveld,  Philip  van  [d.  1382),  son  of  the 
preceding,  headed  a  revolt  of  the  people  of 
Ghent  against  Count  Louis  II.  of  Flanders, 
and  though  victorious  at  Bruges  was  de- 
feated and  slain  at  the  decisive  victory  of 

Arthur,  the  real  or  fabulous  King  of  Bri- 
tain and  favourite  hero  of  romance,  probably 
flourished  at  the  beginning  of  the  6th  century 
and  ruled  over  the  south-western  portion  of 
the  island.  He  is  said  to  have  gained  twelve 
great  victories  over  the  Anglian  invaders; 
but  success  abroad  was  accompanied  by 
treachery  at  home,  where  his  nephew 
Modred  seduced  Queen  Guinevere  and 
raised  the  standard  of  rebellion.  At  Cam- 
Ian  was  fought  that  battle  round  which  ro- 
mance has  so  thickly  gathered,  and  ia  which 
Arthur  was  slain. 

Arthur,  Chester  Allan  {h.  1830,  d.  1886), 
twenty-first  president  of  the  United  States, 
took  a  leading  part  in  the  Civil  war,  and 
from  1871-1878  was  collector  of  the  port  of 
New  York  city.  When  Garfield  was 
elected  president  he  was  vice-president, 
and  on  the  former's  assassination  succeeded 
to  the  presidency. 

Arthur,  Timothy  Shay  (6.  1809,  d.  1885), 
an  American  vsriter  who  first  became  known 
in  the  literary  world  as  the  editor  of  the 
Athenian.  He  wrote  many  tales,  chiefly 
in  support  of  temperance  or  some  other 
moral  trait;  of  his  two  hundred  volumes 
more  than  half  have  been  republished  in 

Arthur  I.,  Duke  of  Brittany  (6.  1187,  d. 
1203),  son  of  Geoffrey,  the  third  son  of  Henrj^ 
II.  of  England,  and  on  the  death  of  Richard 
I.  next  heir  to  the  English  crown,  which 
however  was  seized  by  Henry's  fifth  son 
John,  who  imprisoned  and  put  him  to 

Arthur  XL,  Duke  of  Brittany  (&.  1262,  d. 
1312),  son  of  John  II.  and  Beatrice  of 

Arthur  III,  Duke  of  Brittany  (&.  1393,  d. 
1456),  constable  of  France  and  one  of  the 
ablest  captains  of  his  age,  was  made  prisoner 
at  Agincourt,  and  carried  to  London.  In 
1456  he  succeeded  his  nephew  Pierre  to  the 
Duchy  of  Brittany. 

Artiga,  Don  Francisco  d',  a  Spanish 
painter  of  the  17th  century,  was  a  native 
of  Huesca. 

Artigas,  Fernando  Jose  (6.  1760,  d.  1826), 
first  a  smuggler  in  Monte  Video,  afterward 
a  prominent  figure  in  the  revolution,  in 
winch  he  was  for  a  time  paramount,  but 
in  1820  his  fortune  turned  and  he  fled 
to  Paraguay,  where  he  remained  till  his 

Artois,  Jacques  Jan  van  {h.  1613,  d.  1665), 
a  Belgian  landscape  painter  of  great  merit. 

Artot,  Joseph  {h.  1815,  d.  1845),  Belgian 
violinist,  who  at  seven  years  old  astonished 
Europe  by  his  proficiency;  he  also  visited 

Arundel,  Richard,  Lord,  a  partisan  of  the 
Stuarts  in  the  Civil  war,  took  part  iu  many 
battles,  and  shared  with  his  father  the 
governorship  of  Pendennis  Castle  ;  after  the 
Restoration  he  was  raised  to  the  peerage. 

Arundel,  Thomas,  first  Lord  Arimdel  of 
Wardour,  distinguished  himself  in  the  war 
with  Hungary  and  was  made  a  count  of  the 
Holy  Roman  Empire  by  Rudolf  II. ;  he  was 
raised  to  the  peerage  in  1605. 

Arundel,  Thomas,  Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury (6. 1353,  d.  1413),  second  son  of  Robert 
Fitzalan,  Earl  of  Arundel;  in  1388  was 
translated  from  Ely  to  York,  and  in  1396 
to  Canterbury;  in  1397  he  was  charged 
with  high  treason  and  banished  by  Richard 
II.,  but  adopted  the  cause  of  Henry  TV.,  and 
thus  on  the  accession  of  that  monarch 
secured  his  own  restoration.  He  was  a 
determined  opponent  of  the  Lollards,  and 
was  mainly  instrumental  in  procuring  the 
statute  De  heretico  comburendo. 

Arvidsson,  Truls  (&.  1680,  d.  1705),  copper- 
plate engraver  of  Sweden,  who  was  con- 
versant with  man}''  European  and  Oriental 
languages.  He  proposed  to  publish  what  he 
considered  the  original  music  of  the  Psalms 
of  David,  but  died  after  completing  the  fii'st 

Arvleux,  Laurent  d'  {&.  1635,  d.  1702), 
French  Oriental  traveller  and  linguist, 
whose  researches  threw  much  light  on  the 
customs  and  literature  of  the  East. 

Aryabhatta  or  Arjabahr,  Hindoo  mathe- 
matician of  the  1st  century,  the  earliest 
writer  among  his  countrymen  on  algebra 
and  on  astronomy,  in  which  subject  his  ideas 
were  far  in  advance  of  his  age. 

Aiysdaghes  or  Aristakes,  Saiat  (d.  389), 
Patriarch  of  Armenia  in  the  3rd  century, 
and  son  of  St.  Gregory.  After  many  years 
spent  in  ascetic  seclusion  he  was  called  to 
the  government  of  the  Church.     He  was 




murdered   by  a  chief    -whom  he  had  ad- 

Arzachel,  Abraham,  astronomer,  a  native 
of  Toledo,  lived  in  the  11th  century,  and 
attained  great  renown. 

Asa,  son  of  Abijah,  and  third  'King  of 
Judah,  restored  the  worship  of  Jehovah, 
and  with  it  the  prosperity  of  his  country. 
He  defeated  the  invader  Zerah,  mth  great 
loss,  and  compelled  Baasha,  King  of  Israel, 
to  withdraw  from  Ramah. 

Asadi  of  Tus,  chief  poet  of  Mahmud  of 
Ghizni  in  the  10th  century,  and  author  of 
Gushtasp  Xama,  and  other  poems. 

Asam,  Cosmos  Damian  {d.  1739),  a  distin- 
guished fresco-painter,  a  native  of  Bavaria, 
studied  at  Rome. 

Asam,  Egid,  brother  of  the  preceding, 
eminent  as  a  sculptor  and  worker  in  stucco, 
wrought  in  conjunction  with  Cosmos ; 
many  of  their  works  are  at  Munich. 

Asan  I.,  King  of  Bulgaria,  a  powerful 
chieftain  of  the  12  th  century,  who  with 
his  brother  Peter  secured  the  independence 
of  their  country ;  he  was  iDoisoned  after  a 
reign  of  nine  years. 

Asan  II.  {d,  1241) ,  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
engaged  for  seven  years  in  a  struggle  with 
the  usurper  Vorylas,  was  at  length  suc- 
cessful, and  also  conquered  a  great  part  of 
Macedonia  and  Thrace. 

Asan  III.,  last  King  of  Bulgaria  of  the 
Asanian  dynasty,  after  a  reign  of  two 
years  was  dethroned  by  Tesher,  and  fled  to 
Constantinople,  where  he  died. 

Asbury,  Francis  (6.  1745,  d.  1816),  the 
"Pioneer  Bishop,"  an  English  Methodist 
preacher  who  undertook  an  evangelistic 
mission  to  America  in  1771  by  the  wish  of 
John  Wesley.  In  1784  he  was  ordained 
Bishop  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
of  America.  Thenceforth  his  life  was 
devoted  with  untiring  energy  to  the  organ- 
isation and  extension  of  that  church. 

Ascanius,  the  son  of  ^neas,  the  founder 
of  Alba  Longa,  and  reputed  ancestor  of  the 
Julian  family  in  Rome. 

Ascham,  Robert  (6.  1515,  d.  1568),  who 
Avas  educated  at  Cambridge,  was  among  the 
first  to  introduce  the  study  of  Greek,  and 
was  also  eminent  as  a  Latin  writer.  He 
directed  the  studies  of  Prince  Edward  and 
of  Princess  Elizabeth,  and  became  Latin 
secretary  to  King  Edward.  Although  a 
Protestant,  he  held  the  same  office  to  Queen 
Mary.  He  wrote  upon  archery,  his  favourite 
pastime,  upon  the  affairs  of  Germany,  and 
a  treatise  on  education  of  remarkable  vigour 
and  accuracy. 

Aschback,  Joseph  (6;  Nassau  1801,  d. 
1882),  German  historian,  held  the  chairs  of 
history  at  Frankfort  and  at  Bonn,  and  was 
author  of  histories  of  the  West  Goths,  the 
Emperor  Sigismund,  and  the  Iberian  Penin- 
sula under  the  dominion  of  the  Almoravides, 
and  the  Almohades. 

Asclepiades,  Bithynus,  an  eminent  Greek 
physician  of  the  1st  century  B.C.,  lived  in 
Rome,  where  he  enjoyed  an  extraordinary 
reputation.  Fragments  of  his  works  still 

AsClepiodorus,  one  of  the  great  painters 
of  Greece,  was  a  native  of  Athens,  and  a 
contemporary  of  Apelles. 

Asdrubal.     \_See  Hasdrubal.] 

Asellio,  Gaspare  {b.  1581,  d.  1626),  a 
noted  physician  of  Cremona,  and  professor 
of  anatomy  at  Pa\^a. 

Asellio,  Publius  Sempronius,  a  military 
tribune,  who  served  under  Scipio  Africanus 
at  the  siege  of  Numantia,  B.C.  133,  and  wrote 
a  history  of  the  war. 

Asfandiyar,  or  Asfundiyar,  a  Persian 
hero  of  the  5th  century  B.  c. ,  whose  history 
is  largely  mythical.  The  son  of  Darius 
Hystaspes,  he  is  said  to  have  introduced  the 
religion  of  Zoroaster,  and  by  his  prowess  to 
have  kept  in  check  the  hostile  Tartar  king 
Arjasp.  Jealous  of  his  influence,  Darius 
imprisoned  him,  but  the  inroads  of  Arjasp 
compelled  his  release,  and  Asfandiyar  then 
commenced  a  series  of  brilliant  victories, 
only  terminated  by  his  death  in  battle. 

Asfeld,  Claude  Francois  Bidal,  Marquis  d' 
(6.  1667,  d.  1743),  a  distinguished  French 
soldier,  defended  Namur  against  William 
III.  of  England,  and  served  in  Spain,  Italy, 
and  Germany,  but  after  the  peace  of  Vienna, 
1735,  retired  to  Strasburg,  of  which  city  he 
was  appointed  governor. 

AsgiU,  John  (p.  circa  1658,  d.  1738),  a 
barrister  and  religious  writer  whose  eccentric 
views  made  considerable  stir,  aud  caused 
him  to  be  expelled  from  the  House  of  Com- 
mons.    He  died  in  the  Fleet  prison. 

Ash,  John,  M.D.  (&.  1723,  d.  1798),  an 
eminent  physician  who  practised  in  Bir- 
mingham and  London.  He  was  the  founder 
of  the  "Eumelian"  ("well-ashed")  Club, 
of  which  his  friends  Johnson  and  Reynolds 
were  members. 

Ashary  {d.  940),  a  celebrated  Mussulman, 
founder  of  the  sect  of  the  Asharites,  who 
affirm  the  actions  of  t-he  Almighty  to  be 
circumscribed  by  immutable  laws.  He  died 
at  Bagdad. 

Ashbumliam,  John  (6.  1604,  d.  1671),  an 
adherent  of  the  Stuarts  in  the  Civil  wars. 




He  was  a  member  of  the  Long  Parliameut, 
aud  iu  1647  only  escaped  arrest  by  fleeing  to 
France,  where  he  joined  the  queen.  He 
was  afterwards  suspected  of  infidelity  in 
connection  witli  the  surrender  of  the  king  to 
Colonel  Hammond,  and  his  principles  were 
the  cause  of  his  being  twice  imprisoned.  On 
the  Restoration  he  was  appointed  groom  of 
the  bed-chamber  to  Charles  II. 

Ashburton,  Alexander  Baring,  Baron  {b. 
1774,  d.  1818),  son  of  Sir  F.  Baring,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  headship  of  the  great 
financial  firm  in  1810,  was  president  of  the 
Board  of  Trade  in  Peel's  ministry  in  1834, 
and  in  1842  negotiated  the  Ashburton  treaty 
with  the  United  States. 

Ashbury,  Joseph  (&.  1638,  d.  1720),  a 
celebrated  actor,  was  originally  in  the 
anny,  and  began  his  stage  career  as  an 
amateur,  but  encouraged  by  his  success, 
engaged  a  company,  and  opened  the  theatre 
in  Smock  Alley,  Dublin,  which  he  conducted 
with  success  till  his  death. 

Ashe,  Andi-ew  (6.  1758,  d.  1838),  a  cele- 
brated flute -player  and  an  excellent  per- 
foimer  on  the  violin.  He  studied  in  Hol- 
land, and  performed  both  in  Dublia  and 

Ashe,  St.  George  (6.  1658,  d.  1717),  vice- 
chancellor  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and 
tutor  to  Dean  Swift,  in  whose  Tripos  he 
is  represented  by  ''  Saiuty  Ashe."  During 
the  disturbances  of  the  reign  of  James  II. 
he  escaped  abroad,  but  relumed  to  Ireland 
after  the  Act  of  Settlement,  and  was 
appointed  to  the  bishoprics  of  Cloyne, 
Clogher,  and  Derry. 

Ashik  (&.1518,  d.  1571),  a  Turkish  poet, 
patronised  by  Soliman  II.  and  Selim  II. ; 
he  wrote  more  than  four  hundred  biogra- 
phies of  other  poets  of  his  own  race. 

Ashmole,  Elias  (6.  1617,  d.  1692),  astrolo- 
ger and  antiquary,  held  the  appointment  of 
Windsor  Herald,  and  published  the  Historij 
of  the  Order  of  the  Garter.  He  left  many 
works,  and  presented  to  the  University  of 
Oxford  his  valuable  collection  of  coins, 
specimens, 'and  manuscripts. 

Ashmun,  Jehudi  (&.  1794,  d.  1828),  Ameri- 
can philanthropist,  founder  of  the  colony  of 

Ashraf,  the  second  Afghan  King  of 
Persia,  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1725,  but 
was  defeated  and  slain  by  Nadir  Shah. 

Ashworth,  Caleb,  D.D.  {b.  1722,  d.  1775), 
a  dissenting  minister  of  great  learning  and 
piety,  and  master  of  the  Academy  at 
Daventry.  He  was  author  of  a  Hebrew 
grammar,  and  a  treatise  on  trigonometry. 

Asioli,    Bonifazio    (6.    1769,    d.    1832), 

musical  composer,  worked  at  Correggio, 
Venice,  and  Milan,  where  he  was  maestro 
di  capella. 

Asjadi,  Persian  poet  of  the  11th  century, 
famed  for  the  brightness  and  purity  of  his 


Askew  or  Ascue,  Anne  {h.  1529,  d.  1546), 
daughter  of  Sir  William  Aiskew,  was  a  con- 
vert to  the  refomied  faith  during  the  per- 
secutions of  Bishop  Bonner,  who  caused  her 
to  be  burnt  at  Smithfield. 

Asoka,  Behar,  or  Magadhain,  a  cele- 
brated Buddhist  King  of  India,  ascended 
the  throne  B.C.  264,  being  then  of  the 
Brahminical  faith,  but  he  was  shortly 
afterwards  converted  to  Buddhism,  of  which 
he  became  a  most  zealous  propagator, 
sending  missionaries  to  China,  Bunnah, 
Ceylon,  and  even,  it  is  affirmed,  to  Europe 
and  Egj^Dt.  His  kingdom  extended  from 
the  Cabul  river  to  Bengal,  and  from 
Nepal  on  the  north  to  the  Deccan  on  the 
south.  From  the  celebrated  edicts,  graven 
upon  rocks  and  sandstone  pillars  in  various 
parts  of  the  country,  it  is  clear  that  this,  the 
fii'st  Indian  monarch  of  whom  we  have 
satisfactory  records,  was  both  wise  and 

Aspasia,  an  Ionian  woman  of  remarkable 
talents  and  beauty,  resided  at  Athens, 
where  all  foreign  women  were  ex- 
cluded from  the  protection  of  the  marriage 
laws,  and  hence  she  occupied  the  posi- 
tion of  a  courtesan.  Her  house  was  the 
constant  resort  of  the  best  and  most  dis- 
tinguished men  of  Greece,  including  So- 
crates, Alcibiades,  and  Anaxagoras,  whilst 
^vith  Pericles  she  f  oi-med  a  close  and  lasting 
intimacy,  and  it  was  through  his  eloquence 
she  obtained  her  acquittal  from  the  charges 
of  impiety  and  immorality  brought  against 
her.  Aiter  the  death  of  Pericles,  429  B.C., 
Aspasia  attached  herself  to  Lysicles,  whom 
she  raised  from  obsciuity  to  prominence. 

Aspasia,  a  native  of  Phocsea,  was  highly 
esteemed  by  Cyrus,  but  after  tlie  battle  of 
Cimaxa  fell  into  the  hands  of  Artaxerxes  II. , 
who  appointed  her  priestess  of  Anaitis  in 
Ecbatana,  where  she  died. 

Aspegren,  Gustav  Casten  (6.  1791,  d. 
1828),  a  Swedish  natm-alist  of  humble  birth, 
and  a  well-known  contributor  to  the  fauna 
of  Sweden. 

Asper,  Hans  _  (6.  1499,  d.  1571),  a  Swiss 
portrait  and  animal  painter  of  great  excel- 
lence, being  esteemed  but  little  inferior  to 
his  master  Holbein. 

Aspertini,  Amico  (&.  1417,  d.  1552),  Italian 
painter,  known  as  "Amico  of  the  Two 
Brushes,"  from  his  dexterity  in  painting 
with  both  hands  together. 




Aspinwall,  William  {h.  llio,  d.  1823),  an 
emiueut  American  phj'sician,  one  of  the  first 
to  introduce  vaccination  in  the  place  of  in- 
oculation. He  served  as  army  surgeon 
during  the  revolutionary  war. 

Asquini,  Fabio,  Count  {b.  1726,  d. 
1818),  an  Italian  agriculturist,  and  author 
of  several  treatises,  introduced  the  mul- 
berr}^,  silkwonn,  and  potato  into  the  pro- 
vince of  Friuli,  and  also  drew  attention  to 
the  advantages  of  turf  as  fuel. 

Assad-ed-doulali  {d.  1029),  a  valiant  Arab 
chief,  the  conqueror  of  Aleppo  and  Balbec. 

Assaki,  George  [b.  1788),  a  Eoumanian 
poet  and  statesman,  who,  as  "  Alviro," 
was  elected  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Rome  in  1811.  He  also  took  part 
in  politics,  and  held  oifice  as  chief 
minister  of  public  instruction  in  1856.  He 
was  author  of  a  volume  of  poems,  and  a 
History  of  Jiussia. 

Assamli  Ibn  Malek,  a  brave  and  able 
Moorish  governor  of  Spain,  who  pushed  his 
conquests  across  the  Pyrenees,  and  was 
killed  at  the  siege  of  Toulouse  in  721. 

Assarotti,  Ottavio  Giovanni  (b.  17-53, 
d.  1829),  an  Italian  philanthropist,  Avho  de- 
voted himself  to  the  education  of  children, 
and  opened  the  first  school  in  Italy  for 
deaf  mutes. 

Asselyn,  Jan  (&.  1610,  d.  1660),  Flemish 
painter,  many  of  whose  pictures  are  in 
the  Louvre,  was  a  pupil  of  Yander- 
velde,  and  especially  skilled  in  painting 

Assemani,  Giuseppe  Simone  (&.  1687, 
d.  1768),  a  learned  SjTian  Maronite,  was 
archbishop  of  Tj-re,  and  librarian  of  the 
Vatican.  He  was  author  of  a  valuable 
account  of  the  Syrian  writers,  and  other 
voluminous  works. 

Assemani,  Giuseppe  Luigi,  or  Aloysio 
(b.  1710,  d.  1782),  nephew  of  the  pre- 
ceding, learned  in  oriental  languages  C  his 
great  work  was  the  Coilex  Lituryicus,  which 
was  left  unfinished  at  his  death. 

Asseola  (6.  1800,  d.  1838),  an  Indian  chief 
of  the  Seminoles,  who  successfully  resisted 
an  attempt  of  the  United  States  to  remove 
his  tribe  to  the  west  of  the  Mississippi, 
in  1835,  till  treacherously  captured  by 
General  Jesup,  while  protected  by  a  flag  of 

Asser  {b.  Babylon,  333,  d.  437),  a  cele- 
brated Jewish  rabbi,  author  of  the  Talmud 
of  Babylon. 

Asser,  John  {d.  910),  a  learned  monk  of  St. 
David's,  Wales,  bishop  of  Sherborne,  was 
the  author  of  a  History  of  King  Alfred. 

Assheton,  William  (6.  16il,  d.  1711),  a 
learued  English  divhie,  remembered  for  his 
efforts  to  establish  a  plan  for  the  mainte- 
naiice  of  the  widows  of  the  clergy. 

Assliod  I.,  surnamed  Medz,  or  the  "  Great 
King  of  Armenia,"  established  the  kingdom 
after  the  overthrow  of  the  Arsacidae. 

Assliod  II.  {d.  928),  surnamed  Ergathi, 
King  of  Annenia,  grandson  of  the  preceding, 
ascended  the  throne  in  914,  but  was  for  many 
years  engaged  in  struggles  with  the  Arabs. 

Asshod  III.  {d.  977),  King  of  Armenia, 
surnamed  Oghormaz,  succeeded  his  uncle, 
the  preceding,  in  952.  He  was  of  a  peace- 
ful nature,  but  gained  honour  as  an  ally  of 
Greece  against  the  Mohammedans. 

Assliod  rv.  {d.  1039),  King  of  Armenia, 
usurped  his  brother  John's  kingdom,  but 
was  afterwards  compelled  to  become  the 
vassal  of  the  Emperor  Basil  II. 

Assolant,  Jean  Baptiste  Alfred  (&.  1827, 
d,  1886) ,  French  romance,  social  and  politi- 
cal writer. 

Assoucy,  Charles  Coypeau  (5.  1604,  d. 
1679),  a  name  rendered  unenviably  no- 
torious by  a  distich  of  Boileau.  He  was  for 
some  time  in  the  service  of  the  royal  family, 
whom  he  amused  with  his  music  and  buf- 
foonery, but  while  he  called  himself  the 
"  Emperor  of  Burlesque,"  the  world  knows 
him  only  as  the  "Ape  of  Scarron." 

AssoydelRio.Ignacio  Jordan  de,  a  Spanish 
jurist  of  the  18th  century,  author  of  a 
valuable  work  on  the  Institutes  of  the 
Ciril  Law  of  Spain,  and  other  treatises  on 
law  and  botany. 

Ast,  George  Anton  Frederick  (b.  1778, 
d.  1841),  distinguished  German  scholar, 
professor  of  classical  literature  at  Landshut 
in  1815,  and  at  Munich  in  1826. 

Asta,  Andi-ea  dell'  (b.  1673,  d.  1721),  a 
Neapolitan  painter  of  historical  subjects; 
his  pictures  of  The  Xativity  and  TJie  Wise 
Meti's  Offerings  are  in  the  chm-ch  of 
St.  Augustine,  at  Naples. 

Astbury,  John  (6.  1678,  d.  1743),  an  En- 
glishman, who  made  great  exertions  for 
the  improvement  of  pottery.  By  feigning 
weakness  of  intellect  for  two  years  he  at- 
tained menial  employment  in  the  potteries 
of  the  German  brothers  Elers,  and  dis- 
covered their  secret  methods. 

Astell,  Mary  (6.  1668,  d.  1731),  a  well- 
read  English  authoress,  who  attained  con- 
siderable celebrity,  due  in  great  part  to  her 
strenuous  advocacy  of  High  Church  princi- 
ples. Besides  several  essays,  she  published 
a  book  entitled  The  Christian  Religion  as 
professed  by  a  Daughter  of  England, 




Astley,  Sir  Jacob,  first  Lord  Astley  of 
Reading,  a  brave  Roj'alist  soldier,  took  part 
in  the  engagement  at  Edgehill  (1G42),  and 
at  the  fatal  battle  of  Naseby  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  one  successful  wing  of  the 

Astley,  Philip  (6.  1712,  d.  1814),  a  re- 
nowned equestrian,  who  served  with  dis- 
tinction in  the  Seven  Years'  war,  and 
opened  in  1 763  his  celebrated  amphitheatre, 
which  was  twice  burnt  down  ;  he  left  some 
excellent  manuals  on  horsemanship. 

Astor,  John  Jacob  (&.  1763,  d.  1848),  born  at 
Wallendorf ,  an  American  merchant  i)rince  of 
German  descent,  who  traded  in  New  York, 
and  realised  an  immense  fortune.  He  left 
large  bequests  in  charity  and  to  the  famous 
Astor  Library,  founded  by  him  in  New 

Astorg-a,  Antonio  Pedro  Alvarez  Osorio, 
Marquis  of,  an  eminent  Spanish  statesman, 
who  as  viceroy  of  Naples  (1072-1675)  did 
much  to  check  the  disorder  of  the  country. 
After  the  revolt  of  Messina  he  was  recalled 
to  Madrifl,  but  received  an  appointment 
at  court. 

Astros,  Paul  Therese  Da\dd  (&.  1772,  d. 
1851),  a  French  prelate,  who  firmly  sup- 
ported the  Church,  and  after  the  restoration 
was  made  an  archbishop  and  cardinal. 

Astruc,  Jean  (6.  1684,  d.  1766),  an  emi- 
nent French  physician  and  Biblical  critic, 
author  of  a  celebrated  treatise,  I)e  Morbis 
Venereis,  and  other  works.  He  settled  in 
Paris,  and  was  appointed  physician  to  the 

Astyages,  last  king  of  the  Medes,  and 
son  of  Cyaxares.  He  reigned  from  594  B.C. 
to  559  B.C. 

Asula,  or  Asola,  Giovanni  Matteo,  a 
native  of  Verona,  and  a  popular  musical 
composer  of  the  16th  century. 

Atahuallpa  {d.  1533),  the  last  of  the  Licas 
of  Peru,  succeeded  his  father.  Huayna  Capac, 
in  1525,  on  the  throne  of  Quito,  whilst  his 
half-brother,  Huascar,  although  the  right- 
ful heir,  obtained  only  the  kingdom  of 
Peru.  The  two  brothers  engaged  in  a 
struggle  for  supremacy,  in  which  Huascar 
was  defeated.  The  Spaniards  under  Pizarro, 
taking  advantage  of  these  internal  dissen- 
sions, invaded  Peru,  and  by  an  act  of 
deliberate  perfidy  obtained  jjossession  of 
the  person  of  Atahuallpa,  and  attempted  to 
compel  him  to  acknowledge  the  Mng  of 
Spain  as  master,  and  to  embrace  the  Chris- 
tian religion.  His  refusal  was  made  a  pre- 
text for  a  massacre,  and  the  imprisonment 
of  their  king,  whom  the  Spaniards  induced 
to  raise  an  enormous  treasure  in  the  hopes 
of  regaining    his  throne.       After  a  mock 

trial,    however,    he    was    condemned  and 
strangled  at  the  stake. 

Ataide,  or  Atayde,  Dom  Louis  de  (6.  1520, 
d.  1580),  a  Port>.rguese  nobleman,  who  was 
knighted  for  his  gallantry  against  the  Turks. 
He  also  distinguished  himself  as  ambassador 
to  Charles  V.  and  as  \icexoj  of  India. 

Ataiilf,  or  Adaiilf  {il,  415),  king  of  the 
Visigoths,  succeeded  his  brother-in-law, 
Alaric,  in  410.  He  conquered  Aquitania, 
and  accomplished  his  purpose  of  marrying 
Placida,  daughter  of  Theodosius,  but  died 
a  year  after  by  the  hand  of  an  assassin. 

Athaliah,  wife  of  Jehoram,  King  of 
Judah,  was  an  unscrupulous  and  ambitious 
woman,  who,  on  the  death  of  her  son, 
Ahaziah,  secured  the  throne  to  herself  by 
the  murder  of  all  the  royal  princes  except 
Joash  ;  but  after  reigning  six  years  she  was 
deposed  and  put  to  death. 

Atha  Melic  (6.  1226,  d.  1283),  a  Persian 
statesman,  governor  of  Bagdad,  is  re- 
membered chiefly  as  author  of  a  great 
History  of  the  Conquest  of  the  World. 

Athanasius,  Saint  (6.  296,  d.  373),  the 
great  bishop  of  Alexandria,  first  came  into 
prominence  at  the  Coimcil  of  Nice  325. 
On  the  death  of  Alexander  in  the  following 
year,  Athanasius  succeeded  to  the  see  of 
Alexandria,  but  of  the  forty-six  remaining 
years  of  his  life,  twenty  were  spent  in 
banishment.  In  spite  of  repeated  refuta- 
tions of  the  iniquitous  charges  brought 
against  him,  his  enemies  were  perpetiially 
conspiring  for  his  overthrow,  and  he  was  five 
times  driven  from  his  bishopric.  His  leisure 
was  devoted  to  the  valuable  writings  which 
have  helped  to  make  his  name  famous, 
especially  the  Apology,  addressed  to  the 
Emperor  Constantino. 

Athelstan,  or  .ffithelstan  (6.  896,  d.  940), 
King  of  the  "West  Saxons  and  Mercians, 
tlie  son  and  successor  of  Edward  the  Elder, 
proved  a  vigorous  and  able  monarch, 
whose  authority  was  recognised  by  the  other 
kings  of  Britain,  while  the  great  victory  of 
Brunanburh  in  937  practically  established 
the  su]premacy  of  the  "West  Saxon  throne. 

Atliensgus,  a  learned  Egyptian  of  the  3rd 
century,  author  of  the  I)eip)iosophists,  in 
which,  under  the  fiction  of  describing  a 
banquet,  he  discusses  the  chief  personages, 
arts  and  sciences  of  the  age,  and  quotes 
some  seven  hundred  writers  and  fifteen 
himdred  works. 

Athenais,  or  Eudoxia  {d.  460  a.d.), 
daughter  of  Leontius,  an  Athenian  physi- 
cist, left  in  penury,  went  to  Constantiuople 
to  appeal  to  Theodosius  II.,  whom  she 
married.  Being  divorced,  she  returned  to 
Jerusalem,  where  she  died.     She  translated 




the  first  eight  of  the  Old  Testament  books 
into  Greek. 

Athenas,  Pierre  Louis  (&.  1752,  d.  1829), 
French  chemist,  devoted  himself  to  the 
improvement  of  the  agriculture  and  the 
commerce  of  his  country.  He  introduced 
the  method  of  obtaining  soda  from  sea-salt, 
and  established  the  manufactvu-e  of  sul- 
phuric acid  from  sulphur  and  potassium 

Athenion  {<1.  b.c.  101),  a  Cilician  leader 
in  the  second  Servile  war  of  Sicily,  in  the 
2nd  century  B.C. 

Athenodorus  Cananites,  a  Stoic  philo- 
sopher, and  a  pupil  of  Posidonius,  was 
the  friend  and  adviser  of  Octavianus,  who 
finalh'  conferred  on  him  the  government  of 

Atherstone,  Edwin  (6.  1778,  d.  1872), 
novelist  and  poet,  was  author  of  the  Last 
Days  of  Herculaneum  (1821),  Israel  in 
^(jypi  (1861),  and  other  poems,  as  weU  as 
two  romances.  The  Sea-Kings  in  England, 
and  The  Handivriting  on  the  Wall. 

AtWas,  Joseph  (d.  1700),  a  Jewish  printer 
of  Amsterdam,  who  pubhshed  the  Bible  in 
Hebrew,  English,  Spanish,  and  German. 

Atkins,  John,  an  English  naval  surgeon 
of  the  18th  century.  Besides  works  on 
surgery,  he  left  an  account  of  his  travels  to 
Brazil  and  the  West  Indies. 

Atkins,  Eobert  {h.  1626,  d.  1685),  an 
English  di-sane  and  eminent  preacher,  was 
chaplain  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  but  withdrew 
from  the  Church  on  the  passing  of  the  Act 
of  Uniformity. 

Atkinson,  James  (6.  1780,  d.  1852),  an 
English  surgeon  in  the  Indian  army,  who  de- 
voted his  leisure  to  the  acquisition  of  Eastern 
languages,  and  in  1818  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  Persian  at  Fort  William.  He 
translated  several  Persian  works,  and  left 
valuable  records  of  the  campaign  of  1839-40. 

Atkinson,  Thomas  Witlam  (6.  1799,  d. 
1861),  an  English  author  and  artist, 
travelled  in  Siberia  and  China,  and  jjub- 
lished  richly  illustrated  narratives  of  his 

Atkyns,  Sir  Eobert  (&.  1621,  cZ.  1709),  an 
English  judge  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas;  he  was  made  chief  baron  of  the 
Exchequer  in  1689. 

Atondo  y  Antillon,  Isidoro,  a  Spanish 
admiral  who  sailed  to  California  in  1683, 
and  founded  a  colony  in  the  Bay  of  St. 

Atreus,  legendary  King  of  Mycenae,  suc- 
ceeded his   father  Pelops,  was   father    of 

Agamemnon  and  Menelaus,  and  was  slain 
by  jEgisthus,  son  of  Thyestes,  whom  he 
had  put  to  death. 

Atrocianus,    Johannes,  a  German  poet, 
philologist,  and  botanist  of  the  loth  cen 

Atsiz  {d.  1156),  founder  of  the  Khwarizm 
monarchy,  and  originally  cupbearer  to  the 
Sultan  Sandjar,  by  whom  he  was  appointed 
governor.  He,  however,  obstinately  re- 
volted, attempted  the  life  of  the  Sultan,  and 
in  1138  established  his  own  independence. 

Attala,  Saint,  a  disciple  of  St.  Colum- 
banus,  whom  he  succeeded  as  abbot  of  the 
monastery  of  Bobbio  in  Italy.  He  died  in 
the  7th  century. 

Attains,  son  of  Andromenes,  one  oi 
the  generals  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
whom  he  accompanied  in  the  expedition  to 
India.  On  the  death  of  the  king,  Attains 
at  first  joined  the  revolt  against  Perdiccas, 
but  later  became  his  ally.  He  maintained  a 
warlike  career  to  his  death,  about  B.  c.  300. 

Attains,  Flavins  Prisons,  an  Ionian,  who 
was  created  Emperor  of  the  West  by  Alaric 
in  409,  but  in  a  few  months  he  was  deposed, 
and  died  in  banishment  at  Lipari. 

Attains  I.,  King  of  Pergamus  {d.  197 
B.C.),  assisted  the  ^tohans,  and  afterwards 
tlie  Romans  in  their  wars  with  PhUip  of 
Macedon.  He  was  a  patron  of  hterature 
and  formed  a  library  at  Pergamus. 

Attains  II.  (d.  138  b.c).  King  of  Per- 
gamus, suruamed  Philadelphus,  son  and 
successor  of  the  preceding,  was  driven  from 
his  throne  by  Prusias  of  Bithynia,  but 
recovered  it  with  some  help  from  the 

Attains  III.  {d.  b.c.  133),  sumamed 
Pliilometer,  King  of  Pergamus,  nephew  and 
successor  of  the  preceding.  His  first  act  of 
royalty  was  to  put  to  death  his  nearest 
relatives  and  friends,  and  from  his  other 
acts  he  appears  to  have  been  insane.  He 
bequeathed  his  kingdom  to  the  Romans. 

Attar,  or  Khojali  Attar  {d.  1513),  a  native 
of  Bengal,  who  as  vizier  to  the  young  Shah 
of  Ormuz  was  vu-tual  ruler  of  the  kingdom. 
He  was  compelled  by  Albuquerque  in  1507  to 
acknowledge  the  supremacy  of  Portugal. 

Attar  ferid  Ud-din  (6.  1120,  d.  1221),  a 
Persian  poet,  who  devoted  his  life  to  works 
of  piety  and  the  composition  of  moral  and 
mystical  poems,  was  slain  in  extreme  old 
age  by  the  Moguls  who  invaded  Khorasan. 

Atterbury,  Francis  (6.  1662,  d.  1732),  a 
celebrated  English  prelate ;  he  was  educated 
at  Westminster  and  Christ  Church,  Ox- 
ford,  and  distinguished   as  a  scholar  and 




controversialist.  In  1691  he  came  to  Lon- 
don as  chaplain  to  William  and  Mary, 
and  Queen  Anne  ;  he  was  promoted  to  the 
bishopric  of  Rochester  and  deanery  of  West- 
minster. On  the  death  of  the  qneen  he 
became  compromised  by  his  advocacy  of 
the  cause  of  the  Pretender,  refusing  to  sign 
the  loyal  declaration  of  the  bishops 
(1715).  In  1722  he  was  committed  to  the 
Tower  on  a  charge  of  secretly  corre- 
sponding with  the  Pretender,  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  was  deprived  of  his  dignities 
and  outlawed,  when  he  retired  to  Paris,  but 
still  continued  his  intrigues.  He  died  abroad, 
and  was  buiied  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

Atthalin,  Louis  Marie  Jean  Baptiste, 
Baron  {h.  1784,  d.  1856),  a  French  general, 
who  served  under  ^Napoleon,  and  in  1830 
went  as  ambassador  to  Berhn. 

Atticus  (d.  425),  a  celebrated  patriarch  of 

Atticus,  Titus  Pomponius  (6.  B.C.  109,  d 
B.C.  32),  an  eminent  Roman,  of  patrician 
birth,  great  wealth,  and  high  intellectual 
ability,  and  remembered  as  the  friend  of 
Cicero,  who  wrote  to  him  the  celebrated 
series  of  letters.  He  spent  many  years  in 
Athens,  but  returned  to  Rome  before  his 

Attila  (Etzel)  (b.  406,  d.  453),  the 
celebrated  King  of  the  Huns,  and  one 
of  the  most  famous  conquerors  of  the 
5th  century,  whose  terrible  victories  won 
him  the  surname  of  ' '  the  Scoui'ge  of 
God."  After  ravaging  the  East,  and 
laying  Theodosius  the  Younger  under 
tribute,  he  entered  Gaul  at  the  head  of 
500,000  men,  but  was  defeated  with  loss  by 
Aetius  and  Theodoric  at  the  battle  of 
Men.  Thence,  passing  into  Italy,  he  de- 
stroyed Aqtiileia,  and  was  only  deterred 
from  advancing  on  Rome  by  the  entreaties 
and  persuasions  of  St.  Leo. 

Attiret,  Jean  Denis  (6.  1702,  d.  1768),  a 
French  Jesuit  and  painter,  who  was  sent  as 
missionary  to  China,  and  stood  high  in  the 
favour  of  the  Emperor  Kien  Long. 

Attwood,  George  (6.  1745,  d.  1807),  an 
eminent  English  mathematician,  Fellow 
and  Tutor  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
and  inventor  of  the  widely-known  machine 
which  illustrates  the  uniform  force  of  gravity 
at  the  earth's  surface. 

Attwood,  Thomas  (6.  1767,  d.  1838), 
organist  and  composer,  studied  in  Italy 
under  Mozart,  and  was  afterwards  organist 
at  St.  Paul's  Cathedi-al  and  the  Chapels 

Auber,  Daniel  Francois  Esprit  (&.  1782,  d. 
1871),  French  composer,  was  intended  for  a 
business  career,  and  it  was  not  until  he  met 

with  Scribe,  in  1823,  that  his  long  course  of 
successful  composition  commenced.  La  3fu- 
ette  de  Portici,  or  MasanieUo,  as  it  is  called  in 
England,  was  brought  out  in  1828.  He  pro- 
duced many  other  works  which  enjoy  a 
European  rej)utation,  his  last  being  Le 
Reve  d^ Amour  (1870),  comjiosed  shortly 
before  his  death. 

Auberlen,  Samuel  Gottlob  (&.  1758),  com- 
poser, was  musical  director  and  organist  to 
the  cathedral  of  Ulm,  to  which  post  he 
attained  in  his  sixtieth  year,  after  many 
years  of  privation  and  hardship. 

Aubert,  Jacques  {d.  1586),  a  French 
physician  of  Lausanne  in  the  16th  century, 
and     author     of     numerous     professional 


Aubert,  Jean  Emest  (5.  1824),  a  French 
engraver  and  lithographer,  and  pupil 
of  Delaroche  and  Achille  Martinet,  has 
produced  many  works,  and  gained  medals 
for  engraving,  lithography,  and  painting. 

Aubert,  Jean  Louis  (6.  1731,  d.  1814), 
known  as  "  the  Abbe  Aubert,"  professor  of 
French  literature  at  the  Royal  College  of 
Paris,  and  one  of  the  most  celebrated  fabu- 
lists of  France.  He  was  author  of  the  popu- 
lar Fables  Nouvelles  (1756),  and  also  of 
some  poems,  of  which  the  best  is  Psyche. 

Aubert,  Saint  (Aulbertus),  a  missionary 
bishop  of  Cambrai  and  AiTas  in  the  7tb 
century.  He  was  greatly  assisted  by  his 
patron  Dagobert. 

Aubert  du  Bayet,  Jean  Baptiste  Annibal 
(h.  1759  d.  1797),  an  American  soldier,  who, 
after  serving  in  the  war  of  Independence, 
came  to  France  as  a  violent  revolutionist, 
and  commanded  the  army  of  the  Moselle. 
He  was  also  minister  of  war  1796,  and  am- 
bassador to  the  Porte. 

Aubespine,  Charles  del',  Marquis  of  Cha- 
teauneuf  (6. 1580,  d.  1653),  French  statesman, 
was  employed  on  several  occasions  as  am- 
bassador by  Henry  IV. ,  and  became  Garde 
des  Sceaux  in  1630. 

Aubeterre,  David  Bouchard,  Vicomte  d' 
{d.  1593),  governor  of  Perigord  under 
Henry  III.  and  Henry  IV.,  was  killed  at 
the  siege  of  L'Isle. 

Aubignac,  Francois  Hedelin,  Abbe  d'  (6, 
1714,  d.  1788),  a  learned  and  voluminous 
writer,  was  tutor  to  the  Due  de  Fronsac, 
nephew  of  Richelieu,  who  obtained  for  him 
the  abbacy  of  Aubignac. 

Aubigne,  Jean  Henri  Merle  d'  {b.  1794,  d. 
1872),  Swiss  theologian  and  writer,  studied 
at  Leipsic  and  Berlin,  and  became  professor 
of  church  history  at  Geneva  in  1830.  He 
was  author  of  The  History  of  the  Reformation 
of  the  Sixteenth  Century,  and  other  works. 




Aubigne,  Theodore  Agrippa  d'  (6.  1550, 
d.  1630),  a  man  of  extraordinary  talents  and 
learning,  and  a  brave  and  dashing  soldier, 
sided  with  the  Huguenots  in  the  religious 
wars  of  France,  and  after  the  capitulation 
of  Rochelle  entered  the  service  of  Henry  of 
Navarre,  He  spent  the  end  of  his  life  in 
Switzerland,  where  he  continued  an  active 
supporter  of  the  Protestant  cause,  and  left 
many  works,  including  an  Universal  History. 

Aublet,  Jean  Baptiste  Christophe  Fusee 
(6.  1720,  d.  1778),  a  French  botanist,  whose 
collections  of  plants  are  in  the  British  Mu- 
seum, established  a  botanic  garden  in  the 
Isle  of  France,  and  wi'ote  The  History  of 
the  Flants  of  French  Guiana. 

Aubrey,  John  (6.  1626,  d.  1697),  English 
antiquarian  and  miscellaneous  writer,  one 
of  the  first  members  of  the  Royal  Society, 
wrote  the  Feramhnlatlon  of  Surrey,  and 
other  curious  works,  and  contributed  to 
Anthony  \Yood's  Athence  Oxo7iienses. 

Aubriet,  Claude  (6.  1651,  d.  1743),  a 
French  miniature  and  natural  history 
painter,  made  the  drawings  for  Tourne- 
fort's  Elements  of  Botany,  and  succeeded 
Joubert  as  royal  painter  in  the  Jardin  des 
Plantes  in  Paris. 

Aubriot,  Hughes  {d.  1382),  Provost  of 
Paris  under  Charles  V.,  designed  the  famous 
prison  of  the  Bastille,  in  which,  in  1381,  he 
was  confined  on  a  charge  of  heresy,  but 
was  released  by  a  popular  insurrection  of 

Aubusson,  Pierre  d'  {b.  1423,  d.  1481),  one 
©f  the  most  famous  of  the  Grand  Masters 
of  Rhodes,  and  esi^ecially  renowned  for  his 
exploits  against  the  Turks,  who  attacked 
Rhodes,  but  were  repulsed  vsdth  great  loss. 

Aucher-Eloy,  Peter Remi  (6. 1793,  d.  1838), 
a  French  botanist  and  traveller,  who  spent 
some  time  in  Spain,  and  made  a  valuable 
collection  of  the  plants  of  that  country. 
He  afterwards  travelled  in  Russia,  Turkey, 
and  Persia. 

Auchmuty,  Sir  Samuel  (6.  1756,  d.  1822), 
son  of  a  New  York  clergyman,  entered 
the  English  army,  and  during  the  American 
revolution  served  under  Sir  WilUam  Howe. 
He  also  saw  active  service  in  India,  and  in 
South  America,  whither  he  sailed  in  1806, 
with  the  reinforcements  despatched  to 
Buenos  Ayres.  He  afterwards  held  the  ap- 
pointment of  commander-in-chief  in  Madi-as 
and  in  Ireland. 

Auckland,  George  Eden,  Earl  of  {h.  1784, 
d.  1819),  was  governor-general  of  India 
during  the  disastrous  Afghan  war  (1839-42), 
was  recalled  on  the  change  of  ministry 
in  1841,  and  in  1846  was  appointed  first  lord 
of  the  Admiralty. 

Auckland,  William  Eden,  Baron  (J).  1744, 
d.  1811:),  in  1784  represented  England  at 
the  French  court,  and  afterward  in  Spain, 
and  was  postmaster-general  from  1798- 

Audasus,  foimder  of  the  sect  of  the  Au- 
doeans  in  the  4th  century,  a  native  of  Meso- 
potamia, was  distinguished  for  his  holy  life 
and  his  zeal  in  opposing  the  corrupt  and 
licentious  lives  of  the  clergy. 

Aude,  le  Chevalier  Jean  {h.  1755,  d.  1841), 
a  dramatic  author  of  repute,  some  time 
private  secretary  to  BufFon, 

Audebert,  Jean  Baptiste  (h.  1759,  d.  1800), 
a  distinguished  French  miniature  and 
natural  history  painter. 

Audiffret,  Hercule  {b.  1603,  d.  1659),  an 
eloquent  French  ecclesiastic  and  author, 
general  of  the  congregation  of  the  Brothers 
of  the  Christian  Doctrine. 

Audiflfret  Pasquier.Edme  Armand  Gaston, 
Due  d'  {b.  1823),  a  French  politician,  who, 
as  president  of  the  right  centre,  was  one  of 
the  chief  agents  in  eft'ecting  the  downfall  of 
M.  Thiers.  He  was  a  supporter  of  Marshal 
MacMahon,  president  of  the  senate  1876-9, 
and  in  1878  was  elected  member  of  the 
French  Academy. 

Audin,  J.  M.  V.  {b.  1793,  d.  1851),  a 
French  historian  and  biographer,  of  the 
period  of  the  Reformation. 

Audley,  Thomas,  Baron  Audley  of  Wal- 
den  (6.  1488,  d.  1554),  Lord  Chancellor  of 
England,  and  a  Knight  of  the  Garter ; 
an  unscrupulous  and  dexterous  tool  of 
Henry  VIII. 

Audoin,  or  Alduin,  King  of  the  Lombards 
in  the  6th  century,  assisted  Justinian  in  a 
war  with  the  Gepidag. 

Audoin,  Jean  Victor  (&.  1797,  d.  1841),  a 
distinguished  French  entomologist,  author 
of  the  Histoire  des  Insectes  Nuisibles  d  la 

Audoin,  Pierre  (6.  1768,  d.  1822),  French 
engraver  to  Louis  XVIII.,  executed  over 
100  works. 

Audoyere  {d.  580),  the  first  wife  of 
Chilj)eric  I.,  King  of  France,  who  repu- 
diated her  and  put  her  to  death. 

Audran,  Girard  {b.  1640,  d.  1703),  the 
most  celebrated  of  the  family  of  artists  of 
that  name,  and  one  of  the  greatest  historical 
engravers,  was  a  pupil  of  Le  Brun  at 
Paris,  and  afterwards  studied  at  Rome. 

Au drain,  Yves  Marie,  a  French  theologiari 
and  revolutionist,  who  voted  for  the  king's 
death,  but  in  1800  was  waylaid  and  mur- 
dered by  Chouans  as  a  regicide. 




Audubon,  John  James  (6.  1780,  d.  1851),  a 
celebrated  Americau  naturalist  of  French 
descent,  a  pupil  of  the  great  painter 
David  ;  from  his  childhood  he  was  devoted 
to  natural  history,  but  it  was  not  until  1830 
that  the  first  of  the  four  volumes  of  his 
great  work,  The  Birds  of  America,  appeared. 
This  magnificent  collection  of  plates,  which 
was  sold  for  1,000  dollars  a  copy,  was  quickly 
followed  by  explanatory  letterpress  under 
the  title  of  American  Ornithologxcal  Dio- 
grapJty.  Audubon  also  projected  a  simi- 
lar work  on  the  Quadrupeds  of  America^ 
but  much  of  this  work  was  done  by  his 
sons,  John  and  Victor. 

Aue,  Hartmann  von  der  [h,  1170,  d.  123o), 
a  celebrated  German  Minnesinger,  who 
accompanied  Frederick  Barbarossa  on  his 
crusade  in  1189.  His  great  work  Ivai>/,  ou 
le  Chevalier  Dn  Lion,  is  taken  from  the 
time  of  King  Ai'thur. 

Auenbrugger,  Yon  Auenbrug  Leopold  [h. 
1722,  d.  1809),  physician  to  the  imperial 
hospital  of  Vienna,  and  celebrated  as  the 
inventor  of  the  method  of  percussion  in 
investigating  diseases  of  the  chest,  on  which 
he  published  a  treatise  in  1761. 

Auerbach,  Berthold  (6.  1812,  d.  1882), 
German  novelist,  was  a  native  of  the  Black 
Forest ;  his  reputation  was  established  by 
the  publication  in  1813  of  his  Village 
Tales  from  the  Black  Forest,  and  this  was 
followed  by  a  number  of  other  popular 
novels.  Among  his  earlier  works  were  a 
translation  of  Spinoza's  writings,  and  an 
essay  on  modern  Jewish  literature.  He 
died  at  Cannes  shortly  after  the  publication 
of  Brigitta. 

Auersperg-,  Adolph  Wilhelm,  Prince  [b. 
1821,  d.  1885),  Austrian  statesman,  in  1871 
was  Austx'ian  prime  minister,  resigning  in 

Auersperg-,  Anton  Alexander,  Count  (/;. 
1806,  d.  1876),  Austrian  poet  and  politician, 
author  of  several  ballads  and  romances  in 
verse,  and  an  advocate  of  progress  and 

Aufrecht,  Theodor  (6.  1822),  a  native  of 
Leschnitz  in  Silesia,  an  eminent  Sanscrit 
scholar,  who  held  the  chairs  of  Sanscrit  at 
Edinburgh  (1862-75)  and  Bonn,  and  is 
author  of  many  valuable  works  on  that  lan- 
guage and  literature. 

Aufresne,  Jean  Eival  {h.  1720,  d.  1806),  an 
eminent  actor,  who  performed  in  France 
and  Prussia,  and  spent  the  end  of  his  life  in 
Russia  under  the  patronage  of  Catherine  II. 

Augereau,  Pierre  Francois  Charles,  Due 
de^Castiglione  and  Marshal  of  France  {h. 
1757,  d.  1816),  a  soldier  of  obscure  birth  who 
joined  the  republican  army  of  France,  served 

in  Italy  under  Napoleon,  and  was  appointed 
to  the  command  of  the  army  of  Holland  and 
the  Lower  Rhine.  In  1804  he  was  made 
marshal  and  duke,  was  present  at  the  battles 
of  Linden,  Jena,  and  Eylau,  and  after  an 
unsuccessful  campaign  in  Spain  took  part 
in  the  battle  of  Leipsic.  In  1814  he  was 
compelled  to  evacuate  Lyons,  and  a  coolness 
arose  between  him  and  Napoleon,  and  ou 
the  abdication  of  the  Emperor  Augereau 
gave  his  adhesion  to  the  Bourbons. 

Augier,  Guillaume  Victor  Emile  (5.  1820, 
d.  1889),  a  French  di-amatic  author,  wrote 
several  excellent  comedies,  including  Oa- 
brielle  (1849)  and  Les  Fotirchambault  (1878), 
and  was  elected  to  the  Academy  in  1858. 

Augusta,  Jan  (6.  1500,  d.  1575),  father  of 
the  modern  sect  of  Moravians,  and  a  friend 
of  .Luther  and  Melancthon,  was  chosen 
bishop  of  the  chiu-ches  of  Bohemia,  and  ou 
the  banishment  of  his  sect  by  Ferdinand  L, 
was  captured  and  cruelly  tortured,  but  was 
released  on  the  death  of  that  monarch,  1504. 

Augustenburg-,  Christian  August,  Duke 
of  Schles^nng-Holstein-Sonderburg  {b.  17''8, 
d.  1869),  succeeded  to  the  dukedom  in  1814, 
and  during  the  war  of  1848-1851  was  a 
leader  in  the  rebellion  against  the  Danish 
cro-vvn,  to  which  in  1852  he  sold  his  property 
in  the  duchies.  He  abdicated  in  favour  of 
his  son. 

Augustenburg,  Frederick  Karl,  Duke  of 

Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg  {b.  1829,  d. 
1880),  in  1863  claimed  the  right  to  the 
duchies  which  his  father  had  renounced, 
and  was  supported  by  Prussia  and  Austria ; 
but  the  Prussian  crown  lawyers  decided 
that  after  the  treaty  of  1852  the  Augusten- 
burg  family  had  no  claim  to  a  right  of 
succession  to  the  duchies. 

Augusti,  Christian  Johann  Wilhelm  (6. 
1771,  d.  1841),  a  German  theologian  and 
author,  professor  of  Oriental  literature,  and 
afterwards  of  theology,  at  the  University  of 
Jena,  and  later  (1811)  at  Breslau,  of  which 
university  he  became  rector.  He  went  in 
1819  to  Bonn,  and  finally  to  Coblentz. 

Augusti,  Friedrich  Albert  (&.  16S6,  d. 
1792)  (Joshua  Ben- Abraham  Herschel),  a 
German  Jew,  well  versed  in  the  Scriptures, 
was  converted  to  Christianity  in  1722,  and 
remained  steadfast  in  spite  of  persecutions. 

Augustin,  Jean  Baptiste  Jacques  (6. 
1759,  d.  1832),  miniature  painter  to  Louis 
XVIII. ,  for  his  truth  to  nature  was  highly 
esteemed,  and  effected  a  revolution  in  his 

Augustine,  Saint  Aurelius  Augustinus  (6. 
354,  d.  430),  the  most  distinguished  of  the 
Latin  fathers  of  the  Christian  Church,  was 
born   at    Tagaste    in    Numidia.     While  a 




student  at  Carthage  lie  fell  into  habits  of  dis- 
sipation, to  the  great  distress  of  his  widowed 
mother  Monica,  whose  prayerful  anxiety  for 
her  son  is  one  of  the  most  touching  records 
of  Christian  biography.  After  an  interval 
in  wliich  his  mind  sought  relief  in  philo- 
sophy, and  later  in  the  peculiar  doctrines  of 
the  Manichjeans,  he  left  Africa  for  Italy,  383. 
At  Milan  he  obtained  the  professorship  of 
rhetoric,  but  resigned  it  on  his  conversion 
to  Christianity,  receiving  baptism  together 
with  his  son  at  the  hands  of  Bishop  Am- 
brose, 387.  Eetm-uing  to  Africa  he  sold  his 
patrimony  to  benefit  the  poor,  and  after  some 
years  of  religious  seclusion  became  Bishop 
of  Hii^po,  391.  His  life  thenceforth  is  an 
unceasing  record  of  labour  and  controversy 
with  the  schismatics  of  his  time.  In  429 
the  incursions  and  ravages  of  the  Vandals 
under  Genseric  reached  the  gates  of  Hippo, 
and  Augustine  died  in  the  third  month  of 
the  siege,  worn  out  with  hardships  endured 
in  the  cause  of  his  people.  His  two  greatest 
works  are  the  Confessions,  an  account  of  his 
own  religious  struggles,  and  The  City  of  God. 

Au^stine  or  Austin,  Saint  {d.  circa  607), 
first  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  sent 
from  Eome  by  Pope  Gregory  I.,  in  596,  to 
convert  the  English  to  Christianity.  He 
was  well  received  by  Ethelbert,  King  of 
Kent,  and  established  himself  at  Canter- 
bury, where  he  founded  a  monastery  on  the 
site  of  the  present  cathedral,  and  vigorously 
pushed  his  missionary  labours. 

Augustus,  Caius  Julius  Cffisar  Octavianus 
(6.  B.C.  63,  d.  A.D.  14),  the  first  Eoman  em- 
peror, was  the  son  of  Octavius  by  Alia,  a 
daughter  of  Julia^  the  sister  of  C,  Julius 
Caesar.  At  the  age  of  nineteen,  upon  re- 
ceiving the  news  of  his  great-uncle's  mur- 
der, he  set  out  for  Italy,  and  joining  the 
republican  party  defeated  Antony,  and 
returning  to  Rome  compelled  the  Senate  to 
elect  him  consul.  Subsequently  an  arrange- 
ment was  effected  between  Augustus,  An- 
tony, and  Lej)idus  to  divide  the  Eoman 
world  between  them.  The  battle  of 
Philippi  left  Augustus  and  Antony  with 
no  opponent  but  Pompey,  and  a  rupture 
which  again  broke  out  between  them  was 
healed  by  the  marriage  of  Antony  with 
Octavia,  sister  to  Augustus,  when  a  new 
division  of  the  provinces  was  made,  the 
west  falling  to  Augustus  and  the  east  to 
Antony,  while  Lepidus  obtained  Africa. 
Pomjiey  and  Lepidus  fell  next  before  the 
power  of  Augustus,  and  Antony,  who  had 
repudiated  his  wife  to  marry  Cleopatra,  was 
completely  defeated  in  a  fight  near  Actium, 
B.C.  31.  Upon  the  death  of  Antony,  Augus- 
tus became  undisputed  master  of  the  world 
at  the  age  of  twenty-three,  and  remained 
such  till  his  death. 

Augustus,  Duke  of  Saxony  (6.  1614,  d. 

1680),  was  elected  archbishop  of  Magdeburg 
in  1628,  and  the  following  year  was  driven 
from  his  see  by  the  Emperor  Ferdinand  II., 
but  regained  his  dominions  in  1638,  and  in 
1648  was  acknowledged  sovereign  Prince  of 
Magdeburg.  On  the  death  of  his  father,  in 
1656,  he  succeeded  to  large  possessions  in 

Augustus,  Frederick,  Duke  of  Sussex  {b. 
1773,  d.  1843),  sixth  son  of  George  III., 
married  Lady  Augusta  Murray  in  1793,  was 
a  liberal  in  politics  and  addicted  to  liter- 

Augustus,  Friedrich  Wilhelm  Heinrich, 
Prince  of  Prussia  (6.  1790,  d.  1843),  nephew 
of  Frederick  II.,  distinguished  himself  as 
an  officer  in  the  Prussian  army,  especially 
during  the  campaigns  of  1813-1815. 

^Augustus,  "VVilhelm,  Prince  of  Prussia  (&. 
1722,  d.  1758),  distinguished  himself  greatly 
in  the  first  Silesian  war,  and  in  the  Seven 
Years'  war,  especially  at  the  battle  of 
Lowositz  1756,  but  withdrew  from  the  army 
after  the  defeat  at  Kollin. 

Augustus  L,  Elector  of  S:ixony  (&.  1526, 
d.  1586),  succeeded  his  brother  Moritz  in 
1553,  and  proved  severe  and  intolerant, 
though  possessed  of  considerable  legislative 
ability.  He  defeated  and  imprisoned  his 
rival,  John  Frederick,  largely  extended  his 
dominions,  and  drew  up  the  code  of  laws 
known  by  his  name,  and  though  a  zealous 
supporter  of  Lutheranism,  persecuted  the 
followers  of  Melaucthon. 

Augustus  II.,  Fi-ederick,  Elector  of 
Saxony  (Augustus  I.  of  Poland)  (6.  1670, 
d.  1733),  a  prince  remarkable  for  personal 
strength  and  beauty,  and  for  the  luxury 
and  corruption  of  his  court,  succeeded  his 
brother  John  George  IV.  in  1694,  and  three 
years  later,  with  the  aid  of  Austria  and 
much  bribery,  procui-ed  his  own  election  to 
the  throne  of  Poland.  He  then  joined  him- 
self with  Eussia  and  Denmark  against 
Sweden,  but  was  defeated  at  Clissow  and 
again  at  Pultusk,  and  driven  from  his 
throne  in  1706.  On  the  downfall  of  Charles 
XII.  Augustus  was  recalled  to  Poland, 
which  he  filled  with  Saxon  troops,  till  a 
revolt  of  the  Poles  under  Ledekuski  com- 
pelled the  withdrawal  of  these  in  1716. 

Augustus  III.,  Frederick,  Elector  of 
Saxony  (Augustus  II.  of  Poland)  (6.  1696, 
d.  1763),  son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  1733,  being  supported  by  the 
Eussians  against* his  rival  Stanislaus ;  his 
reign  proved  disastrous  for  Poland.  He 
was  embroiled  with  Frederick  II.  of  Prussia, 
from  whom  he  had  to  purchase  peace. 

Augustus  I.,  Frederick  {b.  1750,  d.  1827), 
first  kiug  of    Saxony,   joined    the    league 




formed  by  Frederick  the  Great  in  1778. 
After  Jena  he  followed  Napoleon,  and  lost 
portion  of  his  kingdom  by  the  battle  of 

Augustus  II.,  Frederick  {b.  1797,  d.  1854), 
nephew  of  the  preceding,  and  an  able  soldier, 
succeeded  in  1836,  and  in  1848  made  con- 
siderable concessions  to  popular  demands. 

Aulaf  or  Anlaf  (d.  circa  925),  a  Danish 
invader  of  the  British  Islands  in  tlie  10th 
century ;  aided  by  the  Scots  and  Welsh  he 
attacked  Athelstan  of  England,  but  was  re- 
pulsed, and  forced  to  retire  to  Ireland. 
After  the  death  of  Athelstan,  Aulaf  several 
times  invaded  England  with  varying  suc- 

Aulon,  Jean,  maitre  d'hote!  to  Jeanne 
d'Arc,  whom  he  served  faithfully,  distin- 
guishing himself  at  the  siege  of  Orleans, 
and  afterward  sharing  the  "Maid's"  im- 

AiQus  Gellius,  Roman  critic  and  gram- 
marian, born  in  the  reign  of  Trajan,  author 
of  the  Attic  Nights. 

Aumale,  Charles,  Duke  d'  {d.  1631), 
one  of  the  supporters  of  the  league,  was 
governor  of  Paris  in  1588,  which  he  held, 
but  lost  the  battles  of  Senlis,  Argues,  and 
Ivry.    He  died  in  exile  at  Brussels. 

Amnale,  Henri  Eugene  Philippe  Louis 
d'Orieans,  Due  d'  {h.  1822),  foiu-th  son  of 
Louis  Philippe,  and  heir  of  the  house  of 
Conde,  entered  the  French  army  at  seven- 
teen, and  was  appointed  governor  of  Algeria 
in  1847.  On  hearing  of  the  revolution  of 
the  following  year  he  withdrew  to  England, 
but  in  1871  returned  to  France  as  a  member 
of  the  National  Assembly,  aud  won  great 
popularity.  Declining  to  present  himself 
for  re-election  in  1876,  he  devoted  himself 
to  military  duties  till  deprived  of  his  com- 
mand and  finally  expelled  from  France  in 
1886.  The  duke  has  written  several  im- 
portant political  pamphlets,  as  well  as  a 
History  of  the  Frinces  of  the  of  Conde. 

Aumont,  Jacques,  Due  d'  {d.  1799),  com- 
mandant of  the  battalion  of  the  National 
Guard  placed  over  Louis  XVI.  va.  1791. 
Though  s,uspected  of  assisting  in  the  king's 
escape,  he  was  afterwards  appointed  to  the 
command  of  Lille. 

Aungerville,  Richard.  \8ee  Bury,  Rich- 
ard de.] 

Aunoy,  Marie  Catherine,  Countess  d'  {b. 
1650,  d.  1705),  a  popular  French  novelist, 
and  authoress  of  several  volimjes  of  fairy 

Aurelianus,  Claudius  or  Lucius  Domitius, 
Emperor  of  Rome  (6.  212,  d.  275),  the  son 

of  a  peasant,  entered  the  Roman  army,  his 
exploits  in  which  attracted  the  notice  of  the 
Emperors  Valerian  and  Claudius,  and  on  the 
death  of  the  latter  in  270  he  was  proclaimed 
emperor.  His  short  reign  was  a  series  of 
brilliant  victories :  the  Goths  and  Vandals 
were  subdued,  the  Alemanni,  who  threatened 
Rome  itself,  were  exteiminated,  Palmyi-a 
was  sacked,  and  in  the  splendid  triumph  of 
Aurehan  were  led  captive  Tetricus,  the  ex- 
Emperor  of  Gaul,  Britain  and  Spain,  and 
Zenobia,  the  renowTied  Queen  of  the  East. 
A  formidable  rebelUon  at  home  was  crushed 
with  terrible  sternness,  and  the  emperor's 
severity  made  him  feared  even  by  his  friends, 
who,  as  they  deemed  in  pure  self-defence, 
conspired  against  him  and  put  him  to  death. 

Aurelius,  Antoninus  Marcus  (&.  121  a.d., 
d.  180),  Emperor  of  Rome,  was  the  adopted 
son  of  Antoninus  Pius,  to  whose  throne  he 
succeeded  in  161,  and  took  as  associate 
Lucius  Verus,  Most  of  his  reign  was  dis- 
turbed by  wars  with  the  Gemians.  Aurelius 
was  distinguished  for  his  love  of  truth  and 
his  adhesion  to  the  Stoic  school  of  philo- 
sophy, and  his  Meditations  still  exist,  and 
give  a  trustworthy  record  of  his  private 

Aurelius,  Victor  Sextus,  a  Roman  his- 
torian of  the  4th  century,  and  the  reputed 
author  of  Origo  Gentis  Romance,  and  other 

Aurelles  de  Paladine,  Louis  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  d'  (/;.  1804,  d.  1877),  French  general, 
served  in  Africa,  Rome,  at  the  Crimea. 
Commanded  the  army  of  the  Loire  in  the 
Franco -GeiTaan  war  with  some  success  at 
Orleans,  but  was  compelled  to  retire.  In 
1871  was  elected  to  the  National  Assembly, 
and  took  part  in  the  peace  negotiations  with 
GeiTaany.     Was  chosen  life  senator  in  1875. 

Aureolus,  Caius,  a  Dacian  of  humble 
birth,  became  one  of  the  most  able  generals 
of  Valerian,  and  dming  the  reign  of  Gal- 
lieuus  the  anny  of  the  Upper  Danube  re- 
volted, and  proclaimed  Aureolus  emperor, 
and  though  defeated  and  wounded,  he  suc- 
ceeded in  compassing  the  death  of  Gallienus. 
This,  however,  only  resulted  in  the  appear- 
ance of  a  still  more  formidable  opponent  in 
Claudius,  who  defeated  and  finally  put  him 
to  death. 

Auria,  Vincenzo  (6.  1625,  d.  1710),  an 
Italian  antiquary  and  poet ;  author  of  his- 
tories of  the  Eminent  Men  of  Sicily  (1704), 
the  Viceroys  of  Sicily  (1697),  aud  other 

Auriac,  Bernard  d',  a  troubadour  of  the 
13th  century,  author  of  a  Hymn  to  the 
Virgin,  aud  other  poems,  to  be  found  in 
M.  Raynouard's  collection. 

Aurifaber,  Johann  (6.  1519,  d.  1575),  a 


.  (  76  ) 


Lutheran   divine,   and   friend  and  private 
secretary  of  Luther. 

Auriferi,  Bernardino  (6.  1739,  d.  1796),  a 
Franciscan  monk  of  Palermo,  who  applied 
himself  to  the  study  of  botany,  and  wrote 
the  Hortus  Fanormitanus. 

Aurivillius,  Magnus  (6.  1673,  d.  1740), 
a  learned  Swedish  divine,  who  accompanied 
Charles  XII.  on  his  expeditions. 

Aurogallus,  Matthasus  (6.  1480,  d,  1543), 
an  accomplished  German  linguist,  who 
assisted  Lutlier  in  his  translation  of  the 
Bible,  and  wrote  a  history  of  Bohemia. 

Aurungzebe,  or  Aurangzeb  (6.  1618,  d. 
1707),  the  famous  Mogul  Emperor  of  Hin- 
dostan,  son  of  Shah  Jehan,  early  professed 
great  piety,  but  his  ambition  led  him  to 
secure  for  himself  his  father's  throne,  by 
fostering  familj^  dissensions,  and  murder- 
ing those  of  his  relatives  who  stood  in  his 
way.  He  extended  his  dominions  by  con- 
quests in  Thibet,  Golconda,  and  the'Mah- 
ratta  territory.  He  died  at  Auruiigbad, 
rendered  miserable  by  remorse  and  mistrust 
of  all  about  him. 

Ausonius,  Decimus  Magnus  (6.  309,  d. 
394),  a  Latin  poet,  professor  of  gram- 
mar and  rhetoric,  and  tutor  to  the  two 
sons  of  Valentinian  1.,  and  subsequently 
prefect  of  Latium,  Libya,  and  Gaul,  and 
proconsul  of  Asia. 

Austen,  Sir  Francis  William  (&.  1774,  d. 
1865),  a  distinguished  naval  officer,  in  1799 
commanded  the  Petrel,  afterwards  served 
under  Nelson  in  the  West  Indies,  and  in 
1809  brought  to  a  successful  termination  a 
dispute  with  the  Chinese.  He  was  created 
admiral  in  1848,  and  a  K.C.B.  in  1860. 

Austen,  Jane  (&.  1775,  d.  1817),  novelist, 
born  at  Steventon,  Hants,  of  which  parish 
her  father  was  rector.  Her  principal  pro- 
ductions are  Pride  and  Prejudice  (composed 
1796,  published  1813),  Sense  and  Sensibility, 
(1811),  and  Emma  (1816).  They  are  dis- 
tinguished for  originality,  naturalness  and 
fidelity  of  delineation,  qualities  in  which 
the  literature  of  her  time  was  most  defi- 
cient. Her  family  moved  successively  to 
Bath  and  Chawton,  and  she  died  at  Win- 
chester and  was  buried  in  the  cathedral. 

Austin,  Alfred  (&,  1835),  critic,  journalist, 
and  satirical  poet,  was  educated  for  the 
bar,  but  resigned  that  profession  for  litera- 
ture. As  a  strong  Conservative,  is  one  of  the 
editors  of  the  National  Review,  and  has 
acted  as  correspondent  to  the  Standard. 

Austin,  Coe  Finch  (6.  1831,  d.  1880),  an 
American  botanist,  a  recognised  authority 
on  mosses,  on  which  he  has  left  a  valuable 
work,  entitled  3Incis  Appalachani  (1870). 

Austin,  Horatio  Thomas,  a  British  naval 
officer,  who  took  part  in  the  Arctic  expe- 
ditions of  the  nineteenth  century.  He 
was  lieutenant  of  the  Fury  on  Captain 
Parry's  voyage  in  1824,  and  in  1850  com- 
manded the  party  in  search  of  Sir  John 

Austin,  John  (&.  1790,  d.  1859),  eminent 
EngUsh  j  urist,  served  first  in  the  army  and 
was  called  to  the  bar  in  1818.  From  1828 
to  1835  professor  of  jurisprudence  at  Uni- 
versity College,  and  his  chief  work  is  The 
Province  of  Jurisprudence  determined. 

Austin,  Mrs.  Sarah  Taylor  (6.  1793,  d. 
1867),  an  English  writer,  and  translator 
from  the  German  and  French ;  her  version 
of  Ranke's  History  of  the  Popes  is  especially 

Austin,  Stephen  T.  {d.  1836),  was  the 
founder  of  the  State  of  Texas.  He  drove 
the  Mexicans  out  of  Texas,  and  obtained  its 

Austin,  William  {b.  1778,  d.  1841),  an 
American  writer,  author  of  Letters  from 
London ;  Peter  Pugg,  the  Missing  3Lan,  and 
other  works. 

Austin,  William,  M.D.  {h.  1753,  cf.l793),  an 
eminent  jihysician  and  chemist,  who  made 
several  important  contributions  to  medical 
science,  and  published  the  Analysis  of  Gases 
in  the  Philosophical  Transactions. 

Auteni-ieth,  Johann  Friedrich  Ferdinand 
von  (1772-1835),  a  German  physician,  who 
graduated  at  Stuttgard,  and  after  travelling 
in  Europe  and  America  settled  at  Tubingen, 
where  he  filled  the  chair  of  anatomy,  phy- 
siology, and  surgery. 

Autichamp,  Charles  de  Beaumont,  Count 
d'  (6.  1770,  d.  1852),  a  French  royalist  and 
a  leader  of  the  Vendeans  in  1793.  He  also 
took  part  under  La  Eochejaquelein  in  the 
disastrous  insurrection  of  1815,  and  after 
the  restoration  was  raised  to  the  peerage. 

Auton,  or  Anton,  Jehan  d'  [h.  1466,  d. 
1527),  a  French  Benedictine  monk;  his 
verses  secured  him  the  favour  of  Anne  of 
Brittany,  and  he  was  appointed  historio- 
grapher to  Louis  XII.,  whose  life  he 

Autophradates,  a  Persian  general  under 
Artaxerxes  HI.  and  Darius  II.  ;  under  the 
former  he  took  prisoner  Artabazus,  satrap  of 
Lydia,  and  as  commander  of  the  fleet  of  the 
latter  compelled  the  submission  of  Mitylene 
and  Tenedos. 

Autreau,  Jacques  (6.  1656,  d.  1745),  a 
French  painter  and  dramatist. 

Auvergne,  Antoine  d'  (6.  1713,  d.  1797), 
musical  director  of  the  opera  of  Paris  in 


(  77) 


1770,  and  composer  of   several  successful 

Auvergne,  Beraard  II.,  Count  d'  (d.  886), 
a  distinguished  French  soldier  of  the  9th 
centuiy,  guardian  and  supporter  of  Louis 

Auvergne,  Edward  d',  an  English  historian 
of  the  17th  century,  accompanied  "WilKam 
III.  to  the  Netherlands,  and  wrote  an  ac- 
coimt  of  his  campaigns. 

Auvergne,  Gui  II.,  Count  d'  (d.  1224),  a 
turbulent  French  noble,  who  took  the  part 
of  Richard  I.  of  England,  and  was  engaged 
in  continual  struggles  with  his  brother 
Robert  and  with  Philip  Augustus  of  France. 

Auvergne,  Guillaume  d'  (d.  1249),  a 
learned  bishop  of  Paris  and  x^rofessor  of 
theology  in  the  Sorbonne. 

Auvergne,  Martial  d'  (6.  Paris,  1440,  d. 
1.508),  a  lawyer,  wit,  and  poet  of  consider- 
able celebrity,  author  of  Zes  Arrets 
d'' Amour. 

Auvergne,  Theophile  Malocoi-ret,  De  la 
Tourd'  (6.  1743,  d.  1800),  a  brave  soldier 
and  accomplished  scholar  of  singular  modesty 
and  benevolence,  served  imder  the  Due  de 
Crillon  in  the  campaign  of  Minorca,  and 
afterwards  joined  the  revolutionary  army, 
and  became  captain  of  the  "  Imperial 
Column."  After  bestowing  his  pension  in 
charity,  he  went  as  substitute  for  a  young 
conscript,  but  was  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Oberhausen.  Auvergne  was  an  excellent 
linguist,  and  left  a  Glossaire  FuJi/glotte  of 
forty-five  languages. 

Auvigny,  Jean  du  Castre  d'  (&.  1712,  d. 
1743),  a  French  author,  who  worked  with 
Desfontaines  and  Hozier ;  he  was  killed  at 
the  battle  of  Dettingen. 

Auvray, Felix  (6.  1800,  d.  1833),  a  French 
historical  painter,  was  a  pupil  of  Baron 

Auwera,  Johan  Georg  Wolfgang  von  [d. 
1756),  a  court  sculptor  at  'Wurzburg,  ex- 
celled in  colossal  figures. 

Auxentius  (6.  310,  d.  374),  a  supporter 
of  Ariauism,  and  zealous  opponent  of 
Athanasius,  He  succeeded  Dionysius  as 
bishop  of  Milan,  and  though  condemned  for 
heresy  retained  the  see  till  his  death. 

Auzanet,  Barthelemi  (6.  1591,  d.  1673),  an 
eminent  French  lawyer,  who  was  employed 
in  connection  with  a  scheme  for  establishing 
a  uniform  system  of  jurisprudence  through- 
out the  kingdom. 

Auzou,  Louis  Napoleon  (6. 1806),  a  French 
ecclesiastic  and  reformer,  founder  of  the 
"  French  Catholic  Church."    He  renounced 

his  opinions  in  1839,  and  retired  to  a  re- 
ligious house. 

Auzout,  Adrien,  a  native  of  Rouen,  flour- 
ished in  the  17th  century,  was  a  skilful  tele- 
scope-maker, and  invented  the  movable  wire 

Auzoux,  Theodore  Louis  (6.  circa  1797, 
d.  1880),  a  French  physician  and  anatomist, 
who  gi-eatly  facilitated  the  study  of  anatomy 
by  his  exact  and  delicate  models  of  the 
human  body. 

Avalos,  Alfonse  d',  Marquis  del  Vasto  (d. 
1546),  a  Spanish  soldier  of  the  16th  century, 
who  served  under  Charles  V.,  and  contri- 
buted much  to  the  victory  of  Pavia.  He 
had  also  estates  in  Italy,  and  after  fighting 
against  the  French  and  Turks  was  ap- 
pointed governor  of  Milan  in  1537,  in  which 
capacity  he  was  defeated  by  the  French  at 
Ceresole  in  1544. 

Avalos,  Ferdinando  d',  Marquis  of  Pes- 
cara  (6.  1490,  d.  1525),  cousin  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  the  \artual  commander  of  the 
Spanish  forces  at  the  battle  of  Pavia,  at 
which  he  received  wounds  from  the  effects 
of  which  he  ultimately  died. 

Avalos,  Ruy  Lopez  d',  Count  of  Ribadeo, 
was  Great  Constable  of  Castile  in  the  reign 
of  Juan  II.,  but  in  1420  joined  Enrique, 
Infante  of  Aragon,  against  that  monarch, 
and  was  forced  to  flee  to  Valencia. 

Avanzi,  Jacopo  di  Paolo  d'  (Jacopo  da 
Bologna),  an  Italian  painter  of  the  14th 
century;  most  of  his  works,  which  were 
highly  esteemed,  are  now  lost. 

Avanzini,  Guiseppe  (&.  1753,  d.  1827),  an 
eminent  Italian  mathematician. 

Avaray,  Antoine  Louis,  Due  d'  (6.  1759, 
d.  1811),  a  faithful  servant  and  friend 
of  Louis  XVIII.,  planned  and  successfully 
carried  out  the  escape  of  that  prince. 

Avaux,  Claude  de  Mesmes,  Count  d'  (6. 
1595,  d.  1650),  a  French  diplomatist  em- 
ployed by  cardinals  Richelieu  and  Mazarin  ; 
through  his  negotiations  the  peace  of  West- 
phaha  was  concluded  in  1648. 

Aved,  Jacques  Andre  Joseph  (6.  1702,  d. 
1766),  one  of  the  best  portrait  painters  of 
his  time,  was  portrait  painter  to  Louis  XV. 

Aveiro,  Jose  de  Mascarenhas,  Duke  of 
{h.  1708,  d.  1759),  an  unscrupulous  and 
ambitious  Portuguese,  who  became  the 
favourite  of  Joam  V.  Disappointed  at 
losing  his  influence  on  the  accession  of  Jose 
I.,  he  formed  a  conspiracy  against  the  life 
of  the  new  king,  but  was  discovered  and  put 
to  death. 

Aveis  I.,  Sultan  of  Persia  (d.  1347),  was 


(  78 


an  able  and  just  prince;   he  considerably 
increased  his  dominions. 

Aveis  II.,  Sultan  of  Persia  {d.  circa  1410), 
and  son  of  the  preceding,  on  whose  death 
he  murdered  an  elder  brother  and  seized  the 
throne.  His  cruelty  raised  him  many  ene- 
mies, who,  with  the  assistance  of  Tamer- 
lane, drove  him  from  the  country ;  he  fled 
to  Egj-pt,  where  he  died. 

Avellax,  Francisco  Gomez  (6.  1739,  d. 
1816),  bishop  of  Algarve,  an  able  and  learned 
divine,  who  in  addition  to  the  bishopric  held 
the  post  of  governor  and  captain-general 
of  Algarve,  and  discharged  his  multifarious 
duties  with  prudence  and  vigour. 

Avellino,  Onofrio  (6.  1674,  d.  1741), 
Italian  portrait  painter  of  note  ;  his  principal 
work  was  the  frescoes  on  the  ceiling  of 
the  church  of  St.  Francesco  di  Paolo  in 

Avelloni,  Francesco  (6.  17-56,  d.  1837),  a 
prolific  Italian  dramatist  who  wrote  many 
successful  plays,  both  in  prose  and  verse. 

Avempace  or  Aven  Pace,  a  corruption  of 
Ibn  Bajeh,  a  Spanish  Mahometan,  renowned 
for  his  learning  in  medicine,  poetry,  mathe- 
matics, and  music. 

Aventinus,  Johannes  Thurmayer  (&.  1476, 
d.  1534),  "  the  father  of  Bavarian  historio- 
graphy," was  tutor  to  the  sons  of  Albert 
the  Wise,  and  left  an  erudite  history  of  his 

Avenzoar,  a  corruption  of  Ibn  Zohi-,  a 
distinguished  Moorish  family  of  Seville.  Of 
its  members  two  especially  are  renowned, 
Abu  Merwan  Abdul-Malek,  an  eminent 
physician  who  flourished  in  the  I'ith  cen- 
tury, and  who  left  the  Teisir  and  other 
valuable  medical  works ;  and  Abu  Bekr,  his 
son,  who  excelled  in  medicine,  theology,  and 

Averdy,  Clement  Charles  Francois  de  1' 
(6.  1720,  d.  1793),  comptroller- general  of 
the  French  finances  in  17o9,  and  author  of 
some  wise  reforms  in  that  department. 
He  was  accused  of  monopoly  during  the 
Reign  of  Terror,  and  guillotined. 

Averrhdes  (&.  circa  1120,  d.  1198  or 
1206)  (Ibu-Roshd),  the  great  Arabian  philo- 
sopher, of  good  birth,  and  a  pupil  of 
Aveupace  and  Avenzoar.  He  devoted  his 
life  to  the  study  of  Aristotle.  He  was  ban- 
ished for  awhile  from  Cordova,  and  his 
views  were  condemned  by  the  University 
of  Paris  in  1240. 

Aversa,  Tommaso  {d.  1663),  a  Sicilian 
poet  and  dramatist  of  the  17th  century, 
whose  first  work,  Pyramo  e  Thisbe,  at- 
tracted considerable  attention,  entered  the 
Church,  and  devoted  himself  to  literature. 

Avesne,  Francois  {d.  1662),  a  French 
writer,  and  disciple  of  Simon  Morin,  His 
outspoken  opinions  concerning  the  rights  of 
the  people  displeased  the  queen-regent,  and 
he  was  imprisoned  till  1652. 

Avezac,  Pierre  Valentin  d',  de  Castera  (&. 
1719,  d.  1781),  a  West  Indian  of  French  ex- 
traction, who  amassed  a  considerable  fortune 
in  San  Domingo,  and  successfully  attempted 
the  f  ertilisa^tiou  of  the  Plain  of  the  Fond,  at 
a  cost  of  £30,000. 

Avezac-Macaya,  Marie  Armand  Pascal  d' 
(6.  1799,  d.  1875),  a  French  geographer  and 
ethnologist.  Was  secretary  of  the  Geo- 
graphical Society  and  head  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Marine.  Besides  other  works  he 
has  published  an  account  of  his  African  ex- 

Avianus,Flavius,  a  Latin  poet  and  fabulist, 
whose  fables  are  often  printed  with  those  of 
iEsop.  He  probably  lived  prior  to  the  reign 
of  Theodosius. 

Avian  duBois  de  Sanzay  {h.  1736,  d.  1826), 
Archbishop  of  Bordeaux,  who  devoted  him- 
self to  deeds  of  benevolence  and  piety,  and 
fii-mly  maintained  the  rights  of  the  Church 
against  Napoleon. 

Avicebron  (Solomon  Ibn  Gebirol),  a 
Spanish  Jew  of  the  11th  century,  and  author 
of  the  Fons  Vitce  referred  to  by  Albertus 
Magnus  and  Thomas  Aquinas. 

Avicenna  (Ibn  Sina),  (6.  980,  d.  1037),  the 
celebrated  Arab  physician,  a  native  of  Bok- 
hara, was  author  of  the  world-famed  Book 
of  the  Canon  of  Medicine' 

Avidius  Cassius,  a  Roman  general  under 
Antoninus  Pius  and  Aurelius,  and  after- 
wards governor  of  SjTia.  He  aspired  to 
the  imperial  throne,  and  was  proclaimed 
by  the  army,  but  was  assassinated  before 
any  action  took  place. 

Avienus,  Rufus  Festus,  Roman  versifier 
and  geographer,  and  twice  proconsul  under 

Avila,  Alonso,  a  Spanish  hidalgo,  who  ac- 
companied Cortes  to  Mexico,  and  took  part 
in  the  great  battle  of  Ceutla  (1519).  Re- 
turning to  Spaia  in  1525,  he  was  captured 
by  a  T?ench  privateer. 

Avila,  Don  Sancho  de  (6.  1523,  d.  1583), 
a  Spanish  soldier,  who  served  in  various 
countries,  and  ably  seconded  the  Duke  of 
Alva  in  the  Netherlands.  He  accomphshed 
the  arrest  of  Count  Egmont  in  1567,  and 
marred  his  otherwise  splendid  victory  at 
Mook  by  the  horrible  butchery  which  fol- 
lowed. He  afterwards  headed  the  mutiny 
of  the  army,  and  was  present  at  the  battle 
of  Alcantara. 




Avila  y  Zuniga,  Liiis  d'  {b.  1500),  a  Span- 
ish historian,  aud  a  favourite  of  Charles  V". , 
who  employed  him  as  ambassador  to  the 
popes  Paul  IV.  and  Pius  IV. 

Aviler,  Augustin  Charles  d'  (6.  1653,  d. 
1700),  a  French  architect. 

Avison,  Charles  [b.  1710,  d.  1770),  an 
English  musical  composer,  was  a  pupil  of 
Geminiani,  and  in  1752  published  an  Essay 
on  3Iusical  £xjjression. 

Avitus,  Alcimus  Ecdicius  (d.  525),  bishop 
of  Vienne,  known  as  Saint  Avitus,  was  an 
able  and  vigorous  opponent  of  Arianism, 
aud  an  author  of  some  note. 

Avitus,  Marcus  Maecilius,  Emperor  of  the 
"West  (d.  457)  in  the  5th  century,  was  de- 
scended from  an  honourable  family  of 
Auverge,  distinguished  as  a  soldier  and 
diplomatist,  and  on  the  death  of  Maximus 
was  raised  to  the  throne.  In  456  he  was 
deposed  by  the  Senate. 

Avogadro  di  Quaregna,  Amadeo  (&.  1776, 
d.  1856),  an  Italian  physicist,  remembered 
in  connection  with  the  important  chemical 
hypothesis  enunciated  by  him  in  1811,  and 
still  known  by  his  name. 

Avrigny,  Charles  Joseph  Loeillard  (b.  1760, 
d.  1823),  a  French  dramatist,  historian,  and 

Avrigny,  Hyacinthe  EobiUard  d'  (&.  1675, 
d.  1719),  a  French  Jesuit  and  historian, 
author  of  an  ecclesiastical  and  a  general 
history  of  Europe  from  1600  to  1716. 

Avril,  Jean  Jacques  {b.  Paris,  1744,  d. 
1832),  an  eminent  French  engraver,  and 
member  of  the  French  academy  of  painting. 

Avril,  Jean  Jacques,  the  Younger  [b.  1771, 
d.  1831),  son  and  pupil  of  the  preceding, 
also  was  an  engraver  of  repute. 

Awadi  of  Maragha,  a  Persian  poet  of  the 
13th  ceutmy,  and  author  of  the  celebrated 
Jam-i-Jam,  in  which  he  expounded  the 
doctrines  of  the  Suffites. 

Awdeley,  Awdly,  or  Audley,  John,  an 
English  poet  of  the  15th  century,  known  as 
"  the  blind  Awdeley" ;  after  a  youth  wasted 
in  excesses  he  entered  a  convant,  and  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  reformation  of  church 

Axayacatl  [d.  1477),  seventh  king  of 
Mexico,  of  the  Aztec  race,  and  second  son 
of  Montezuma  I. 

Axel,  or  Absaion  {h.  Iceland,  1128,  d. 
1201),  Archbishop  of  Lund,  and  Primate  of 
Denmark,  known  for  his  valiant  defence  of 
the  rights  of  Denmark  against  GeiTuany, 
and  also  as  a  naval  commander. 

Axen,  Petrus  (5.  1635,  d.  1707),  a  native 
of  Holstein,  eminent  as  a  jurist,  historian, 
and  philologist, 

Axular,  Pierre,  a  Gascon  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury, and  author  of  Guerko  Giicro,  the 
most  remarkable  work  in  the  Basque  lan- 

Ayala,  Pedro  Lopez  d'  {h.  1332,  d.  1407), 
a  Spanish  statesman,  soldier,  and  poet,  and 
author  of  a  history  of  Castile. 

Ayala,  Sebastiano  (6.  1744,  d.  1817),  a 
learned  Sicilian  Jesuit,  known  both  as  an 
author,  scientist,  and  poHtician. 

Ayeshah  {b.  610,  d.  QTi),  the  "Mother 
of  the  Faithful,"  was  the  favourite  wife  of 
Mohammed,  who  married  her  in  her  ninth 
year.  Her  influence  after  the  prophet's 
death  was  immense.  She  caused  the  assass- 
ination of  Caliph  Othman,  but  was  defeated 
by  Ali  at  the  battle  of  Basrah. 

Aylmer,  John  [b.  1521,  d.  1594),  one  of 
the  most  distinguished  di^nnes  of  the  Ee- 
formed  Church,  and  bishop  of  London  in 
the  reign  of  Elizabeth.  Originally  tutor  to 
Lady  Jane  Grey,  on  the  accession  of  Mary 
he  was  deprived  of  his  prefennent,  and 
driven  into  exile,  but  on  her  death  was  re- 
ceived into  the  royal  favour. 

Aylmer,  Matthew,  Lord  {b.  1643,  d.  1720), 
a  British  admiral,  who  distinguished  him- 
self in  the  service  of  Charles  II. ,  and  after 
the  battle  of  La  Hogue  was  made  rear- 
admiral  of  the  Red,  and  was  raised  to  the 
Irish  peerage  in  1718. 

AylofiFe,  Sir  Joseph  (?>.  1708,  (?.  1781),  an 
eminent  English  antiquary  of  the  18th  cen- 
tury, and  one  of  the  keepers  of  the  state 
papers.  He  was  author  of  the  Calendars  of 
Ancient  Charters  and  other  works. 

Aymar  or  Aimar-Vemai,  Jacques  (6. 
1662),  a  French  peasant  who  claimed  to  dis- 
cover criminals,  lost  property,  etc..  by  means 
of  a  di%duiug  rod,  and  created  much  excite- 
ment till  discovered  in  1693  to  be  an  im- 

Aymard,  Autoine,  Baron  (6. 1773,  d.  1861), 
a  French  general  who  served  in  Italy,  Ger- 
many, and  Spain,  and  was  raised  to  the 
peerage  by  Napoleon.  He  commanded  at 
Lyons  in  1834,  and  supi^ressed  the  insur- 
rection of  that  city  with  terrible  severity. 

Ayme,  Jean  Jacqiues  (Job  Ayme)  (6.  1752, 
d.  1818),  an  active  but  moderate  revolu- 
tionist, experienced  several  \dcissitudes  of 
fortune,  but  in  1804  was  appointed  director 
of  the  department  of  Bourg  en  Bresse. 

Aymon  or  Haimon,  Prince  of  the  Ardennes 
in  the  time  of  Charlemagne,  whose  four  sons 
are  renowned  in  chivahous  legend. 




Ayolas,  Juan  d',  a  Spanish  explorer  of  La 
Plata  and  Paraguay  in  the  16th  century, 
who  pushed  as  far  as  Candelaria,  in  Para- 
guay, but  was  treacherously  slain. 

Ayrault,  Pierre  (6. 1536,  d.  1601),  a  French 
advocate,  and  president  of  Angers  during 
the  war  of  the  League  ;  besides  several  pro- 
fessional treatises,  he  wrote  one  on  parental 
rights,  addressed  to  his  son  Bene,  who,  to 
his  father's  intense  gi'ief ,  became  a  Jesuit. 

Ajnrer,  Jacob  {d.  1605),  an  early  German 
di'amatist  of  considerable  talent. 

Ayrton,  Edmund  (6.  1734,  d.  1808),  an 
English  musician,  the  friend  and  pupil  of 
Dr.  Nares,  whom  he  succeeded  as  "master 
of  the  children  of  his  majesty's  chapels." 

Ayscough,  Samuel  (6.  1745,  d.  1804),  as- 
sistant librarian  at  the  British  Museum,  and 
a  diligent  bibliographer  and  compiler  of 

Ayscue,  Ayscougli,  or  Askew,  Sir  George, 
a  British  admiral  of  the  17th  century,  sided 
with  the  Parliament  during  the  Civil  war, 
and  did  good  service  in  their  behalf,  but 
on  the  Restoration  transferred  his  allegiance 
to  the  Stuarts,  and  was  made  prisoner  by 
the  Dutch  in  1666. 

Ayton  or  Aytoun,  Sir  Robert  (&.  1570,  d. 
1638),  a  Scottish  poet  and  courtier,  who 
attracted  the  notice  of  James  I.  by  a  poem 
on  his  accession  to  the  English  throne. 

Aytoun,  William  Edmonstoone  (6.  1813, 
d.  1865),  a  Scottish  poet  and  professor  of 
literature  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh. 
Amongst  his  works  are  the  Lays  of  the 
Scottish  Cavaliers  (1848),  an  edition  of  the 
Scottish  Ballads  (1858),  and  Bo7t  Gaul- 
tier''s  Book  of  Ballads,  which  he  brought 
out  in  conjunction  with  his  friend.  Sir 
Theodore  Martin.  He  was  also  a  most 
brilliant  contributor  to  Blackwood'' s  Maga- 

Ayub  Khan  (6.  circa  1849),  Ameer  of 
Sifghanistan,  on  the  abdication  of  his 
brother  Yakub  Khan  (1880)  advanced  ujion 
Candahar,  and  totally  defeated  General 
Burrows  at  Maiwand,  but  on  the  arrival  of 
General  Roberts  by  a  forced  march  from 
Cabul  his  own  forces  were  routed  and 
himself  compelled  to  flee.  The  following 
year  another  brilliant  victory  preceded  a 
second  defeat  near  Candahar,  and  Ayub 
withdrew  to  Persia,  where,  on  the  Russian 
advance  on  Penj-deh  (1885),  he  was  re- 
tained as  prisoner  of  state  at  the  request  of 
the  English  minister,  escaped  in  1887,  and 
was  recaptured. 

Ayyub-ibn-habib,  distinguished  Mahome- 
tan general  of  the  eighth  century,  who 
served  with  success  in  Africa  and  Spain, 

and  became  governor  of  the  latter  country 
till  deposed  by  Omar  II.  in  715. 

A3ryub-ibn-Shadlii  {d.  1173),  a  Moslem 
chief,  father  of  Saladin  (Salahuddin),  and 
founder  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Ayyubites. 

Azais,  Pierre  Hyacinthe  (6.  1766,  d.  1845), 
a  distinguished  French  morahst,  who  dui-ing 
the  revolution  was  compelled  to  flee  to  the 
Pp-enees,  where  he  devoted  himself  to  study, 
and  wrote  his  great  work,  Bes  Compensa- 
tions dans  les  Destinees  Humaines.  In  1806 
he  went  to  Paris,  where  his  lectures  were 
very  popular.  He  spent  the  end  of  his  life 
in  retirement,  on  a  pension  procured  through 
the  interest  of  Madame  de  Stael  and  others. 

Azambusa,  Diego  d',  a  Portuguese  travel- 
ler, who  was  entrusted  in  1481  by  King  Joam 
II.  with  the  establishment  of  a  colony  on 
the  coast  of  Guinea. 

Azanza,  Don  Miguel  Jose  d'  (6.  1746,  d. 
1826),  a  Spanish  politician,  who  filled  several 
important  posts  both  in  Spain  and  Mexico, 
and,  though  loyal  to  Fernando  VII.,  ac- 
cepted office  under  Joseph  Bonaparte. 

Azara,  Don  Felix  d'  (6.  1746,  d.  1811),  a 
Spanish  natui'alist  and  traveller,  author  of 
a  Natural  History  of  Faraguay  and  other 

Azara,  Don  Josef  Nicolas  d'  (6.  1731,  d. 
1804),  a  Spanish  diplomatist  and  author. 

Azari,  Shaikh  (6.  1388,  d.  1460),  a  Persian 
poet,  known  as  the  "king  of  the  poets." 

Azariah  de  Rossi,  an  Italian  Jew  of  the 
16th  century,  and  one  of  the  most  learned 
rabbis  of  his  time.  His  great  work  Meor 
Enajim  {The  Light  of  the  Eyes)  deals 
with  historical  events. 

Azeglio,  Cesare  Taparelli,  Marchese  d'  (6. 
Turin,  1763,  d.  1830),  the  friend  and  adviser 
of  Victor  Emmanuel,  King  of  Sardinia, 
entered  the  army,  and  served  in  the  war  with 
France  in  1792;  he  received  in  1814  an 
appointment  in  the  court  at  Turin.  He 
edited  a  Conservative  joui'nal,  L^Amico 

Azeglid,  Massimo  Taparelli,  Marchese  d' 
(6.  1798,  d.  1866),  an  Italian  novelist  and 
patriot,  and  painter  of  historical  pictures. 
In  1848  he  joined  the  patriot  army,  was 
seriously  wounded  at  Vicenza,  and  was  ap- 
pointed" President  of  the  Council  by  Victor 
Emmanuel  (1849-1852). 

Azevedo,  Ignazio  de  (6.  1527,  d.  1570),  a 
Portuguese  Jesuit,  who  went  as  missionary 
to  Brazil,  but  on  his  second  journey  there 
was  captm-ed  by  a  vessel  of  the  Queen  of 
Navanes,  and  put  to  death. 

Azizi,    Kara  -  Chelebizade    (Abdul    A3i» 




Effendi)  (h.  1591,  d.  1657),  Turkish  historian 
aud  poet,  conspired  against  Ibraham  I.,  and 
was  patronised  by  Mohammed  IV. 

Azo,  Fortius  (^.  1200),  a  distinguished 
professor  of  jurisprudence  at  Bologna. 

Azor,  Juan  (6.  1533,  d.  1G03),  a  Spanish 
Jesuit  and  professor  of  theology  at  Alcala 
and  Eome.  One  of  his  works,  The  Instdu- 
ciones  Ilorales,  attracted  considerable  notice 
from  its  questionable  morality,  but  was 
authorised  by  Clement  VIII. 

Azpilcueta,  Martin  (6.  1493,  d.  1586),  a 
native  of  Navarre,  renowned  reviver  of  the 
study  of  canon  law. 

Azuni,  Domenico  Alberto  (6,  1749,  d. 
1827),  an  Italian  jurist  and  antiquary,  in 
1807  was  judge  at  Genoa,  and  later  judge 
and  director  of  the  university  library  at 

Azurara  or  Zurara  (Gomez  Eannes),  a 

Portuguese  historian  of  the  loth  century, 
who  was  appointed  keeper  of  the  Portuguese 

Azz-ed-din,  Kilij-Arslan  {d.  1192),  fifth 
sultan  of  the  Seljukian  dynasty,  succeeded 
his  father  on  the  Turkish  throne  in  1156,  and 
proved  a  wise  and  energetic  ruler. 

Azzo  I.,  Alberto,  Marquis  of  Este  {d. 
1029),  a  turbulent  prince,  who  was  deposed 
and  imprisoned  in  1014  for  supporting  the 
attempt  of  Ardonius  on  the  throne  of  Italy. 
On  the  accession  of  Conrad  II.  he  made 
strenuous  eiforts  to  secure  the  independence 
of  Italy. 

Azzo  II.,  Marquis  d'Este  {d.  1097),  son  of 
the  preceding,  one  of  the  greatest  princes 
of  his  house. 

Azzoni-Avogari,  Eambaldo  degli  (6.  1719, 
d.  1790),  an  Italian  antiquary,  founded  a 
public  library  in  his  native  town  of  Treviso. 

Baader,  Francis  Xavier  {h.  1765,  d.  1841), 
German  theologian. 

Baan,  Jacob,  son  of  Joannes  van  Baan 
(p.  1673,  d.  1700),  also  a  good  artist. 

Baan,  Joannes  van  {b.  1633,  d.  1702),  a 
Dutch  painter  of  note,  was  invited  to 
England  by  Charles  II.,  whose  portrait  he 
painted.  He  refused  a  commission  from 
Louis  XIV.  from  patriotic  motives.  His 
Kfe  was  twice  attempted  by  jealous 

Baasha,  the  son  of  Ahijah,  held  a  high 
command  in  the  army  of  Israel,  and  after 
miu'dering  Nadab,  the  king,  seized  upon 
the  throne,  reigning  for  24  years.  To 
secure  his  title  he  murdered  every  member 
of  the  house  of  Jeroboam. 

Baba,  Ali  {d.  1718),  was  elected  Dey 
of  Algiers  in  1710,  after  the  revolution  in 
which  Ibrahim  Dey  was  killed.  At  great 
sacrifice  of  life  Baba  liberated  Algiers  from 
the  dominion  of  Turkey,  and  its  indepen- 
dence was  maintained  until  the  Erench  in- 
vasion in  1830. 

Babbage.  Charles  {b.  1792,  d.  1871), 
English  mathematician,  a  prolific  author, 
graduated  at  Cambridge,  and  was  afterwards  i 
Lucasian  professor  there  for  11  years.  He  j 
conducted  much  valuable  research,  his  chief  | 
efforts  being  devoted  to  the  construction  of  i 
a  calculating  machinOj  in  which,  however,  ^ 

he  was  not  wholly  successful.    In  1832  he 
stood  for  Finsbury,  but  was  defeated. 

Baber,  Zuheir-Ed-Din  Mohammed  (b. 
1483,  d.  1530),  conqueror  of  India,  and 
founder  of  the  great  Mogul  dynasty.  Sixth 
in  descent  from  Tamerlane,  he  succeeded 
his  father  in  the  government  of  Ferghana 
in  his  twelfth  year.  His  early  life  was  one 
of  strange  vicissitude  ;  his  frequent  expe- 
ditions against  Samarcand  being  followed  by 
insurrections  at  home  which  drove  him  into 
exile.  Fl}dng  at  last  to  Cabul,  he  was  pro- 
claimed ruler  there,  and  after  20  years  of 
troubled  government  he  marched  into  India, 
and  gained  a  splendid  victoiy  over  Ibra- 
him Lodi.  A  subsequent  victory  over  the 
federated  Eajput  princes  placed  all  India 
practically  in  his  hands.  He  left  a  memoir 
of  his  Hfe. 

Babeuf,  Francois  Noel  {b.  1764,  d.  1797),  , 
a  violent  French  revolutionist,  known  as 
"Caius  Gracchus,"  from  the  pseudonym 
used  by  him  in  his  writings  in  the  Trihun  du 
Teuple.  He  organised  the  ' '  Societe  du  Fan- 
theon,^^  which,  by  promoting  armed  in- 
surrection, was  to  proclaim  the  constitutior 
of  1793.  The  conspiracy  having  been  be- 
trayed, he  was  guillotined. 

Babi,  Jean  Francois  [h.  1759,  d.  1796), 
French  revolutionary  officer,  who  com- 
mitted the  most  violent  excesses  at  Toulouse 
during    the    Reign    of   Terror.     He   W9,2 




executed  for  participating  in  Babeuf  s  con- 

Babinet,  Jacques  (b.  1794,  d.  1872), 
French  physicist  and  astronomer,  after 
occupj'ing  professorial  chairs  at  Fontenoy 
and  Poitiers,  became  professor  of  phy- 
sics at  the  college  of  St.  Louis,  Paris,  a 
position  which  he  held  for  49  years.  He 
made  many  inventions  in  machinery,  and 
was  a  very  popular  lecturer.  His  Cartes 
Homolographiques,  drawn  on  a  new  system 
of  projection,  and  his  predictions  of  the 
failure  of  the  Atlantic  Cable,  excited  much 

BaMngton,  Anthony  (c?.  1586),  an  English 
Roman  Catholic  gentleman,  of  good  family, 
known  to  history  by  the  plots  which  he 
formed  to  liberate  Mary  Queen  of  Scots 
and  to  assassinate  Elizabeth.  These  were 
discovered  by  Walsingham's  spies,  and 
Babington,  escaping  for  a  time,  was  finally 
executed  at  Tyburn. 

Babington,  William  [b.  1756,  d.  1833), 
mineralogist,  chemist,  and  geologist,  prac- 
tised as  a  physician  in  London,  and  was 
largely  instrumental  in  founding  the  Hun- 
terian  Society  and  the  Geological  Society 
of  London. 

Babini,  Matteo  {b.  1754,  d.  1816),  an 
Italian  singer,  who  obtained  a  great  reputa- 
tion all  over  Europe,  being  received  with 
distinction  at  many  coui'ts. 

Babois,  Marguerite  Victoire  {b.  1760,  d. 
1839),  a  French  poetess  of  some  note,  and 
niece  of  the  poet  Ducis. 

Babrius,  a  Greek  poet,  who  lived  about 
the  2nd  or  3rd  century,  known  for  his 
rhythmical  versions  of  Jtlsop's  Fables. 

Babylas,  Saint,  a  Bishop  of  Antioch,  who 
suffered  martp-dom  in  the  Decian  perse- 
cution of  251.  He  refused  the  Roman 
emperor  Philip  entrance  to  the  church 
after  he  had  ordered  the  death  of  Gallus. 
His  remains  were  first  laid  outside  Eome, 
and  afterwards,  by  the  order  of  the  Emperor 
Julian,  conveyed  to  Antioch. 

BaccMni,  Benedetto  (6.  1651,  d.  1721),  a 
learned  Benedictine  monk,  and  a  preacher 
celebrated  throughout  Italy.  He  was  a 
great  Greek  and  Hebrew  scholar,  a  good 
linguist,  and  a  musician.  In  1685  he  be- 
came counsellor  of  the  Inquisition  at  Parma; 
in  1688  theologian  to  the  Duke  of  Parma; 
and  subsequently  librarian  and  historian  to 
the  Duke  of  Modena.  He  filled  the  chair 
of  sacred  literature  in  the  university  of 
Bologna,  and  was  the  author  of  numerous 

Baccbylides,  a  celebrated  Greek  lyrical 
poet,  who  lived  in  iha  5th  century  b.c,     He 

wrote  in  the  Doric  dialect,  and  was  the 
great  rival  of  Pindar.  His  poems  have 
nearly  aU  been  lost. 

Baccio  della  Porta  [b.  1469,  d.  1517),  a 
Florentine  painter  of  great  repute,  better 
known  as  Fra  Bartolommeo.  From  study- 
ing the  works  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci  in  his 
house  near  the  Porta  San  Pietro  he  obtained 
the  sobriquet,  ' '  della  Porta. ' '  He  there  exe- 
cuted the  frescoes  of  the  Last  Judgment, 
which  were  afterwards  finished  by  his  friend 
Albertinelli.  Coming  under  the  influence 
of  Savonarola,  he  was  so  affected  by  the 
cruel  death  of  the  great  preacher  that  he 
entered  the  convent  of  Prato  in  1500  as  a 
Dominican  monk.  For  four  years  he  aban- 
doned painting,  and  when  he  resumed,  in 
obedience  to  the  superiors  of  his  Order,  he 
devoted  himself  entirely  to  religious  sub- 
jects. His  fame  spread  rapidly,  and  drew 
to  him  young  Raphael,  the  two  painters 
exercising  a  great  influence  over  each  other. 
Baccio  visited  Rome,  and  returning  to  the 
convent,  produced  his  chef  d^oeuvre,  St. 
Mark.  His  artistic  power  was  increasing 
when  he  died  at  the  early  age  of  48.  His 
St.  Feter  and  his  St.  Faul  were  finished  by 

Bach,  Alexander,  Baron  (b.  1813), 
Austrian  statesman,  a  member  of  the 
Vienna  bar,  figured  in  the  revolutionary 
movement  of  1848,  and  became  minister  of 
justice  in  the  first  hberal  cabinet,  in  which 
position  he  occupied  himself  with  judicial 
reforms.  By  supporting  the  veto  of  the 
Crown  he  lost  his  popularity,  and  was 
driven  to  flight  by  insurrection.  Later  he 
occupied  other  ministerial  posts,  and  from 
1859  to  1865  he  was  plenipotentiary  to  the 

Bach,  Johann  Christian  {b.  1735,  d. 
1782),  eleventh  and  youngest  son  of  Sebas- 
tian; when  19  years  of  age  went  to 
Milan,  where  he  was  appointed  organist  in 
the  cathedral.  In  1762  he  came  to  London, 
made  a  considerable  reputation  as  a  com- 
poser and  player,  and  was  appointed  organist 
and  composer  to  the  queen.  Intemperate 
habits  finally  undermined  his  constitution, 
and  he  died  in  London. 

Bach,  Johann  Christoph  (^.  1732,  d. 
1795),  ninth  son  of  Sebastian;  like  his 
brother,  abandoned  law  for  music,  and 
obtained  the  post  of  kapellmeister  to  the 
Duke  of  Schaumberg-Lippe. 

Bach,  Johann  Sebastian  {b.  1685,  d. 
1750),  the  greatest  of  a  large  family  of  dis- 
tinguished musicians.  When  he  was  ten 
years  of  age  his  father  died,  and  he  went  to 
live  at  Ordruff  with  his  brother,  who  placed 
great  obstacles  in  the  way  of  his  musical 
studies.  On  the  death  of  this  brother  yoimg 
Bach  earned  a  livelihood  at  Luneberg  by 




singing.  He  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
music,  and  when  18  years  old  apjDeared 
at  Weimar  as  a  violinist.  Next  year  he 
obtained  a  post  as  organist  at  Amstadt, 
vrhere  his  powers  of  execution  began  to 
attract  attention,  and  in  1708  he  returned  to 
Weimar  as  an  organist.  Here  he  first  be- 
came kno-vvn  as  a  composer,  and  his  fame 
spread  so  rapidly  that  he  was  appointed 
kapellmeister  and  director  of  Court  con- 
certs by  the  Prince  of  Anhalt-Cothen. 
Soon  afterwards  he  was  induced  to  chal- 
lenge Marchand,  a  French  organist  of  great 
repute,  to  a  public  contest  of  skill  on  the 
organ.  Marchand  disappeared  quietly  be- 
fore the  appointed  day,  but  Bach's  per- 
formance gained  for  him  the  highest  place 
as  a  musician.  In  1723  he  went  to 
Leipzig  as  director  of  the  school  of  music 
of  St.  Thomas's,  a  post  which  he  occupied 
to  the  end.  The  Duke  of  Weissenfels  and 
Augustus  III.,  Elector  of  Saxony  and  King 
of  Poland,  both  apjjointed  Bach  honorary 
kapellmeister  to  their  Courts,  and  in  1747 
he  was  invited  by  Frederick  the  Great  to 
Potsdam,  where  he  performed  with  great 
eclat.  Returning  to  Leipzig,  he  devoted 
himself  to  composition,  but  too  close  work 
brought  on  cataract  of  the  eyes.  Two  im- 
successful  operations  were  performed,  and 
his  health  rapidly  declined. 

Bach,  Karl  Phihpp  Emanuel  (b.  1714, 
d.  1788),  second  son  of  the  above,  aban- 
doned law  for  the  study  of  music,  in  which 
he  succeeded  so  well  that  he  was  called  to 
Berlin,  where  Frederick,  the  Prince  Royal, 
made  him  kapellmeister.  After  residing  in 
Berlin  for  29  years,  he  succeeded,  in  1767, 
Telemann  at  Hamburg. 

Bach,  Victor  [b,  1770,  d.  1799),  a  French 
revolutionist  and  physician,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Convention.  Failing  to  reahse 
his  political  aspirations,  he  committed 

Bach,  Wilhelm  Friedemann  {b.  1717, 
d.  1784),  eldest  son  of  Sebastian;  aban- 
doned the  law  for  music,  and  in  1747 
became  organist  in  the  church  of  Notre 
Dame  at  Halle,  a  post  which  he  held  for 
20  years.  After  an  unsettled  life,  he  went 
to  Berlin,  where  he  died  in  penury,  brought 
on  by  intemperance  and  indolence. 

Bachaumont,  Fran9ois  le  Coigneux  de 
{b.  1624,  d.  1702),  French  vnt  and  satirist, 
famous  for  his  inveterate  hostility  to  Car- 
dinal Mazarin.  A  notorious  bon  vivant,  he 
was  converted  in  later  Hfe  to  serious  and 
religious  habits. 

Bachaumont,  Louis  (d.  1771),  a  French 
writer  known  to  the  world  as  the  author 
of  Les  Menioires  Secrets  pour  servir  de 
VEistoire  de  la  Bepuhliqiie  des  Lettres,  a 
record  of  scandal  and  gossip  connected  with 

Paris  celebrities  of  the  day.    The  work  was 
continued  by  others. 

Bache,  Alexander  Dallas  {b.  1806,  d.  1867), 
distinguished  American  scientist,  and  a 
great-grandson  of  Benjamin  Franklin, 
gi-aduated  at  West  Point,  and  became  a 
lieutenant  of  engineers.  From  1827  to  1836 
he  was  mathematical  professor  at  Pennsyl- 
vania University,  and  then,  being  appointed 
president  of  the  projected  Girard  College, 
he  went  to  Europe  to  examine  and  report 
upon  the  educational  systems  of  various 
countries.  In  1843  he  was  appointed  super- 
intendent of  the  U.S.  coast  survey,  and 
his  work  in  this  capacity  earned  for  him  a 
great  reputation.  He  occupied  several  dis- 
tinguished positions  under  government,  and 
did  much  to  encourage  scientific  research. 
On  his  death  he  left  $42,000  to  the  National 
Academy  of  Science. 

Bache,  Franklin  {b.  1792,  d.  1864),  cousin 
of  above,  served  as  a  surgeon  in  the  U.S. 
army  until  1814.  He  filled  the  chairs  of 
chemistry  in  the  Franklin  Institute  of 
Peunsylvania,  and  the  Jefferson  Medical 
College  of  Philadelphia,  and  in  1853  was 
chosen  president  of  the  American  Philoso- 
phical Society. 

Bachelier,  Jean  Jaques  {b.  1724,  d.  1805), 
French  painter,  who,  having  obtained 
wealth  by  his  art,  endowed  a  free  school  of 
design,  which  was  opened  in  1766,  and 
proved  very  successful.  He  introduced  the 
celebrated  Sevres  china  designs,  and  was 
director  of  the  manufactory  for  over  40  years. 

Bachelot  de  la  Pylair,  Auguste  Jean 
Marie  {b.  1786,  d.  1856),  French  natui-alist 
and  conchologist,  travelled  through  Asia 
and  America  in  the  pursuit  of  his  favourite 
studies,  and  returned  with  a  splendid  collec- 
tion of  plants  and  shells,  which  he  presented 
to  the  Paris  natural  history  museum. 

Bachelu,  Gilbert  Desire  Joseph  (b.  1717, 
d.  1849),  a  French  soldier,  and  officer  of  the 
Legion  of  Honour,  served  with  distinc- 
tion in  many  of  the  Napoleonic  campaigns, 
rising  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general  in 
1813.  He  joined  Napoleon  on  his  escape 
from  Elba,  and  fought  at  Quatre  Bras  and 
Waterloo.  After  the  second  restoration  he 
was  banished,  but  in  1817  he  was  recalled, 
and  later  in  life  became  a  deputy. 

Bachman,  John  {b.  1790,  d.  1874), 
American  clergyman,  author,  and  man  of 
science,  in  1815  became  pastor  of  the  German 
Lutheran  church  at  Charlestown,  a  post 
which  he  filled  till  his  death.  He  colla- 
borated with  Audubon  in  the  production 
of  The  Birds  of  America,  and  was  chiefly 
responsible  for  The  Quadrupeds  of  America. 

Bachmann,  Jaques  Joseph  Antoine  Leger, 
Baron  de  {b.  1733,  d.  1792),  a  Swiss  of  high 




lineage,  who  entered  the  Frencli  service,  and 
became  commander  of  the  famous  Swiss 
guards  in  Paris.  He  defended  the  king 
with  great  gallantry  against  the  revolution- 
aiy  mob  in  1 792 ;  but  being  taken  prisoner, 
he  was  guillotined. 

Baciccio  {b.  1639,  d.  1709),  more  pro- 
perly, Giovanni  Battista  Gauli ;  an  Italian 
painter,  bom  in  Genoa,  went  to  Eome  when 
still  a  boy,  and  was  fortunate  in  attracting 
the  interest  of  influential  persons.  His  first 
picture  gave  him  a  reputation,  and  after 
executing  commissions  for  Prince  Pamfili, 
he  was  permitted  by  Alexander  VII.  to 
undertake  the  decoration  of  the  Chiesa  di 
Gesu.  On  this  work,  which  occupied  five 
years,  the  reputation  of  the  painter  mainly 
rests,  although  it  by  no  means  exhausted 
his  genius  and  industry. 

Baciocclii,  Maria  Anna  Eliza  (b.  VJll,  d. 
1820),  eldest  sister  of  Napoleon  the  Great, 
secretly  married  Felix  Pascal  Baciocchi, 
a  captain  of  infantry  of  good  birth.  While 
he  served  with  the  army,  securing  rapid 
promotion,  she  resided  in  Paris,  where  her 
salons  were  celebrated  for  their  brilliance. 
When  Napoleon  became  Emperor,  he  created 
for  her  the  principality  of  Piombino  and 
Lucca  ;  and  in  1809  made  her  Grand  Duchess 
of  Tuscany.  On  the  fall  of  the  Empire  she 
and  her  husband  left  Italy,  and  she  died  at 

Back,  Sir  George  {h.  1796,  d.  1878),  an 
English  Arctic  explorer,  entered  the  royal 
navy  in  1808;  was  taken  prisoner  in 
the  French  war,  and  did  not  recover  his 
freedom  for  five  years.  In  1818  he  volun- 
teered to  accompany  Franklin  in  the  Trent ^ 
and  in  the  following  year  he  took  part  in 
Franklin's  land  expedition  from  Hudson's 
Bay  to  the  Coppermine  river.  He  rendered 
distinguished  services,  in  the  face  of  the 
greatest  hardships,  and  in  1825  he  again 
accompanied  Franklin  on  an  Arctic  expedi- 
tion, and  again  with  distinction  to  himself. 
In  1833  he  took  command  of  an  expedition 
to  relieve  Sir  John  Eoss,  and,  although 
unsuccessful,  he  made  several  valuable  dis- 
coveries. On  his  return,  in  1835,  he  was 
made  post-captain,  and  in  1836  he  set  out 
on  yet  another  Arctic  expedition,  returning 
in  the  following  year.  In  1837  he  was 
knighted,  and  in  1859  he  was  made  a  rear- 
admii-al.  He  left  a  legacy  for  the  advance- 
ment of  Arctic  exploration. 

Backhusen  (or  Backhuysen),  Ludolph  {b. 
1631,  d.  1709),  a  famous  Dutch  marine 
painter. _  Among  many  celebrated  visitors  to 
his  studio  were  Prince  Frederick  of  Prussia 
and  Peter  the  Great. 

Bacon,  Anne  (5. 1528,  d.  1600),  the  daugh- 
ter of  Sir  Anthony  Cooke,  an  eminent 
scholar,  the  wife  of  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  and 

the  mother  of  Francis  Bacon.  Her  corre- 
spondence with  her  son  possesses  mtich 

Bacon,  Anthony  {b.  1558,  d.  1601),  elder 
brother  of  Francis  Bacon ;  went  to  France, 
acting  as  a  semi-official  agent  for  Bur- 
leigh, and  his  wit  and  learniug  gained  for 
him  the  intimacy  of  men  of  infiuence  and 
note.  On  his  recall  he  became  secretary  to 
the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  entered  the  House  of 

Bacon,  Delia  (5.  1811,  d.  1859),  known  as 
a  supporter  of  the  theory  of  the  Baconian 
authorship  of  Shakespeare's  plays. 

Bacon,  Francis  {p.  1501,  d.  1626),  Baron 
Verulam,  and  Viscount  St.  Albans,  was 
the  eighth  child  of  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  the 
Lord  Keeper,  his  mother,  Anne  Cooke,  being 
Su-  Nicholas's  second  wife.  At  13  he  was 
sent  to  Cambridge,  but  though  he  read 
widely  he  did  not  take  a  degree ;  and 
after  three  years'  residence  at  the  Uni- 
versity he  went  to  Paris  in  the  suite  of 
Sir  Amyas  Paulet,  Elizabeth's  ambassa- 
dor. His  experiences  in  Paris  formed  the 
basis  of  his  treatise,  afterwards  published, 
Of  the  State  of  Europe.  His  father  dying, 
he  returned  to  England  in  1580,  and  applied 
to  Lord  Bui'leigh,  his  uncle  on  his  mother's 
side,  for  public  employment.  Burleigh, 
however,  for  his  son's  sake,  was  jealous  of 
Bacon,  and  the  disappointed  young  man 
turned  to  the  study  of  law.  He  next  sought 
and  obtained  the  favour  of  the  Earl 
of  Essex,  who  unsuccessfully  endeavoured 
to  obtain  the  post  of  attorney-general  for 
him,  and  who  befriended  him  in  many  ways. 
In  1590  he  became  counsel  extraordinary  to 
the  queen,  and  having  entered  Parliament 
he  took  a  prominent  part  in  its  debates,  and 
greatly  olf  ended  the  queen  by  opposing  the 
Court  on  the  question  of  subsidies.  Wlien 
Essex  was  tried  for  treason  in  1600, 
Bacon  took  an  active  part  in  the  prose- 
cution of  his  friend  and  patron.  On  the 
accession  of  James  I.  his  promotion 
became  more  rapid.  He  was  knighted 
in  1603,  and  secured  the  hand  of  a  rich 
alderman's  daughter;  he  became  Solicitor 
General  in  1607,  Registrar  of  the  Court  of 
Star  Chamber  in  1608,  and  Attorney  General 
in  1613.  Three  boroughs  now  simultaneously 
returned  him  to  Parliament,  and  although 
custom  forbade  an  attoi-ney-general  to  sit  in 
the  House,  a  special  exception  was  made  in 
his  behalf.  He  strongly  supported  the  king's 
schemes  for  the  union  of  England  and  Scot- 
laud,  and,  indeed,  showed  great  subserviency 
both  to  the  Crown  and  Buckingham,  his 
conduct  in  several  notorious  cases  not  re- 
dounding to  his  credit.  In  1617  he  became 
Lord  Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal,  and  in  1619, 
Lord  Chancellor,  with  the  title  of  Baron 
Verulam,  being  created  Viscount  St.  Albans 




in  the  following  year.  In  1621  Parliament 
instituted  an  inquiry  into  the  state  of  the 
Bench,  with  the  result  that  Bacon  was  im- 
peached for  taking  bribes.  He  confessed, 
with  qualifications,  to  23  acts  of  corruption 
charged  against  him,  and  was  sentenced  to 
a  hoa-\^  fine,  imprisonment  during  the  king's 
pleasure,  and  deprivation  of  all  rights  to 
hold  ofiice  or  sit  in  Parliament.  The  fine 
was  remitted,  the  imprisonment  lasted  but 
two  days,  he  was  summoned  to  the  next 
Parliament,  though  he  did  not  appear,  he 
was  allowed  to  return  to  Court,  and  his 
titles  were  not  taken  from  him.  He  retu-ed 
from  public  life,  drawing  a  pension  of  £1,200, 
and,  still  visited  by  men  of  leading,  he  de- 
voted himself  to  hterature  and  science.  He 
died,  from  the  effects  of  a  chill,  in  1626,  at 
the  Earl  of  Arundel's  house  at  Highgate. 
Controversy  has  never  ceased  to  rage  on 
Bacon's  conduct  in  public  life,  and  he  has 
not  lacked  many  able  apologists.  Among  his 
many  great  works  mention  must  be  made 
of  the  Essays  {lb97),  Advancement  of  Learn- 
ing  (1605),  Novum  Organum  (1620),  Kistory 
of  the  Beign  of  Eenry  VII.  (1622),  and  De 
Augmentis  Scientiarum  (1623). 

Bacon,  John  (f/.  1346),  an  English  monk 
(generally  known  as  Baconthorp)  of  great  ' 
erudition,  became    principal  of    the    Car- 
meUtes,  and  was  the  leader  of  the  followers 
of  Averrhoes. 

Bacon,  John,  E.A.  {b.  1740,  d.  1799),  an 
English  sculptor,  gained  a  prize  from  the 
Society  of  Arts  when  only  18,  and  secured 
nine  other  first  prizes  afterwards.  A  student 
at  the  Eoyal  Academy,  he  took  the  first  gold 
medal  for  sculpture  in  1769,  and  in  1770  he 
obtained  publicity  and  the  patronage  of  the 
king  by  his  statue  of  Mars. 

Bacon,  Sir  Nicolas  (b.  1510,  d.  1579),  Lord 
Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal  to  Elizabeth,  studied 
at  Cambridge,  where  he  began  his  friend- 
ship with  Lord  Burleigh,  and  after  visiting 
France,  took  up  the  profession  of  the  law. 
He  obtained  the  favour  of  Henry  YIII. ,  and 
was  appointed  Attorney  of  the  Court  of 
Wards,  a  post  which  he  held  until  the  ac- 
cession of  Mary.  Elizabeth  made  him  a 
member  of  the  Privy  Council,  and  Lord 
Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal  in  1558,  and 
showed  many  other  marks  of  her  favour  and 
confidence.  He  offended  the  queen  by  his 
attitude  on  the  question  of  the  succession, 
but  by  Burleigh's  influence  was  soon  re- 
stored to  favour,  and  in  1568  presided  over 
the  Commission  for  investigating  the  charge 
against  Mary  Queen  of  Scots  of  murdering 
her  husband.  In  1577  Elizabeth  visited  him 
at  his  residence  in  Hertfordshire. 

Bacon,  Phanuel  {b.  1700,  d.  1783),  an 
English  clergyman  and  dramatist,  who  ob- 
tained some  celebrity  in  his  day. 

Bacon,  Eoger  {b.  1214,  d.  1292),  an 
English  monk  and  scientific  investigator, 
studied  at  Oxford  and  Paris,  where  he 
graduated  in  theology,  and  in  1240  entered 
the  o?der  of  Franciscans,  settling  at  Oxford. 
A  man  of  wide  erudition,  he  devoted  himself 
to  physical  science,  in  which  he  made  many 
remarkable  discoveries.  He  created  enmity 
by  his  demands  for  refonn  among  the 
clergy,  and  was  accused  of  sorcery,  with 
the  result  that  he  was  forbidden  to  teach 
in  the  university  and  was  practically  out- 
lawed. The  Papal  Legate  in  England 
became  interested  in  Bacon,  and  on  his 
elevation  to  the  Papal  chair  as  Clement 
IV.,  sent  for  his  works,  notwithstanding 
the  prohibition  against  them  which  the 
superiors  of  the  Franciscan  Order  had  is- 
sued. Bacon  sent  the  Opus  Majus,  the 
Opus  3Iinufi,  and  the  Opus  Tertium,  and 
some  scientific  instruments;  but  Clement 
soon  after  died,  and  again  Bacon  was  ac- 
cused of  sorcery,  this  time  at  Paris  before 
Jerome  d'Esculo,  General  of  the  Franciscan 
Order.  He  went  to  Paris  to  answer  the 
charge :  but  his  works  were  condemned,  and 
he  was  imprisoned  for  10  years.  When 
liberated,  through  the  intercession  of  in- 
fluential Euglish  nobles,  his  health  was 
shattered,  and  he  died  in  England  in  the 
following  year.  His  works  are  very  numer- 
ous, displajang  both  the  greatest  erudition 
and  sagacity  and  strange  credulity  and 

Bacsanjri,  John  {b.  1763,  d.  1845),  Hun- 
garian patriot  and  poet,  helped  to  found 
the  first  literary  review  in  Hungary,  but 
the  venture  was  suppressed  and  he  was 
imprisoned  for  conspiracy.  During  Napo- 
leon's occupation  of  Vienna  he  had  to  fly 
from  France  for  his  advocacy  of  the  national 

Badajos,  Juan  de,  a  Spanish  architect, 
born  in  the  latter  part  of  the  12th  centmy, 
who,  among  other  works,  helped  in  the  pre- 
paration of  plans  for  Salamanca  cathedi'al. 

Badalocchio,  Sisto  {b.  1581,  d.  1647),  an 
Italian  painter  and  engraver  of  merit. 

Badby,  John  (d.  1410),  an  English  martyr 
and  artisan,  was  burned  at  the  stake  as  a 

Badcock,  Samuel  (^.  17i7,d.  1788),  a  man 
of  letters,  at  first  a  dissenting  minister, 
joined  the  Church  of  England  in  1787. 
He  gained  a  great  reputation  by  a  brilliant 
criticism  of  a  work  by  Dr.  Priestly,  and  he 
also  joined  in  the  "  Eowley  "  controversy. 
He  was  the  author  of  3femoirs  of  the 
Wesley  Family. 

Baden,  Frederick  William  Louis,  Grand 
Duke  of  {b.  1826),  in  1852  became  re- 
gent, his  elder  brother  being  insane,  and  in 




1856  he  succeeded  to  the  Duchy,  and  mar- 
ried a  daughter  of  William  I.  of  Prussia. 
He  took  part  in  the  Franco- German  war. 
In  1855  he  banished  the  Jesuits. 

Baden,  Jacob  {b.  1735,  d.  1804),  a  Danish 
philologist,  filled  several  high  educational 
posts,  wrote  much,  and  founded  the  Danish 
Critical  Journal. 

Badens,  Frans  (6.  1571,  d.  1603),  Dutch 
painter,  celebrated  for  his  portraits  and 
historical  pieces. 

Badger,  George  Percy  {b.  1815,  d.  1888),  a 
clergyman  and  orientalist,  took  orders  in 
1842,  and  was  sent  to  the  East;  was  ap- 
pointed government  chaplain  at  Bombay 
and  Aden,  and  acted  as  interpreter  to 
diplomatic  missions  in  Arabia,  Persia, 'East 
Africa  and  Egypt.  He  wrote  many  works 
on  the  East.  He  was  made  a  D.C.L.  by  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

Badia  y  Lablich  (b.  1766,  d.  1818),  a 
Spanish  traveller,  who,  imder  the  name  of 
Ali  Bey,  and  as  a  true  believer,  travelled 
all  through  the  Mohammedan  East  with- 
out ever  arousing  suspicions  of  his  actual 
identity.  He  even  went  to  Mecca  as  a 
pilgrim,  and  was  received  with  honour  at 
Constantinople.  Eeturning  to  Spain,  he 
took  service  under  the  French  invader,  and 
in  1814  went  to  Paris,  where  he  published 
the  account  of  his  travels.  Proceeding 
again  to  the  East  under  another  name,  he 
died  at  Aleppo  of  dysentery  or  poison. 

Badie,  Louis  Augustin  de  la  {b.  1696,  d. 
1765),  a  French  soldier  who  fought  with 
distinction  in  the  War  of  Succession.  He 
served  last  in  Germany  in  1761,  and  was 
then  created  field  marshal. 

Badius,  Conrad,  son  of  Jodocus  Badius, 
and  also  a  printer.  Religious  persecution 
drove  him  from  Paris  to  Geneva. 

Badius,  Jodocus  {b.  1462,  d.  1535),  one 
of  the  first  of  French  printers,  learnt  the 
process  of  printing  in  Italy,  and  set  up  in 
Lyons  in  1491  as  a  printer  and  teacher  of 
Greek  and  Latin.  Later  he  went  to  Paris, 
where  he  printed  many  of  the  classics. 

Baeck,  Abraham  (b.  1713,  d.  1795),  a 
Swedish  physician  and  naturalist,  tra- 
velled in  Germany,  England  and  France, 
acquired  considerable  reputation,  and  finally 
was  appointed  Eoyal  physician.  He  wrote 
many  valuable  treatises  on  natural  history. 

Baehr,  Johann  Christian  Felix  {b.  1789, 
d.  1872),  a  German  philologist,  occupied 
several  high  educational  posts,  edited  many 
Greek  classics,  and  wrote  much  on  historical 
and  philological  questions. 

Baer,  Karl  Ernst  von  {b.  1792,  d. 
1876),  a  Russian  scientist,  took  a  medical 

degree,  and  practised  in  Vienna,  but  soon 
abandoned  medicine  for  natural  science. 
He  held  professorial  chairs  at  Konigs- 
berg,  and  devoted  himself  to  the  study 
of  embryology,  on  which  he  became  a 
great  authority.  In  1834  he  was  appointed 
librarian  of  the  St.  Petersburg  academy 
of  science,  and  in  1851  he  undertook  an 
investigation  of  Russian  fisheries  on  behalf 
of  the  government.  He  has  made  many 
valuable  contributions  to  scientific  litera- 

Baert,  Alexander  Balthasar  Francois  de 
Paule,  Baron  de  {b.  1750,  d.  1825),  a  French 
geographer  who  spent  many  years  in  Eng- 
land, Russia  and  Spain,  was  a  member  of 
the  legislative  assembly,  and  fled  to  the 
United  States  during  the  Reign  of  Terror. 
He  wrote  several  books  on  geography  and 

Baffin,  Wilhara  {b.  1584,  d.  1622), 
an  English  Arctic  explorer,  accompanied 
Captain  James  Hall  on  his  fourth  Arctic 
voyage  in  1612 ;  in  1614  he  joined  an  ex- 
pedition to  Spitsbergen,  and  in  1615  he  set 
out  in  the  Discovery  to  find  the  north-west 
passage,  the  attempt  being  renewed  the  next 
year.  Though  imsuccessful,  Baffin  pene- 
trated farther  north  than  any  navigator 
before  him,  and  published  charts  and  jour- 
nals of  the  voyages.  He  was  killed  at  the 
siege  of  Ormuz. 

Baffo,  a  Venetian  lady  of  the  15th  cen- 
tury, who,  taken  prisoner  by  pirates,  came 
under  the  notice  of  Sultan  Aniurath  III., 
and  became  his  favourite  wife,  bearing  him 
Mohammed  III.  She  exercised  a  great 
influence  over  both  her  husband  and  her 
son,  and  earned  for  herself  the  surname 
Sajie,  or  "the  Pure," 

Bagard,  Caesar  {b.  1639,  ci.  1709),  a  French 
sculptor,  known  as  "le  grand  Caesar."  A 
large  part  of  his  work  is  to  be  found  in  the 
churches  of  Nancy,  his  native  towTi. 

Bage,  Robert  {b.  1728,  d.  1801),  an  Eng- 
lish novelist ;  originally  a  paper  maker,  his 
want  of  success  induced  him  to  turn  to 
fiction,  in  which  he  exhibited  such  talent 
that  Su'  Walter  Scott  wrote  his  biography. 

Bagehot,  Vv^alter  {b.  1826,  d.  1877), 
economist  and  writer  ;  educated  at  London, 
took  a  distinguished  London  degree,  and 
having  been  called  to  the  bar,  undertook  the 
management  of  his  father's  bank  at  Lang- 
port.  While  thus  engaged  he  contributed 
brilliant  essays  to  periodicals,  and  wrote 
several  works  on  politics  and  economics,  of 
which  the  chief  are  Lombard  Street  and  The 
English  Constitution.  For  the  last  seven- 
teen years  of  his  life  he  edited  the  Economist. 

Bagetti,    Giuseppe   Pietro    (jb,    1764,  d. 




1831),  a  landscape  painter,  wlio,  in  1807, 
was  commissioned  at  Paris  to  execute  a 
series  of  water-colour  drawings  of  French 

Bagford,  John  {b.  1650,  d,  1716),  a  shoe- 
maker of  slender  education,  who  devoted 
himself  to  coUectiug  literary  curiosities,  old 
prints,  etc.,  in  which  he  became  a  connois- 
seur. His  large  collection  was  bought  by 
Lord  Oxford,  and  is  -now  in  the  British 

Bagge,  Jakob  {b.  1499),  a  Swedish  ad- 
miral, after  serving  on  land  under  Gus- 
tavus  Vasa,  entered  the  navy,  and  in 
1555  commanded  an  expedition  against  the 
Russians  with  entire  success.  He  defeated 
the  Danes  at  Bamholme,  but  was  taken 
prisoner  in  1564,  and  died  in  confinement. 

Bagger,  Johann  (J).  1646,  d.  1693),  a 
Danish  scholar  and  divine,  after  being  pro- 
fessor of  Oriental  languages  at  the  Limd 
university,  was  created  Bishop  of  Zea- 
land when  only  29  years  old.  He  revised 
the  rites  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  wrote 
much  in  Danish  and  Latin. 

Baggessen,  Zeus  {b.  1764,  d.  1826),  a 
Danish  man  of  letters  whose  lyric  verse 
gained  him  a  reputation  in  Copenhagen, 
which  he  left  in  1788  for  GeiTuany,  after- 
wards travelling  much  in  Switzerland  and 
France.  While  abroad  he  wrote  in  the 
German  language  with  gi-eat  success. 

Baggowotli  {d.  1812),  a  Russian  general 
who  held  high  command  in  the  army  during 
the  war  with  France,  under  the  Empire. 
He  distinguished  himself  in  several  battles, 
and  was  killed  in  action. 

Baglioni,  Giovanni  {b.  1594,  d.  1664), 
an  Italian  painter  of  note,  was  decorated 
by  Paul  v.,  and  wrote  the  Lives  of  the 
Roman  Fainters,  Sculptors,  and  Architects, 
from  1572  to  1642. 

Baglioni,  Giovanni  Paolo  {d.  1520),  an 
Italian  condottiere,  who  served  under  Caesar 
Borgia,  and  afterwards  -ndth  the  Venetians, 
being  taken  prisoner  by  the  Spaniards  at  the 
battle  of  Vicenza.  He  met  his  death  through 
the  treachery  of  Leo  X. 

Baglivi,  Giorgio  {b.  1669,  d.  1707),  an 
eminent  Italian  physician,  who  initiated  a 
great  advance  in  medical  science  by  aban- 
doning the  old  idea  that  the  seat  of  disease 
was  invariably  to  be  found  in  the  fluids  of 
the  system. 

Bagnacavallo,  Bartolomeo  (fi.  1484,  d. 
1542),  a  Bolognese  painter,  who  studied 
under  Raphael,  and  assisted  that  master  in 
painting  the  Loggie  at  the  Vatican. 

Bagoas,    one  of  the  eunuchs  of  Herod 

the  Great,  who  was  put  to  death  for  com- 
plicity in  the  conspiracy  of  the  Pharisees. 

Bagot,  Lewis  (J).  1740,  d.  1802),  an 
English  divine  and  theological  writer,  was 
successively  Dean  of  Christchurch  and 
Bishop  of  Biistol,  Norwich,  and  St.  Asaph. 

Bagration,  Peter,  Prince  {b.  1765,  d. 
1812),  a  Russian  general  of  great  distinc- 
tion, who  entered  the  army  as  a  common 
sergeant  in  1782.  He  held  high  command 
under  Suwarrow  in  Poland,  Italy,  and 
Switzerland,  and  fought  with  distinction  in 
the  campaign  of  1805,  against  the  French. 
After  occupying  Finland  in  1808,  he  con- 
ducted a  successful  campaign  against  the 
Turks.  He  died  from  a  wound  received  at 

Bagshaw,  Edward  {d.  1662),  an  Enghsh 
lawyer,  political  writer,  and  member  of  the 
Long  Parliament.  At  first  an  active  op- 
ponent of  Charles,  he  afterwards  went  over 
to  the  king,  and  suffered  imprisonment  for 
his  defection. 

Bahadur  Khan  Farookhy,  the  last  of  the 
Farookhy  dynasty,  succeeded  his  father,  in 
1596,  in  the  government  of  Khandlish.  In 
1599  he  was  besieged  by  the  Emperor 
Akbar  in  the  fortress  of  Aseergurh,  and 
being  taken  prisoner,  Khandhsh  was  ab- 
sorbed in  the  Mogul  empu-e. 

Bahadur  Khan  Geelany  {d.  1494),  a 
viceroy  of  the  Bahmuny  dominions  in  the 
Deccan,  endeavoured  to  throw  off  his 
allegiance  to  Mahmood  Shah  Bahmuny  II., 
and  was  killed  in  battle  while  fighting 
against  that  ruler. 

Bahadur  Nizam  Shah  {b.  1593),  King 
of  Ahmednugger,  in  the  Deccan,  and  last 
of  his  hne,  was  an  infant  when  he 
came  to  the  throne,  and  when  the  state 
was  absorbed  into  the  Mogul  empire, 
five  years  later,  by  the  Emperor  Akbar, 
Bahadur  was  taken  prisoner,  and  lost  to 

Bahadur  Shah  (b.  1505,  d.  1537),  King 
of  Guzerat,  succeeded  Muzuffu  Khan  in 
1526,  and  was  at  once  met  by  a  revolt  of 
Madool  Moolk,  the  grand  vizier,  whom  he 
defeated  and  executed.  For  some  year  she 
was  continually  and  successfully  at  war 
with  neighbouring  potentates,  and  repulsed 
a  formidable  Portuguese  expedition  sent  to 
capture  the  island  of  Diu.  Being  defeated 
in  a  war  against  the  Emperor  of  Delhi,  he 
was  driven  from  his  kingdom,  which,  how- 
ever, he  shortly  recovered.  In  1536  the 
Portuguese  sent  a  second  expedition  against 
Diu,  and  Bahadur,  while  visiting  the  Portu- 
guese admiral  on  board  ship,  was  treacher- 
ously killed. 

Bahadur  Shah  {b.  1641,  d.  1712),  Emperor 




of  Delhi;  on  the  death  of  the  Emperor 
Aurungzeeh,  Bahadur  and  his  two  brothers 
all  strove  for  the  succession.  The  latter 
were  defeated  and  killed,  but  their  ad- 
herents were  treated  with  great  leniency. 
After  driving  back  the  Sikh  invasion  of 
1712,  Bahadur  died  at  Lahore. 

Bahlole  Khan,  a  Mahometan  general  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  who  commanded  the 
armies  first  of  the  King  of  Ahmednugger, 
and  afterwards  of  the  King  of  Beejapoor. 
When  Aurungzeeb  conquered  the  latter 
kingdom,  he  was  one  of  the  regents. 

Bahram,  a  Persian  general  who,  in  the 
reign  of  Hormus  IV.,  defeated  400,000 
Turks,  who  had  crossed  the  Oxus  under  the 
Great  Khan,  with  only  12,000  men.  Pro- 
voked by  the  ingratitude  of  Hormus,  Bah- 
ram revolted,  put  out  the  king's  eyes,  and 
drove  his  son  to  exile.  He  was,  in  turn, 
driven  to  flight  by  the  Eomans,  and  soon 
after  poisoned. 

Bahram  I.,  King  of  Persia  {d.  Til) ;  fourth 
of  the  dynasty  of  Sassau ;  and  son  and  suc- 
cessor of  Hormus  a.d.  274. 

Bahram  II.  {d.  294),  son  of  preceding, 
but  unlike  his  father,  a  bad  and  hated  ruler, 
was  at  war  with  Rome,  under  the  Emperor 
Carus,  whose  death  alone  prevented  the  loss 
of  his  domiuions. 

Bahram  V.  (d.  442)  succeeded  ^  to  the 
Persian  throne  in  421 ;  repulsed  an  invasion 
of  the  Turks,  and  extracted  favourable 
terms  of  peace  from  Rome,  with  whom  he 
had  been  at  war. 

Bahrdt,  Karl  Eriedrich  {b.  1741,  d.  1792), 
a  German  professor  and  free-thinker,  held 
several  professorial  chairs,  but  he  had  to 
abandon  them  on  account  of  his  extreme 
opinions  and  irregular  life.  His  works  being 
condemned  in  Germany,  he  went  to  Prussia, 
where  he  suffered  a  year's  imprisonment. 

^Baiardi,  Ottavio  Antoine  {b.  1690,  d. 
1765),  an  Italian  priest,  who,  by  command 
of  Charles  III.  of  Naples,  undertook  in 
1714  the  record  of  the  Herculaneura  dis- 

Baiadur,  Abulghazi  {b.  1605,  d.  1663),  a 
Tartar  Khan,  and  the  compiler  of  a  genea- 
logical history  of  the  Tartars. 

Baler,  .Tohann  Jakob  {b.  1677,  d.  1735),  a 
German  physician  and  naturalist,  was 
professor  of  surgery  and  physiology  at 
Altdorf,  and  president  of  the  imperial 
academy  of  natural  history. 

Baif,  Jean  Antoine  {b.  1532,  d.  1589), 
French  scholar  and  musician,  and  founder 
of  the  academy  of  poetry  and  music. 

Baikie,    William   Balfour    (b.    1825,    d. 

1864),  doctor  and  explorer;  after  serving  in 
the  navy,  he  was  appointed  sui'geon  and 
naturalist  to  the  Niger  expedition  of  1854. 
The  command  devolved  upon  him,  by 
death,  and  he  led  the  expedition  250  miles 
higher  than  had  ever  before  been  reached. 
In  1857  he  led  another  expedition,  when 
he  was  wrecked,  and  deserted  up-river ; 
whereupon  he  founded  and  governed  a 
native  settlement. 

BaU,  Charles  Joseph  {b.  1777,  d.  1827),  a 
French  writer  and  soldier ;  in  1807  he  was 
commissioned  by  Napoleon  with  the  organ- 
isation of  W^estphalia  as  a  model  state  on 
revolutionary  piinciples,  and  afterwards  he 
became  inspector  of  reviews.  He  edited 
the  Correspondence  of  Bernadotte  with 
Napoleon,  and  wrote  on  historical  and 
political  subjects. 

Bailey,  Jacob  Whitman  {b.  1811,  d.  1857), 
an  American  scientist,  became  in  1838 
professor  of  chemistry,  miaeralogy,  and 
geology  at  West  Point. 

Bailey,  Nathan  {d.  1742),  an  English 
lexicographer,  whose  dictionary  was  the 
standard  work  before  Johnson's. 

Bailey,  Philip  James  {b.  1816),  an  English 
poet,  whose  fame  rests  mainly  on  one  work, 
Festtis,  a  poem  which  attracted  the  greatest 
attention  and  the  highest  praise. 

Bailey,  Samuel  {b.  1787,  d.  1870),  an 
English  philosopher,  whose  chief  works  are 
The  Formation  and  Publication  of  Opinions, 
The  Fursuit  of  Trtith  and  the  Progress  of 
Knoivledge,  and  The  Theory  of  Eeasoning. 

Baillarger,  Jules  Gabriel  Franqois  {b. 
1806),  an  eminent  French  physician;  in 
1842  he  gained  the  Academy  of  Medicine 
prize  for  the  best  essay  on  mental  disease,  and 
helped  to  institute  ^  the  Medico-Fht/sical 
Annals  of  the  Nervous  System. 

Baillet,  Adrien  {b.  1649,  (?.  1706),  a  French 
writer  of  great  erudition,  and  author 
of  Les  Jugements  des  Savam.  He  took 
orders,  and  afterwards  became  librarian  to 
M.  Lamoignon. 

Baillie,  Grisell,  Lady  {b.  1665,  d.  1746), 
the  daughter  of  Sir  Patrick  Hume,  who 
was  concerned  in  the  Rye  House  Plot, 
bravely  tended  her  father  while  he  was  in 
hiding,  and  behaved  with  the  gi'eatest  de- 
votion while  the  family  was  in  exile  in 
Holland.  After  the  revolution  her  father 
was  created  Earl  of  Marchmont,  and  she 
maiTied  George  Baillie,  a  fellow  exile  and 
Scot.    She  died  in  Scotland. 

Baillie,  Joanna  (b.  1762,  d.  1851),  a 
dramatic  writer,  greatly  esteemed  in  her 
own  day,  born  in  Scotland,  came  to  London 
as  a  young  woman,   and  having  written 




poems  anonymously,  she  published  in  1798 
the  first  series  of  Flays  of  the  Passions, 
and  the  second  in  1802.  One  of  these 
plays  John  Kemble  produced  at  Drury 
Lane.  Other  dramas  followed,  of  which 
The  Familij  Legend  was  the  most  popu- 
lar, and  was  produced  with  success  in 
Edinburgh  and  London.  Besides  her  many 
tragedies  and  comedies.  Miss  Baillie  wrote 
numerous  songs,  and  a  series  of  Metrical 
Legends.  Her  works  were  highly  praised 
by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  with  whose  friendship 
she  was  honoured. 

BaUlie,  John  (b.  \1T2,  d.  1833),  a  dis- 
tinguished servant  of  the  East  India  Com- 
pany, and  professor  of  Persian,  Arabic,  and 
Mahometan  law  at  Fort  William.  After 
filling  various  posts  of  honour,  he  returned 
to  England  in  1815,  entered  Parliament, 
and  became  a  director  of  the  Company. 

Baillie,  Matthew  (6.  1761,  d.  1823),  an 
eminent  physician,  brother  of  Joanna  Bail- 
lie,  and  nephew  of  the  great  Dr.  Hunter, 
with  whom  he  lived  and  whose  heir  he 
became.  He  was  appointed  physician  to 
George  III.,  but  refused  a  baronetcy.  He 
was  physician  to  St.  George's  Hospital  and 
president  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians. 

Baillie,  Robert  {h.  1602,  d.  1662),  a 
Scottish  di^dne,  and  principal  of  Glasgow 
University,  took  orders  as  an  Episco- 
palian but  joined  the  Presbyterians  when 
Charles  attempted  to  force  Laud's  prayer- 
book  on  the  Scottish  Church.  He  was  one 
of  the  Commissioners  sent  to  negotiate  with 
Charles  in  1640.  In  1642  he  was  one  of  the 
representatives  of  the  General  Assembly  of 
Scotland  at  the  Conference  with  the  West- 
minster Assembly  of  divines ;  and  when 
Charles  II.  was  in  Holland  he  was  sent  to 
negotiate  with  him  on  behalf  of  the  Scottish 

Baillie,  Robert  {d.  1683),  a  Scottish  gentle- 
man who  suffered  much  persecution  for 
holding  the  Presbyterian  faith,  and  who 
was  finally  summarily  executed  for  alleged 
participation  in  the  Rye  House  Plot. 

Baillon,  Emmanuel  {d.  1802),  French 
ornithologist,  botanist,  and  writer. 

Baillon,  Ernest  Henri  {h.  1827),  a  French 
physician  and  naturalist,  in  1864  became 
professor  of  medical  natural  history  to  the 
Faculty  of  Paris,  and  later,  professor  of 
hygiene  to  the  central  school  of  art  and 

Baillot,  Pierre  Marie  Francois  de  Sales 
(6.  1771,  d.  1842),  a  French  violinist,  a 
favourite  pupil  of  Yiotti,  in  1795  became 
professor  of  the  violin  at  the  Conservatoire 
at  Paris,  and  later  visited  Russia,  Belgium, 
Holland,  and  England. 

Baillou,  Guillaume  de  (h.  1538,  d.  1616), 
a  French  physician,  distinguished  alike  for 
his  valuable  contributions  to  medical  science, 
and  for  his  high  character.  He  was  elected 
Dean  of  the  Faculty  in  1580,  and  in  1601  was 
appointed  by  Henry  IV.  first  physician  to 
the  Dauphin. 

Bailly,  Francis  {b.  1774,  d.  1844),  an  emi- 
nent astronomer,  at  first  a  stockbroker,  pub- 
lished some  valuable  and  authoritative  works 
on  commercial  questions.  His  spare  time 
was  devoted  to  astronomy,  and  in  1811  he 
read  before  the  Royal  Society  a  paper  on 
Solar  Eclipse  which  gained  for  him  a  high 
reputation.  In  1813  he  published  his  Epitome 
of  Universal  History,  and  in  1814  he  under- 
took for  the  Stock  Exchange  the  prej^aration 
of  evidence  on  the  Berenger  fi'auds.  In  1820, 
by  his  exertions,  the  Royal  Astronomical 
Society  was  founded,  and  of  this  he  ulti- 
ma,tely  became  president.  In  1825  he  gave 
up  business  and  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
astronomy,  publishing  many  valuable  works. 
He  was  made  an  honorary  D.C.L.  of  Oxford 
and  LL.D.  of  Dublin. 

Bailly,  Jean  Sylvain  {b.  1736,  d.  1793),  a 
French  scientist,  early  devoted  himself  to 
the  study  of  astronomy,  and  between  1763 
and  1771  gained  a  reputation  by  the  publi- 
cation of  several  able  memoirs.  His  History 
of  Astronomy  (1779)  procured  for  him  the 
almost  unique  honour  of  membership  of  the 
Acade'mie  Fran^aise  and  the  Academic  des 
Inscriptions,  as  well  as  the  Academie  des 
Sciences.  When  the  revolution  broke  out  he 
became  president  of  the  National  Assembly, 
and  in  1791  mayor  of  Paris.  In  this  position 
he  drew  on  himself  the  disfavour  of  the 
mob,  and  having  left  Paris  he  was  brought 
back  and  guillotined. 

Bailly  de  Juilly,  Edme  Louis  Barthelemy 
{b.  1760,  d.  1819),  French  revolutionist 
and  secretary  of  the  National  Convention. 
He  opposed  the  execution  of  the  king. 

Bailly  de  MontMon,  Fran9ois-Gedeon, 
Count  {b.  1776,  d.  1846),  a  French 
general  who  served  through  the  campaigns 
of  the  first  republic  and  of  Napoleon.  In 
18.'i5  he  was  made  inspector-general  of 
infantry,  and  in  1837  he  was  raised  to  the 

Baily,  Edward  Hodges  {b.  1788,  d.  1867), 
an  English  sculptor  and  R.A.  His  great 
work^  Eve  at  the  Fountain,  was  produced 
when  he  was  only  twenty-five. 

Bain,  Alexander  {b.  1818),  a  proKfic 
writer  on  moral  and  mental  philosophy, 
logic,  and  psychology,  after  occupying 
chairs  at  the  universities  of  Glasgow, 
London,  and  Aberdeen,  was  elected  rector 
of  the  latter  university.  He  has  written 
and  edited  many  standard  text-books,  his 




chief  works  being  The  Senses  and  the  In- 
tellect^ and  The  Emotions  and  the  Will. 

Bainbridge,  Christopher  (d.  1514),  an 
English  churchman,  created  Archbishop  of 
York  in  1508  by  Henry  VII.,  was  made 
Cardinal  in  1511,  and  died  in  Eome  while  on 
a  mission  from  Henry  YIII. 

Bainbridge,  John  {b.  1582,  d.  1643), 
English  astronomer  and  physician ;  his 
observations  of  the  comet  of  1618  obtained 
for  him  the  newly  founded  chair  of  astro- 
nomy at  Oxford, 

Bainbridge,  William  (b.  1774,  d.  1833), 
an  American  naval  officer,  who,  during  the 
war  with  Tripoli  in  1803,  was  taken  prisoner, 
and  who  captured  the  British  frigate  Java 
in  1812. 

^  Baines,  Edward  (b.  1774,  d.  1848), 
journalist  and  politician,  from  the  position 
of  printer  on  the  Leeds  Mercury  he  became 
the  proprietor  of  the  paper,  through  which 
he  exjerted  a  wide  influence.  A  Liberal  and 
a  dissenter,  he  was  returned  for  Leeds  in 
1834,  and  retired  in  1841. 

Baines,  Sir  Edward  {b.  1809,  d.  1890), 
second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  associated 
with  the  Leeds  Mercury,  and  member 
for  Leeds  from  1859  to  'l874.  He  inter- 
ested himself  greatly  in  popular  education 
and  the  temperance  cause ;  was  president 
and  founder  of  the  Yorkshire  Union  of 
Mechanics  Institutes,  and  wrote  several 
books  on  industrial  subjects. 

Baini,  Giuseppe  (b.  1776,  d.  1844),  an 
Italian  priest,  musician,  and  critic ;  his  chief 
work  is  the  IListorical  and  Critical  Memoir 
of  the  Life  and  Works  of  Palestrina. 

Bairakdar,  Mustapha,  Pacha  {b.  1755,  d. 
1808),  a  Turkish  private  soldier,  who  was 
created  Pacha  of  Eustchuk  after  the 
Russian  war  of  1806 ;  and  when  Selim  III. 
was  deposed  in  1808  by  the  revolted  Janis- 
saries he  marched  on  Constantinople,  de- 
feated the  rebels,  and  placed  Selim's  brother 
on  the  throne.  He  was  made  grand- vizier ; 
but  in  a  subsequent  revolt  of  the  Janissaries 
he  blew  up  his  palace  in  despair. 

Baird,  Sir  David  {b.  1757,  d.  1829),  a 
brave  and  able  officer,  served  with  much 
distinction  in  India,  and  received  the 
thanks  of  ParUament  for  his  conduct  at  the 
siege  of  Seringapatam,  where  he  led  the 
storming  party.  In  1801  he  commanded 
the  Indian  forces  invading  Egypt,  and 
accomplished  a  splendid  march  across  the 
desert.  Next  year  he  served  in  the  Mah- 
ratta  war,  and  in  1806  he  commanded  the 
expedition  to  Cape  Colony,  defeating  the 
Dutch  and  taking  Cape  Town.  He  fought 
in  the  Danish  war,  and  afterwards  joined 

Sir  John  Moore  in  Spain.  He  lost  an  arm 
at  Corunna,  and  on  returning  to  England 
again  received  the  thanks  of  Parliament 
together  with  a  baronetcy. 

Baird,  Spencer  Fullerton  {b.  1823,  d.  1887), 
an  American  naturalist,  in  1850  became 
assistant  secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tute at  Washington,  and  secretary  in  1878, 
as  well  as  director  of  the  National  Musemn. 
He  VTrote  some  valuable  works  on  natural 
history,  and  in  1871  was  appointed  Com- 
missioner of  Fish  and  Fisheries  to  examine 
into  the  failure  of  the  U.S.  fisheries. 

Baird,  William  {b.  1803,  d.  1872),  a  zoo- 
logist and  physician,  after  practising  in 
London  was  appointed  to  the  Natural  His- 
tory department  of  the  British  Museum, 
and  published  The  Natural  History  of  the 
British  Entomostraca,  and  a  Cyclopcedia  of 
the  Natural  Sciences. 

Baireuth,  Frederica  Sophia  Wilhelmina, 
Margravine  of  {b.  1709,  d.  1758),  sister  of 
Frederick  the  Great,  and  an  unusually  gifted 
woman.  She  married  the  Piince  of  Baireuth 
in  1731. 

Baius,  Michel  (b.  1513,  d.  1589),  a  Dutch 
divine,  and  follower  of  Augustine,  whose 
bold  declarations  on  the  questions  of  free- 
will and  divine  grace  drew  upon  him  con- 
demnatory bulls,  first  from  Pius  V.  and 
afterwards  from  Gregory  XIII.  On  both 
occasions  he  retracted  his  objectionable 

Bajardo,  Giovanni  Battista  (b.  1620,  d. 
1657),  an  Italian  painter  of  religious  and 
historical  subjects,  whose  great  promise 
was  disappointed  by  an  early  death. 

Bajazet  I.  {b.  1347,  d.  1403),  Emperor  of 
the  Turks,  son  of  Murad  I.,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  1389,  began  his  reign  vdth 
a  series  of  conquests,  crossing  the  Danube 
and  finally  defeating  Sigismund  of  Hungary 
and  his  army  of  100,000  men.  Ill  health 
alone  prevented  him  crossing  the  Alps,  and 
he  next  turned  to  the  conquest  of  Constanti- 
nople. Bought  off  for  the  moment,  he  was 
diverted  from  the  ultimate  accomplishment 
of  his  design  by  war  with  Tamburlaine  the 
Great,  by  whom,  in  1402,  he  was  totally  de- 
feated and  taken  prisoner,  dying  shortly 

Bajazet  II.  (b.  1447.  d.  1512),  Sultan  of  the 
Turks,  son  of  Mahomet  II.,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  1481,  extended  his  dominions 
to  the  Danube  and  the  Dnieper ;  was 
defeated  in  Syria  by  Caid  Bey ;  but  was 
successful  in  a  war  against  the  Venetians. 
He  was  forced  to  abdicate  in  1512  by  his 
son  Selim,  and  died  soon  afterwards. 

Bajee  Rao,  Bullal  (d.  1740),  second 
Peshwa    of    the    Mahratta    State,    made 




war  against  the  decaying  Mogul  empire, 
and  led  a  victorious  amiy  to  the  gates  of 
Delhi,  securing  the  cession  of  several  pro- 
vinces. He  died  soon  after  he  had  failed  in 
an  attempt  to  conquer  the  Deccan. 

Bajee  Rao,  Phasalkur  {d.  1660),  a  Mah- 
ratta,  distinguished  for  having,  together 
with  YessjeeKvmk  and  Tannajee  Maloosray, 
joined  Sivajee  in  his  revolt  against  the 
Mogul  empire  under  Aurungzebe.  He  was 
killed  in  battle. 

Bajee  Rao,  Eughonath  IX.  {b.  1775,  d. 
1853),  last  Peshwa  of  the  Mahrattas, 
succeeded  to  the  title  in  1796.  His  reign 
was  full  of  intrigue  and  revolt,  and  finally 
he  was  driven  from  Poona  by  the  chiefs 
Holkar  and  Sindia.  Having  made  a  treaty 
with  the  governor  of  Bombay,  he  was  re- 
stored by  British  arms ;  and  then  entered 
upon  treacherous  schemes  for  throwing  off 
his  dependence  on  the  English.  He  was 
defeated  in  1817,  and  having  surrendered, 
was  allowed  a  pension  for  the  rest  of  his  life. 

Bajza,  Anthon  {b.  1804,  d.  1858), 
Hungarian  man  of  letters,  "wi'ote  several 
works  and  some  poems,  and  in  1848  was 
placed  by  Kossuth  in  the  editorial  chair  of 
the  Kossuth  Birlapja. 

Bakacs,  Thomas  {d.  1521),  a  Hungarian 
ecclesiastic  of  humble  birth,  who  succeeded 
in  becoming  first.  Archbishop  of  Gian,  and 
afterwards  cardinal.  He  owed  his  advance- 
ment to  the  favour  of  King  Mathias  and  his 
successor,  Vladislas. 

Baker,  David  (6.  1575,  d.  1641),  a  native 
of  Abergavenny,  who  joined  the  order  of 
Benedictines,  and  collected  much  infor- 
mation connected  with  chm'ch  history. 

Baker,  George  {d.  1851),  an  English 
antiquary  and  author  of  the  History  and 
Antiqitities  of  Northamptonshire. 

_  Baker,  Sir  George  {b.  1722,  d.  1809),  phy- 
sician to  Queen  Charlotte  and  to  George 
III. ,  and  President  of  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians, 1797.  He  was  a  friend  of  Dr. 
Johnson,  and  an  esteemed  author. 

Baker,  Henry  (6.  1698,  d.  1774),  man 
of  science  and  of  letters,  interested  him- 
self in  the  education  of  deaf-mutes,  and 
wrote  both  poems  and  scientific  treatises. 

Baker,  Sir  Henry  Lorraine  (b.  1787, 
d.  1859),  a  distinguished  naval  officer, 
behaved  with  great  gallantry  at  the  bom- 
bardment of  Flushing  (1809),  in  the  Danish 
war  (1811),  and  in  the  American  war  (1814). 

Baker,  John  {b.  1660,  d.  1716),  a  naval 
officer  who  distinguished  himself  chiefly  at 
the  capture  of  Vigo  (1702)  and  of  Gibraltar 

Baker,  Sir  John  {d.  1558),  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer  to  Henry  VIII.,  and  one  of  the 
trustees  for  Edward  VI. 

Baker,  John  Gilbert  (^.  1854),  an  emi- 
nent botanist  a.nd  writer,  curator  of  the 
Herbarium  at  Kew. 

Baker,  Sir  Eichard  {p.  1568,  d.  1644), 
grandson  of  preceding,  knighted  by  James 
I.,  was  imprisoned  in  the  Fleet  for  debt, 
and  never  regained  his  liberty.  While  in 
prison  he  wrote  Chronicles  of  the  Kings  of 
England,  and  other  works. 

Baker,  Sir  Samuel  White  (J.  1821),  an 
African  explorer,  whose  first  important  ven- 
ture occurred  in  1861,  when,  accompanied 
by  his  wife,  he  started  to  meet  Speke  and 
Grant,  During  this  perilous  journey  the 
Albert  Nyanza  was  discovered,  and  he  was 
knighted  on  his  return.  In  1869  he  was  en- 
trusted by  the  Khedive  with  the  command 
of  an  exi)edition  to  suppress  the  slave  trade 
in  the  Nile  basin.  He  is  the  author  of 
various  books  of  travel. 

Baker,  Thomas  (b.  1625,  d.  1690),  an 
English  clergyman  and  mathematician; 
author  of  The  Geometrical  Key. 

Baker,  Thomas  {b.  1656,  d.  1740),  an 
archaeologist  and  clergyman,  who  lost  his 
living  and  a  fellowship  in  the  religious 
persecution  of  the  reign  of  James  II.  He 
wrote  much,  his  Bejlections  on  Learning 
obtaining  great  popularity. 

Baker,  Valentine,  Colonel  and  Pasha 
{b.  1831,  d.  1887),  a  brilliant  cavalry  officer, 
a  brother  of  Sir  Samuel,  served  in  the 
Kaffir  and  Crimean  wars,  but  in  1875, 
having  been  compelled  to  leave  the  British 
army,  he  took  service  with  the  Sultan  of 
Turkey  and  distinguished  himself  in  the 
Eusso-Turkish  war.  In  1882  he  took  com- 
mand of  the  Egyptian  gendarmerie,  and 
fought  at  both  battles  of  El-Teb  against 
the  Mahdists. 

Balaam,  a  prophet,  the  son  of  Beor, 
dwelling  at  Pethor,  was  sent  for  by  Balak, 
King  of  the  Moabites,  to  curse  the  IsraeHtes, 
on  their  journey  to  the  promised  land.  Con- 
senting, he  was  met  on  his  way  by  the  angel 
of  the  Lord,  who  made  his  ass  speak  words 
of  rebuke;  and  thi'ice  Balaam's  attempts  to 
curse  were  converted  into  blessings.  He 
was  killed  in  a  battle  between  the  Midianites 
and  Israelites. 

Balard,  Antoine  Jerome  {b.  1802,  d. 
1876),  French  chemist,  the  discoverer  of 
bromine,  was  professor  of  chemistry  in  the 
College  of  France. 

Balard,  Marie  Franc;  oise  Jacquette  Alby 
{b.  1776,  d.  1822),  a  minor  French  poetess, 
popular  in  her  day. 




Balazac,  Francois  de  Branoud,  Baron  de 
{d.  1592),  a  Huguenot,  who  fought  under 
the  Prince  of  Conde,  and  who  was  sen- 
tenced to  death  after  the  treaty  of  peace  of 
1568.  He  escaped,  however,  and  served 
afterwards  with  Henry  of  Navarre. 

Balbi,  Adrian  {b.  1782,  d.  1848),  a  Vene- 
tian ethnologist  and  geographer,  whose 
chief  work  is  his  Ethnological  Atlas. 

Balbi,  Gaspard,  a  Venetian  traveller  of 
the  16th  century,  who  sailed  round  the 
Indian  peninsula,  reaching  the  kingdom  of 
Pegu.     He  wrote  an  account  of  his  travels. 

Balbinus,  Aloysius  Bolcolas  {b.  1611,  d. 
1689),  a  Bohemian  Jesuit,  who  wrote  many 
authoritative  works  on  the  history  and 
archaBology  of  his  country, 

Balbinus,  Decimus  Celius,  a  Eoman 
consul,  who  was  created  co- emperor  with 
Marcus  Clodius  Maximus  in  a.d.  238. 
Four  months  later  both  were  murdered  by 
the  revolted  soldiery. 

Balbo,  Caesare  {b.  1789,  d.  1853),  an 
Italian  litterateur  and  politician,  who  served 
under  Napoleon  till  his  fall,  when  he  re- 
turned to  Piedmont.  His  History  of  Italy 
is  the  chief  of  many  works. 

Balboa,  Vasco  Nunez  de  {b.  1475,  d.  1517), 
the  discoverer  of  the  Pacific,  went  from 
Spain  to  St.  Domingo  with  Rodrigo  de  Bas- 
tidas,  and  thence,  to  escape  his  creditors,  to 
Darien  with  Enciso  in  1510.  Deposing  Eu- 
ciso,  he  ruled  the  colony  for  some  years  with 
great  ability,  and  then,  instigated  by  na- 
tive stories  of  the  wealth  of  Peru,  he  crossed 
the  Isthmus  of  Panama  in  1513,  discovering 
the  Pacific  Ocean.  Beturning  to  Darien  in 
1514,  he  was  superseded  by  Pedrariaz 
Davila,  who  displayed  the  greatest  enmity 
to  him,  and  although  the  great  explorer 
married  his  daughter,  Pedrariaz  executed 
him  three  years  later  on  an  old  charge. 

Balbuena,  Bamardo  de  {b.  1568,  d.  1627), 
a  Spanish  poet,  who  lived  many  years  in 
Jamaica  as  a  priest,  and  afterwards  in 
Mexico  as  Bishop  of  Puerto  Eico. 

Balbus,  Cornelius,  a  Spaniard,  living  in 
the  first  century  B.C.  He  was  made  civis 
Romanus  by  Pompey,  afterwards  joined 
Caesar,  and  finally,  by  the  favour  of  Octa- 
vius,  was  appointed  to  the  highest  offices. 

Balchen,  Sir  John  (b.  1669,  d.  1744),  a 
British  admiral,  was  taken  prisoner  in  an 
encounter  with  the  French  fleet  in  1707, 
served  in  the  Spanish  war,  and  in  1744, 
while  in  command  of  a  fleet  against  the 
French,  his  ship  foundered  on  the  Caskets 
off  Alderuey. 

Baldasseroni,  Pompeo  (d.  1807),  ^  an 
ItaHan  jurist,  who  wrote  several  authorita- 
tive works  on  law,  filled  several  judicial 
offices,  and  attained  the  rank  of  count. 

Balde,  Jakob  {b.  1603,  d.  1668),  a  German 
Jesuit,  a  popular  preacher  and  an  accom- 
plished writer  of  Latin  verses. 

Balderic  {d.  1130),  a  French  monk,  noted 
as  a  poet  and  historian.  As  Abbot  of 
Bourgueil  and  Bishop  of  Dol,  he  endea- 
voured to  reform  monastic  life. 

Baldi,  Bernardino  {b.  1553,  d.  1617),  an 
Italian  monk  of  great  erudition,  at  the 
age  of  twenty- six  was  widely  versed  in 
literature  and  the  sciences,  and  before  he 
died  had  perfect  command  of  twelve  lan- 
guages.   He  was  a  voluminous  writer. 

Baldi,  Lazaro  {b.  1623,  d.  1703),  an 
Italian  painter  and  distingxiished  colourist. 
He  painted  the  gallery  of  Monte  Cavallo. 

Baldinger,  Ernst  Gottfried  {b.  1738,  d. 
1804),  a  German  physician,  and  the  author 
of  eighty-four  works,  served  as  physician 
in  the  Prussian  army  through  the  Seven 
Years'  war,  and  later  occupied  professorial 
chairs,  finally  undertaking  the  organisation 
of  the  university  of  Marburg. 

Baldini,  Giovanni  Antonio,  II  Conte 
{b.  1654,  d.  1725),  an  Italian  nobleman  and 
diplomatist  of  erudition,  travelled  through 
western  Europe,  and  was  elected  F.R.S.  in 

Baldock,  Ralph  de  {d.  1313),  an  English 
priest  of  humble  birth,  who  became  Bishop 
of  London  and  Chancellor  to  Edward  I. 
He  was  renowned  for  his  learning. 

Balducci,  Francesco  {d.  1642),  an  Italian 
anacreontic  poet,  who,  in  the  course  of 
a  changeful  life,  was  both  soldier  and 

Baldwin,  Thomas  {d.  1191),  an  English 
monk  who  Avas  made  Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury in  1184.  He  crowned  Richard  I., 
preached  the  Crusade  through  Wales,  and 
accompanied  Richard  to  the  Holy  Land. 

Baldwin,  William,  a  scholar,  printer, 
and  poet  of  the  sixteenth  century,  who  is 
associated  with  the  writing  and  publication 
of  The  Mirrour  for  Magistrates. 

Baldwin  I.,  Eras  de  Fer,  Count  of  Flan- 
ders {b.  837,  d.  879) ;  he  fought  against 
Charles  the  Bald  in  his  war  with  Lothaire, 
but  becoming  reconciled  to  him,  married 
his  daughter,  and  was  made  first  Count  of 

Baldwin  IV.  (rl.  1067).  He  extended  the 
Flemish  dominions,  gave  his  daughter  Ma- 
tilda in  marriage  to  William  the  Conqueror, 
and  accompanied  him  in  his  invasion  o| 




Baldwin  I.  (b.  1171,  d.  1205),  Emperor 
of  Constautinople  aud  hereditary  Count 
of  Flanders,  joined  hi  the  fourth  Crusade, 
and  when  Constantinople  was  taken  he  was 
proclaimed  king.  The  Greeks,  aided  by 
John,  King  of  the  Bulgarians,  overthrew 
him  at  Adrianople,  and  he  died  in 

Baldwin  II.,  nephew  of  the  preceding, 
succeeded  his  brother  in  1228.  Under  him 
Constantinoiile  was  twice  besieged,  aud 
finally  taken  by  Michael  Palaeologus,  and 
Baldwin  fled  to  Italy  (12G1). 

Baldwin  I.  {b.  1058,  d.  1118),  protector  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre,  aud  Iviug  of  Jerusalem 
in  1100,  was  driven  from  his  throne  in 
1102  by  the  Saracens,  but  regained  it  and 
added  to  his  dominions. 

Baldwin  II.  {cl.  1131),  cousin  and  suc- 
cessor of  the  preceding,  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  Saraceus  (1124),  but  regaiued  his 
liberty  after  two  years,  and  succeeded  in 
conquering  a  large  part  of  Syria.  Abdi- 
cated in  1131. 

Baldwin  IIL  (h.  1130,  d.  1162),  son  of 
Foulgues  of  Anjou,  succeeded  the  preceding 
in  1143,  and  died  at  Tripoli. 

Baldwin  IV.  (b.  1160,  </.  1185),  sumamed 
*  *  the  Leper. ' '  After  varying  fortunes  in  the 
struggle  agaiust  the  Saracens,  he  was  com- 
pelled, by  advancing  disease,  to  delegate  the 
control  of  his  domiuious  to  Guy  de  Lusignau, 
and  the  subsequent  victories  of  his  enemies 
drove  him  to  seek  aid  from  the  Western 

Baldwin  V.  {d.  118-3),  nephew  and  suc- 
cessor of  the  i)receding,  after  a  short  reign 
of  seven  mouths  died,  as  is  suj)posed,  by 
poison,  administered  by  his  mother,  who 
wished  to  obtain  the  throne  for  her  husband, 
Guy  de  Lusiguan. 

Bale,  John  {b.  149o,  d.  1563),  Bishop  of 
Ossory,  a  WT:iter,  and  an  active  convert  to 
the  Reformation.  In  the  reigns  of  Henry 
VIII.  and  Mary  he  fled  to  the  Continent, 
but  he  occupied  positions  in  the  Church 
under  Edward  VI.  and  Elizabeth.  He 
wrote  19  miracle-plays  and  a  book  of  Bri- 
tish biography. 

Balechon,  Jean  Jacques  Nicolas  (J).  1715, 
d.  1765),  a  French  engraver  of  note,  who 
engraved  the  portrait  of  Augustus,  King  of 
Poland,  for  the  Dresden  Gallery. 

Balen,  Hcndrik  van  {b.  1560,  d.  1632),  a 
Dutch  historical  painter,  who  excelled  in 
depicting  the  nude. 

Balfe,  Michael  William  {b.  1808,  d.  1870), 
musical  composer,  as  a  boy  showed  great  , 

musical  talent,  and  at  the  age  of  16,  coming 
to  London,  he  was  engaged  in  the  Drury 
Lane  orchestra.  While  there  he  attracted 
the  attention  of  an  Italian  nobleman.  Count 
Mazzara,  who  took  him  to  Italy  to  study 
music.  After  singing  at  Paris  in  the  ItaUan 
Opera  under  Rossini,  Balfe  returned  to 
Italy  and  produced  in  1830  several  operas. 
In  1835  he  came  to  England  as  a  vocalist 
and  composer  of  opera,  and  after  five  years 
of  successful  comiJosition  he  produced  two 
operas  in  Paris.  In  1844  his  most  popular 
Avork,  The  Bohemian  Girl,  appeared  at 
Drury  Lane,  to  be  followed  by  several  other 
operas  before  the  fertility  of  Balfe's  genius 
was  checked  by  a  fatal  attack  of  bronchitis. 

Balfour,  Arthur  James  (b.  1848), 
statesman,  educated  at  Eton  and  Cam- 
bridge, was  elected  for  Hertford  in  1874, 
and  as  private  secretary  to  Lord  Salis- 
bury accompanied  him  to  Berlin  in  1878. 
In  1880  he  was  prominent  as  one  of 
the  four  members  of  Lord  R.  Churchill's 
"Fourth  Party,"  and  in  1885  became  presi- 
dent of  the  Local  Government  Board  in 
Lord  Salisbury's  administration.  In  the 
general  election  of  1885  he  was  returned 
for  East  Manchester,  which  constituency  he 
still  represents,  and  in  1886  succeeded  Sir 
Michael  Hicks-Beach  as  Chief  Secretary  for 
Ireland.  He  is  the  author  of  A  Defence  of 
Fhilosophic  Doubt. 

Balfour,  Francis  Maitland  (b.  1851,  d. 
18B2),  brother  of  the  preceding  aud  an 
eniuent  embryologist,  educated  at  Harrow 
aud  Cambridge,  after  studying  at  the  Zoo- 
logical station  at  Naples  soon  gained  a 
reputation  for  the  originality  of  his  research. 
He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  and  an  F.R.S.  in  1878.  In  1880 
he  was  made  an  LL.D.  of  Glasgow,  and  in 
1881  a  special  chair  of  animal  morphology 
was  created  for  him  at  Cambridge.  He  had 
written  several  important  works  on  com- 
parative embryology  when  he  lost  his  life 
while  engaged  in  Alpine  climbhig. 

Balfour,  James  {b.  1703,  d.  1795),  a 
Scottish  jurist  and  professor,  wrote  in  refu- 
tation of  Hume's  doctrines. 

Balfour,  Sir  James  {d.  1583),  a  Scottish 
jurist  and  churchman,  who  took  an  active 
part  in  the  political  intrigues  of  Queen 
Mary's  reign.  He  was  made  President  of 
Sessions  by  Mary,  whom  he  betrayed,  and 
was  concerned  iu  the  murder  of  Daruley. 

Balfour,  John  Hutton  (b.  1808,  d.  1884), 
physician  and  botanist,  Avas  professor  of 
botany  at  Glasgow  and  afterward  at  Edin- 
burgh University,  and  was  queen's  botanist 
for  Scotland.  For  thirty  years  he  was  dean 
of  the  medical  faculty  of  Edinburgh  Uni« 
versity.     He  left  many  works. 


(94  J 


Balguy,  John  (b.  1686,  d.  1748),  an 
English  clergyman  and  controversialist, 
took  part  in  the  Bangorian  controversy,  and 
was  the  author  of  A  Letter  to  a  JJeiat,  The 
Foundations  of  Moral  Goodness,  and  An 
Essay  on  Redemption. 

Balguy,  Thomas  {b.  1716,  if.  1795),  son  of 
the  preceding.  Archdeacon  of  Winchester, 
and  author  of  Divine  Benevolence  Asserted 
and  Vindicated  from  the  Reflections  of 
Ancient  and  Modern  Skeptics. 

Baliol,  John  {b.  circa  1259,  d.  1315),  King 
of  Scotland.  On  the  death  of  Queen  Margaret, 
Baliol  and  Robert  Bruce,  the  chief  claimants 
to  the  succession,  invited  Edwardl.  to  decide 
between  them,  and  Edward  favoured  Baliol, 
who  swore  fealty  to  him  on  taking  the 
crown  in  1292.  During  the  French  war  of 
]295  Baliol  renounced  his  fealty  to  Edward, 
who  thereupon  invaded  Scotland  and  com- 
pelled hun  to  submission.  After  being  a 
prisoner  in  London  for  three  years,  he  was 
allowed  to  go  to  Normandy,  where  he  died. 

Baliol,  Edward  {d.  1363),  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, on  the  death  of  Robert  Bruce 
invaded  Scotland  in  1332,  and  after  defeat- 
ing the  Regent  Mar  he  was  crowned  at 
Scone.  Shortly  af tervrard  he  swore  fealty  to 
Edward  III.  and  made  over  to  him  Berwick, 
for  which  act  he  was  driven  from  Scotland 
by  the  revolted  nobles.  Twice  he  was  re- 
instated by  an  invading  English  army,  and 
twice  again  he  was  compelled  to  fly.  At 
last  he  sold  his  claim  to  the  throne  to 
Edward  III.  for  a  pension  and  a  sum  down. 

Ball,  Sir  Alexander  John  {b.  1757,  d.  1809), 
a  British  admiral,  who  served  under  Nelson 
in  1798,  fought  at  the  battle  of  the  Nile,  and 
in  1800  commanded  the  expedition  for  the 
recovery  of  Malta,  of  which  island  he  was 
made  governor. 

Ball,  John  C^.  1818,  d.  1889),  a  weU-known 
naturalist  and  Alpine  climber.  He  was  the 
author  of  The  Alpine  Guide,  and  other 
works  of  scientific  interest,  including  the 
account  of  his  visit  to  the  Atlas  Mountains. 
In  1857  he  was  M.P.  for  CarloAv,  and  Under- 
Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies. 

Ball,  John  Thomas  (b.  1815),  an  Irish 
lawyer,  was  returned  for  Dublin  Uni- 
versity in  1868,  and  after  becoming  suc- 
cessively Sohcitor  and  Attorney- General 
for  Ireland,  occupied  the  office  of  Lord 
Chancellor  of  Ireland  from  1875  to  1880. 

Ball,  Robert  (^.  1802,  d.  1857),  an  Irish 
scientist,  secretary  of  the  Royal  Zoological 
and  president  of  the  Royal  Geological 
Societies  for  Ireland,  and  afterwards  direc- 
tor of  Dublin  University  museum. 

BaU,  Sir  Robert  Stawell  {b.  1840),  the 
Astronomer  Royal  of  Ireland,  to  which  post 

he  was  appointed  in  1874.      His  popular 
works  on  astronomy  are  much  esteemed. 

Ballajee  Bajee  Rao  {d.  1761),  third 
Peshwa  of  the  Mahrattas,  succeeding  his 
father,  Bajee  Rao  Bullal,  1740.  He  applied 
himself  to  administrative  reform,  and  on 
the  death  of  the  Rajah  Shao  obtained 
supreme  power.  In  1759  he  defeated  Nizam 
Ali,  acquiring  several  provinces,  and  after- 
wards marched  into  the  Punjab.  Here  his 
forces  encountered  an  Afghan  army,  and 
after  some  fighting  they  sustained  a  terrible 
defeat,  Ballajee  dying  soon  after  of  grief. 

Ballajee  Jenardhun  {d.  1800),  better 
known  as  Nana  Furnavees,  a  famous 
Mahratta  statesman.  On  the  death  of 
Peshwa  Mahdoo  Rao,  Nana  became  guar- 
dian of  his  infant  son.  In  1782,  after  a  war 
with  the  EngUsh,  he  was  obliged  to  consent 
to  the  treaty  of  Salbye.  The  turbulence  of 
Mahratta  chiefs,  andthe  aggression  of  Tippoo, 
Sultan  of  Mysore,  compelled  him  to  con- 
clude an  alliance  with  the  British  and  the 
Nizam  of  Hyderabad.  When  Tippoo  had 
been  subdued  the  Nizam  refused  his  tribute 
to  the  Mahrattas,  by  whom  he  was  decisively 
defeated.  After  nearlj'-  thirty  years  of  rule, 
the  young  Peshwa  having  died.  Nana  was 
imprisoned  by  Bajee  Rao  Raghonath,  though 
restored  in  later  years. 

Ballajee  Wishwanath  {d.  1721),  the 
first  Peshwa  of  the  Mahrattas,  was  an  able 
administrator,  and  effected  many  valuable 
reforms  of  internal  government. 

Ballanclie,  Pierre  Simon  Q).  1776,  d.  1847), 
a  French  writer  of  note  on  social  questions, 
both  in  prose  and  verse. 

Ballantine,  William  (3.  1812,  d.  1887),  a 
distinguished  barrister.  In  1856  he  was 
made  serjeant-at-law ;  he  was  counsel 
for  the  Claimant  in  the  Tichborne  case, 
and  for  the  Ga^kwar  of  Baroda  in  1875. 
He  wi'ote  several  popular  volumes  of  his 

Ballantyne,  James  {b.  1772,  d.  1833),  the 
priuter  of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  works,  was 
involved  in  the  bankruptcy  of  Constable 
and  Co.  He  survived  Scott  for  only  a  few 

Ballantyne,  James  Robert  {d.  1864),  a 
distinguished  Orientalist,  and  principal  of 
the  Benares  College.  He  translated  works  of 
Hindoo  philosophy  into  English,  published 
Sanscrit  versions  of  English  scientific  works, 
and  compiled  grammars  of  several  oriental 
languages.  In  1861  he  was  appointed 
librarian  to  fBie  India  Office. 

Ballantyne,  Thomas  {b.  1806,  d.  1871),  a 
well-known  journalist,  who,  after  much 
experience  in  the  North,  came  to  London 
and  founded  the  Statesman  and  other  papers. 




He  was  intimate  with  Carlyle  and  Lord 

Ballesteros,  Francisco  {h.  1770,  d.  1832), 
a  Spanish  general,  who  held  high  command 
against  the  French  invaders.  In  1815 
Ferdinand  appointed  him  minister  of  war, 
but  he  was  soon  dismissed  ;  and  in  1820  he 
was  commissioned  with  the  reframing  of 
the  constitution.  On  the  French  invasion  of 
1823  he  commanded  the  Spanish  army,  but 
capitulated  at  once,  for  which  act  he  was 
banished  for  life. 

Ballin,  Claude  {h.  1615,  d.  1678),  a  famous 
worker  in  precious  metals,  who  was 
patronised  by  Cardinal  Richeheu  and 
Louis  XIV. 

Balloba,  Tattya  {d.  1800),  the  principal 
Brahmin  minister  of  the  Mahratta  chief 
Doulat  Rao  Scindia,  and  the  great  rival  of 
Ballajee  Jenardhun,  by  whom  he  was  im- 
prisoned. He  endeavoured  to  establish  a 
peshwa  in  the  interest  of  Scindia,  who 
rewarded  his  efforts  with  imprisonment. 

Ballou,    Hosea  {b.    1771,    d.   1852),     an  , 

American  preacher,    and  founder    of    the  : 

"Universalists."     He  attained  considerable  ■ 

celebrity  in  the  United  States.  ! 

Balmez,  James  Lucian  {b.  1810,  d.  1848), 
a  Spanish  writer  of  repute.  He  exerted  a 
great  influence  as  a  journalist  in  Madrid  for 
many  years,  endeavouring  to  strengthen  the 
Church  and  the  throne.  He  wrote  Fro- 
testcnitism  and  Catholicism  as  compared  in 
their  Effects  on  the  Civilisation  of  Etirope. 

Balnaves,  Henry  {b.  1520,  d.  1579),  a 
Scottish  jurist  and  an  earnest  advocate  of 
the  Reformation.  He  was  imprisoned  for  , 
his  Protestantism,  and  after  the  murder  of 
Cardinal  Beaton  in  1546,  Balnaves  and  other 
reformers  were  imprisoned  at  Rouen,  where 
he  wrote  The  Confession  of  Faith.  He  re- 
turned to  Scotland  in  1554,  and  after  the 
adoption  of  the  Reformation  he  held  several 
high  positions.  i 

Balogh,    Janos    (b.    1800),    a   Hungarian  I 
patriot,    who   as    a    member  of    the    Diet 
staunchly    supported    the    national    cause. 
He  took  part  in  the  revolution,   and  after 
its  failure  fled  to  Turkey. 

Balsamo,  Joseph.     \^See  Cagliostro.]  I 

Balsamo,  Theodorus  {d.  1204),  a  prolific  : 
and  authoritative  writer  on  canon  law,  who 
was  a  native  of  Constantinople,  and  who 
was  made  Patriarch  of  Antioch.  ! 

Balsham,  Hugh  de  {d.  1286),  a  Benedic- 
tine monk,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Ely,  who  ' 
founded    Peter    House    College,    at   Cam- 
bridge, j 

Baltadji   Mehemet  Pacha  [d.  1712),   a  | 

guard  of  the  Turkish  Sultan  Ahmed  III., 
who  rose  to  the  grand -viziership.  When 
in  1711  Peter  the  Great  was  intending  tui 
invasion  of  Turkey,  Baltadji  crossed  the 
Danube  and  the  Pruth  and  surrounded  the 
Russian  encampment.  He  was  bribed  to 
consent  to  a  treaty,  and  for  this  he  was 
banished  by  the  Sultan. 

Baltard,  Louis  Pierre  {b.  1765,  d.  1846), 
a  French  landscape  painter,  architect  and 
engraver,  designed  the  Lyons  Palais  de 

Baltard,  Victor  {b.  1805,  d.  1874),  an 
architect  and  engraver.  He  was  appointed 
government  architect,  and  conducted  the 
restorations  of  St.  Severin  and  St.  Eustache. 

Balten,  Pieter  {b.  1540,  d.  1611),  a  Belgian 
landscape  painter  of  great  repute,  and 
member  of  the  academy  of  Antwerp. 

Baltimore,  George  Calvert,  Lord  {h. 
circa  1580,  d.  1632),  was  knighted  by 
James  I.,  was  made  a  secretary  of  state, 
entered  Parliament,  and,  although  a  Roman 
Catholic,  was  created  a  peer  of  Ireland. 
After  vainly  endeavouriug  to  found  settle- 
ments in  Newfoundland  and  Virginia,  he 
succeeded  in  establishing  the  colony  of 

Baltimore,  Cecil  Calvert,  Lord  {d.  1676), 
son  of  the  preceding,  continued  the  colon- 
ising work  of  his  father,  and  founded 

Baltzar,  Thomas  {b.  1630,  d.  1663),  a 
famous  Gennan  ^aolinist,  who  came  to 
England  in  1656  and  was  made  director  of 
the  private  concerts  of  Charles  I. 

Balue,  Jean  {b.  1421,  d.  1491),  a  French 
ecclesiastic.  He  early  obtained  the  favour 
of  Louis  XL,  and  by  systematic  treachery 
and  intrigue  was  made  Cardinal  in  1467. 
He  even  betrayed  the  king's  secrets  to 
Charles  the  Bold,  but  he  was  detected  in 
this  and  shut  up  in  an  iron  cage.  He  was 
released  through  the  influence  of  Pope 
Sixtus  IV.,  who  took  him  into  favour  and 
made  him  legate  to  France. 

Baluze,  Etienne  (b.  1630,  d.  1718),  a 
French  historian.  In  1667  he  became 
librarian  to  Colbert,  and  was  appointed  by 
Louis  XIV.  to  a  chair  in  the  royal  college. 
In  1710  he  offended  the  Court  by  his 
History  of  the  House  of  Auvfrgne,  for  which 
he  was  banished  till  1813. 

Balzac,  Honore  de  {b.  1799,  d.  1850), 
French  novelist,  was  intended  for  the 
law,  but  left  the  legal  profession  for 
literature,  and  under  various  assumed 
names  produced  rapidly.  In  1826  he  en- 
tered into  partnership  with  a  printer,  but 
their  publications  were  not  successful ;  and 



Balzac,  depending  solely  upon  his  pen  for  a 
livelihood,  endm-ed  the  greatest  privations. 
He  obtained  no  public  recognition  till  the 
appearance  of  his  Fhysiologie  du  3Iariage, 
but  afterwards  he  continued  to  write  with 
increasing  success.  In  1848  he  married  a 
Russian  lady,  and  after  visiting  Russia  re- 
turned to  Paris  in  broken  health,  and  shortly 
afterward  died.  His  collected  works  are 
included  in  forty-five  volumes. 

Balzac,  Jean  Louisguez  {b.  1594,  d.  1654), 
a  French  litterateur  of  note,  W'ho  endea- 
voui'ed  to  introduce  reforms  of  style  into 
the  French  language.  He  was  patronised 
and  pensioned  by  Richelieu,  but  provoked 
much  hostihty  against  himself,  and  so  retired 
into  private  life. 

Bamfield,  Joseph,  an  Irishman  who 
fought  on  the  Royalist  side  in  the  Civil 
w'ar.  He  succeeded  in  effecting  the  escape 
of  the  Duke  of  York  to  Holland  in  1648. 

Bamford,  Samuel  {b.  1788,  d.  1872),  a 
Manchester  poet  and  politician  of  the  ad- 
vanced school.  By  trade  a  silk  weaver,  he 
frequently  suffered  imprisonment,  and  was 
nearly  killed  at  the  Peterloo  "massacre." 
Late  in  life  he  became  connected  with  the 
London  press. 

Bampfylde,  Francis,  a  nonconformist 
minister  of  the  17th  century,  who  defied  the 
Act  of  Uniformity,  being  several  times  im- 
prisoned, and  finally  dj-iug  in  Newgate. 

Bampton,  Rev.  John  (b.  1689,  d.  1751),  a 
Canon  of  Salisbury  cathedral,  who  left  his 
estates  for  the  endowment  of  divinity 
lectures  at  Oxford. 

Bancal  des  Issarts,  Jean  Henri  (b.  1750, 
d.  1826),  a  French  revolutionist,  of  noted 
moderation,  and  a  member  of  the  National 
Convention,  In  1795  he  became  secretary  of 
the  Council  of  the  Five  Himdred. 

Bancroft,  Edward  (d.  1821),  an  American 
physician  and  writer,  who  came  to  England, 
and  published  several  works,  fictional  and 
scientific.  He  was  a  friend  of  Franklin,  for 
whom  he  wiote  considerably. 

Bancroft,  George  {b.  1800,  d.  1891),  an 
American  historian.  As  a  young  man  he 
travelled  and  studied  much  in  Europe. 
After  declining  to  sit  in  Congress,  he  pub- 
lished in  1831  his  first  volume  of  the  His- 
tory of  the  United  States.  In  1845  he  became 
secretary  of  the  navy;  from  1846-49  he 
was  American  minister  at  the  Court  of  St. 
James's ;  and  in  1867  he  w^as  appointed 
minister  to  Prussia.  The  last  volume  of  his 
history,  which  is  a  standard  work,  appeared 
in  1882. 

Bancroft,  Marie  Eifie  {b.  1846).  Marie 
Wilton    was    already   a   well  known   and 

popular  actress  when  she  became  the  wife 
of  Mr.  S.  B.  Bancroft.  For  thirteen  years 
they  leased  the  old  Prince  of  Wales's  theatre, 
where  they  were  highly  successful  in  the 
production  of  T.  W.  Robertson's  plays.  In 
later  years  they  were  chiefly  seen  at  the 
Haymarket  theatre.  Mrs.  Bancroft  and 
her  husband  retired  from  management  in 
1885,  but  the  latter  reappeared  in  1889  at  the 
Lyceum  in  The  Dead  Heart.  They  have 
published  an  interesting  book  of  reminis- 

Bancroft,  Richard  {b.  1544,  d.  1610),  a 
distinguished  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  By 
the  favour  of  Sir  Christopher  Hatton,  Lord 
Burleigh,  and  Archbishop  Whitgift  he  was 
ordained  Bishop  of  London  in  1597,  and 
became  a  favourite  with  Elizabeth.  James  I. 
created  him  primate  in  succession  to  Whit- 

Bandarra,  Gonzalo  Annez  {d.  1556),  a 
Portuguese  fanatic,  and  writer  of  patriotic 
songs.  From  his  trade  he  was  known  as  the 
Holy  Cobbler.  His  popularity  became  so 
great  that  the  Inquisition  imprisoned  him 
as  a  false  prophet. 

Bandel,  Joseph  Ernst  von  {b.  1800,  d.  1876), 
a  German  sculptor  of  high  repute.  His 
Sleeping  Mars,  Charity,  and  Thusuelda,  are 
among  his  finest  works. 

Bandello,  Matteo  (b.  circa  1480,  d.  circa 
1561),  Italian  novelist.  At  first  a 
Dominican  monk,  he  settled  in  Milan  and 
wrote  most  of  his  stories  there.  He  was 
later  appointed  Bishop  of  Agen,  where  he 
rewrote  much  of  his  work  that  had  been 
destroyed  by  fire  at  Milan. 

Bandenelli,  Bartolomeo  {b.  1487,  d.  1559), 
a  sculptor  of  Florence,  of  the  greatest 
repute.  His  genius  displayed  itself  when 
he  was  only  nine  years  old",  and  he  studied 
under  the  best  masters.  He  was  also  a 
clever  painter. 

Bandiera,  Attilio  {b.  1810,  d.  1844),  and 
Emilio  {b.  1815,  d.  1844),  Italian  patriots. 
The  two  brothers  were  originally  in  the 
Austi'ian  navy,  but  left  it  to  aid  the  cause  of 
Italian  independence.  They  were  in  con- 
stant correspondence  with  Mazziui,  who  has 
told  the  story  of  their  Uves,  They  were  taken 
prisoners  in  an  abortive  rising  in  Calabria, 
and  shot. 

Bandtke,  George  Samuel  (b.  1768,  d. 
1835),  a  Polish  man  of  letters  and  professor 
at  the  university  of  Cracow.  He  wrote  on 
bibliographical  and  historical  subjects,  and 
compiled  a  Polish- German  dictionary. 

Baner,  Johanu  Gustavson  {b.  1595,  d. 
1641),  Swedish  general,  served  with 
Gustavus  Adolphus  in  Poland  and 
Germany,  and  earned    the  title   of   "the 




Lion  of  Sweden."  He  gained  several  bril- 
liant victories  over  the  Imperial  army,  but 
died  at  Halberstadt  of  fatigue. 

Banim,  John  (*.  1798,  d,  1842),  novehst, 
was  bom  in  Kilkenny.  Most  of  his 
work  was  written  in  collaboration  with  his 
brother  Michel,  the  Tales  of  the  O'Hara 
Family  being  their  best  known  production. 
Poverty  and  domestic  misfortune  greatly 
embittered  his  life;  and  when  broken 
health  compelled  him  to  leave  England, 
public  subscriptions  were  raised  for  him,  and 
finally  a  Civil  List  pension  was  gi-anted. 
His  last  work  was  Father  O'Gonnell. 

Banks,  Isabella Varley  {b.  1821),  a  popu- 
lar novehst,  and  wife  of  George  Linuaeus 
Banks.  Her  most  successful  novel  is  The 
Manchester  Man,  and  she  is  also  the  author 
of  several  volumes  of  verse. 

Bankes,  John,  a  seventeenth  century 
dramatist,  of  contemporary  celebrity. 

Bankes,  Sir  John  {b.  1589,  d.  1644), 
an  eminent  lawyer,  entered  Parliament 
1628,  was  appointed  Attorney- General  and 
knighted  1634,  and  made  Chief  Justice  of 
Common  Pleas  1641.  He  led  the  prose- 
cution of  Hampden,  and  presided  at  the 
trial  of  Lord  Strafford.  Duriug  the  Civil 
war  he  warmly  espoused  the  Royalist 
cause,  for  which  he  was  impeached  and  his 
property  confiscated. 

Banks,  Sir  Joseph  {b.  1743,  d.  1820),  a 
distinguished  naturalist.  After  making  a 
botanical  exploration  of  Newfoundland  and 
Labrador,  in  1768  he  joined  Cook's  expedi- 
tion as  naturalist,  together  with  Solander, 
and  visited  South  A.merica,  Australia,  and 
New  Guinea.  After  his  return  he  went 
with  Solander  to  Iceland.  In  1777  he  was 
elected  President  of  the  Royal  Society,  and 
in  1781  he  was  created  a  baronet. 

Banks,  Nathaniel  Prentiss  (b.  1816),  an 
American  politician,  and  a  general  of  tlie 
Federal  anny.  A  prominent  figure  in  the 
Massachusetts  legislature,  he  was  later 
returned  to  Congi-ess,  of  which  he  became 
Speaker.  During  the  Civil  war  he  held 
command  on  the  Potomac. 

Banks,  Thomas  {b.  1735,  d.  1805),  a  noted 
sculptor.  A  Royal  Academy  studentship 
enabled  him  to  study  for  seven  years  in 
Rome ;  and  he  afterwards  went  to  Russia 
on  the  Empress  Catherine's  invitation.  His 
great  work  was  the  Mourning  Achilles. 

Bannaker,  Benjamin  (6.  1734,  d.  1807), 
an  American  negro  slave,  who,  under  most 
difficult  circumstances,  acquired  a  know- 
ledge of  astronomy  profound  enough  to 
enable  him  to  publish  intricate  calculations. 

Bannister,  John  {b.  1760,  d.  1836),  an 

actor  of  considerable  celebrity,  and  a  pupU 
of  Ganick. 

Baour-Lormian,  Pierre  Marie  rran9oi8 
Louis  (J).  1770,  d.  1857),  a  French  poet, 
whose  first  reputation  was  gained  as  a 
satirist.  Later  he  translated  with  great 
success  the  poems  of  Ossiau,  and  Tasso's 
Jermalein  Delivered.  His  last  work  was 
a  translation  of  the  book  of  Job. 

Baptiste,  Nicolas  {b.  1761,  d.  1835),  a 
French  actor  who  on  the  stage  of  the 
Theatre  Fran(;ais  won  great  popularity 
both  in  tragedy  and  comedy. 

Baraguay  D'Hilliers,  Achille,  Comte  de 
{b.  1795,  d,  1878),  French  general.  He 
was  present  at  Borodino  and  served  in 
the  Waterloo  campaign  ;  in  1841  he  fought 
in  Algiers;  in  1848  he  commanded  the 
French  army  in  the  Papal  States ;  and  in 
1854,  commanding  the  French  corps  in  the 
Baltic,  he  captured  Bomarsund,  for  which 
he  was  created  Marshal  of  France.  He  pre- 
sided over  the  Commission  which  inquired 
into  the  conduct  of  Bazaine. 

Baraguay  D'Hilliers,  Louis  {b.  1764, 
d.  1812),  one  of  Napoleon's  generals, 
father  of  the  preceding.  He  distinguished 
himself  in  Spain  and  Italy,  but  in  the  re- 
treat from  Moscow  his  advanced  guard  was 
overpowered,  and  his  command  was  sus- 
pended in  consequence.    He  died  soon  after. 

Baraillon,  Jean  Francois  (b.  1743,  d. 
1816),  a  French  physician  and  revolu- 
tionist, who  belonged  to  the  moderate 
section  of  the  National  Convention.  He 
afterwards  was  secretary  of  the  Council  of 
Five  Hundred  and  president  of  the  Legis- 

Barante,  Amable  Guillaume  Prosper 
{b.  1782,  d.  1866),  French  statesman,  his- 
torian, and  litterateur.  After  service  on 
diplomatic  missions  he  held  high  oifice 
under  the  restored  monarchy,  and  was 
created  a  peer  of  France  in  1819.  He  re- 
entered public  life  as  an  ambassador  on 
the  accession  of  Louis  Philippe,  retiring 
finally  on  his  sovereign's  deposition. 

Baratier,  Jean  Philippe  {b.  1721,  d. 
1740),  an  extremely  precocious  Gennan,  who 
spoke  French,  German,  Latin,  Greek,  and 
Hebrew,  when  seven  years  old ;  wrote  on 
ecclesiastical  history  at  ten;  and  after 
studying  mathematics,  astronomy,  and  the 
law,  became  a  member  of  the  Acadeaay  of 
Berlin  at  fourteen.  He  died  from  over- 

Baratynski  Jewgenij,  Abraham  {d.  1844), 
Russian  poet  of  considerable  celebrity,  and 
author  of  the  Eda. 

Barbanegre,  Joseph  {b.  1772,  d.  1830),  a 




distinguished  French  general  who  served 
through  the  Napoleonic  cami^aigus  in  cen- 
tral Europe.  After  the  restoration  he 
was  made  Inspector- General. 

Barbara,  St. ,  Christian  martyr  of  the  3rd 
century ;  was  beheaded  by  her  father. 

Barbaro,  Francesco  {b.  1398,  d.  1454),  a 
distinguished  Venetian  who  served  the  re- 
public as  a  statesman  and  soldier,  and  was 
celebrated  as  a  scholar  and  orator. 

Barbaro,  Ermolao  [b.  1454,  d.  1495), 
grandson  of  the  preceding,  and  a  distin- 
guished scholar.  As  professor  of  pliilosophy 
at  Padua  he  won  celebrity.  Accepting 
an  office  of  dignity  from  the  Pope,  he  was 
banished  from  Venice. 

Barbarossa.     [See  Frederick  I.] 

Barbarossa,  Urusch  and  Khaireddin. 
The  name  given  to  two  brothers  of  Rou- 
melian  extraction,  whose  naval  exploits 
against  the  Christian  powers  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean were  famous  in  the  early  sixteenth 
century.  After  gaining  possession  of  Algiers, 
Urusch  was  slain  in  battle  against  the 
Spaniards,  but  his  brother,  entering  the 
service  of  the  Turkish  sultan,  defeated  the 
Spaniards,  and  afterwards  the  Genoese  fleet, 
ravaged  the  coasts  of  Italy,  took  Tunis, 
and  in  1538  decisively  defeated  the  com- 
bined fleets  of  the  Pope,  Venice,  and  Spain. 
His  triumphs  Avere  onlj^  terminated  by  his 
death,  in  1546. 

Barbaroux,  Charles  Joseph  Maria  {b. 
1767,  d.  1794),  French  revolutionist  of 
Marseilles.  He  was  a  deputy  in  the  Con- 
vention, and  a  prominent  Girondist.  For 
opposing  the  extremists  he  was  guillotined 
as  a  royalist. 

Barbauld,  Auna  Lgetitia  (b.  1743,  d.  1825), 
a  popular  writer :  the  wife  of  the  Rev. 
Rochemount  Barbauld,  who  died  in  an 
asylum.  She  published  a  volume  of  poems 
in  1773,  which  attracted  much  attention, 
following  it  at  intervals  Avith  various 
writings.  Finally  she  settled  in  London, 
and  wrote,  in  conjunction  with  her  brother, 
Evcnhtr/s  at  Home. 

Barbazan,  Arnauld  Guilhem,  a  French 
noble  of  the  fifteenth  century.  He  was  one 
of  six  knights  who  fought  with  six  English 
knights  in  1404,  and  he  afterwards  rendered 
good  service  against  the  Burgundians  and 

Barbe-Marbois,  Francois,  Marquis  de  {b. 
llio,  d.  1837),  a  French  statesman  and 
historical  writer.  He  filled  several  diplo- 
matic posts  under  the  CroAATi,  but  the 
revolutionary  tribunal  deported  him  to 
Guiana.  He  was  recalled  in  1800,  and  held 
several  State  appointments. 

Barbes,  Armand  {b.  1810),  a  violent 
French  revolutionist.  After  being  twice 
imprisoned  for  conspiring  against  the 
monarchy  he  joined  Blanqui's  futile  in- 
surrection of  1839,  and  was  sentenced  to 
imprisonment  for  life.  After  the  revolution 
of  1848  he  again  became  a  leading  figure  in 
poHtics ;  but  as  he  conspired  against  the 
repubHcan  government  he  was  again  im- 
prisoned, only  regaining  his  liberty  in  1854. 

Barbie  du  Bocage,  Jean  Denis  {b.  1760,  d. 
1825),  an  eminent  French  geographer,  and 
the  pupil  of  D'Anville  whose  biography  he 
wi'ote.  In  1809  a  special  university  chair 
was  created  for  him. 

Barbier,  Henri  Auguste  (b.  1805,  d.  1882), 
a  very  successful  French  satirical  poet. 
His  chief  work  is  lambcs,  a  powerful 
poem  dealing  with  the  social  corruption  of 
London  and  Paris.  He  also  translated 
Shakespeare's  Julius  Ccesar  in  verse. 

Barbieri  du  Cento,  Paolo  Antonio  {b. 
1596,  d.  1640),  an  Italian  painter  who 
excelled  in  depicting  animals,  flowers  and 

Barbosa  Machado,  Diogo  Q).  1682,  d. 
1770),  a  learned  Portuguese  monk  and 
chronicler.  He  wrote  the  Bibliotheca 
Lusitana,  Historica  Critica  and  Chrono- 
logica,  a  work  of  vast  scope  and  great 

Barbou-Descourieres,  Gabriel  (^.  1761,  <?. 
1816),  French  general  who  commanded  the 
French  armies  with  much  success  in  the 
campaigns  at  the  beginning  of  the  century. 

Barbour,  John  {d.  1395),  an  early  Scottish 
poet  and  chronicler.  He  wrote  The  Book 
of  the  Gesta  of  Kincf  Robert  Bruce,  receiv- 
ing a  pension  from  I)a\ad  II.  and  Robert  II. 

Barcham,  John  (6.  1572,  d.  1642), 
historian,  antiquary  and  clergyman.  He 
wrote  the  life  of  Henry  II.  and  The 
Display  of  Heraldry. 

Barclay,  Alexander  {b.  circa  1476,  d.  1552), 
an  English  ecclesiastic,  scholar,  and  writer. 
He  wrote  The  Castell  of  Labour  and  The 
Ship  of  Fools. 

Barclay,  John  {b.  1582,  d.  1621),  an 
English  author,  though  born  in  France. 
He  was  introduced  to  James  I.,  to  whom 
he  indited  a  poem.  The  Loves  of  Polyarchus 
and  Argenis  is  the  work  by  which  he  is  best 
known.     He  died  in  Rome. 

Barclay,  John  {b.  1734,  d.  1798),  a  Scottish 
divine,  and  founder  of  the  sect  known  as 
the  Bereans  or  Barclayites.  A  work  on  the 
Psalms  caused  his  dismissal  from  the 
Scottish  Presbyterian  body,  and  he  then 
settled  in  Newcastle. 



Barclay,  Kobert  {b.  1G48,  d.  1690), 
the  Scottish  champion  of  the  Quakers' 
creed.  He  was  converted  to  the  Society  of 
Friends  with  his  father  in  1666,  and 
preached  his  new  faith  through  England, 
Holland,  and  Germany.  In  1670  he  pub- 
lished his  famous  rejoinder  to  the  Rev. 
William  Mitchell,  entitled,  Tridh  cleared 
of  Calumnies,  and  followed  it  up  with 
other  controversial  pamphlets.  His  great 
work,  Theologicce  vere  Christiame  Apo- 
logia, appeared  in  1678.  James  II.  showed 
him  much  favour. 

Barclay  de  Tolly,  Michel,  Prince  {b.  1755, 
d.  1818),  a  great  Russian  general,  of  an  old. 
Scottish  stock,  settled  in  Livonia.  He 
entered  the  army  at  an  early  age,  and. 
served  against  the  Turks,  Swedes  and 
Poles.  In  1809  he  crossed,  the  frozen  Gulf 
of  Bothnia  with  an  army,  so  securing  the 
discomfiture  of  the  Swedish  forces,  and  he 
directed  the  operations  of  the  Russian  army 
during  the  French  invasion.  Although  the 
Czar  appreciated  his  genius,  he  was  super- 
seded because  of  his  foreign  extraction,  and 
during  the  rest  of  his  life,  which  was  full  of 
active  service,  he  was  constantly  passed  by 
and  neglected. 

Bar-Cochebas,  the  name  taken  by  a 
Jew  called  Lemion,  who  during  the  per- 
secution of  the  Jews  under  Trajan  declared 
himself  to  be  the  Messiah.  He  obtained  a 
large  following,  captured  Jerusalem,  and 
was  proclaimed  king.  Julius  Severus  over- 
threw him  A.D.  135. 

Bardesanes,  a  Gnostic  philosopher  of  the 
second  century  and  a  native  of  Edessa.  He 
founded  a  sect  professing  his  peculiar  views, 
which  he  disseminated  by  means  of  hymns. 

Bardez,  Willem,  Dutch  Calvinist  of  Am- 
sterdam, who  in  1578  took  a  leading  part 
in  the  expulsion  of  the  Catholic  magistrates 
from  the  city  council. 

Bardin,  Jean  {b.  1732,  d.  1809),  French 
historical  painter,  of  hvmible  birth,  who 
achieved  a  considerable  name,  and  became 
director  of  the  Orleans  school  of  fine  arts. 

Bardin,  Etienne  Alexandre,  Baron  {b.  1774, 
d.  1840),  son  of  the  preceding.  He  served 
with  distinction  in  the  campaigns  of  Napo- 
leon, and  wrote  several  military  treatises 
which  were  much  valued. 

Bardon,  Michel  Fran(,-oisD'Andre  {b.  1700, 
d.  1783),  a  French  painter  and  engraver, 
who  wrote  several  works  on  painting  and 
sculpture,  and  became  director  of  Marseilles 

Barebones,  Praise-God,  a  London  leather 
dealer,  and  an  active  member  of  the  Parlia- 
ment which  Cromwell  summoned  after  the 
dissolution  of  the  Long  Parliament. 

Bi-rentin,  Charles  Louis  Franqois  de  Paule 
{h.  1738,  d.  1819),  an  honoured  councillor  of 
Louis  XVI.,  and  his  keeper  of  the  seals. 
He  Avas  denounced  by  Mirabeau  as  an 
enemy  of  the  people,  and  left  France,  re- 
turning only  at  the  restoration. 

Barents  (or Barentzoon),  Willem  {d.  1597), 
the  pilot  to  the  three  Dutch  expeditions  of 
1594,  1595,  and  1596,  in  search  of  a  northern 
route  to  China.  He  died  on  his  way  home 
from  the  last  expedition,  having  reached 
lat.  80°  N. 

Barentsen,  Diederik  {b.  1534,  d.  1592),  a 
Dutch  painter,  and  a  favourite  pupil  of 
Titian,  whose  manner  he  imitated  very  suc- 

Barere  de  Vieuzac,  Bertrand  {b.  1775,  d. 
1841),  a  French  revolutionary  and  writer. 
He  was  elected  president  of  the  National 
Convention,  and,  adoj)ting  extreme  views, 
he  became  one  of  the  Committee  of  Public 
Safety.  He  was  banished  in  1795,  and  again 
in  1816. 

Baretti,  Giuseppe  {b.  1716,  d.  1789),  an 
Italian  author  of  repute,  and  the  compiler 
of  an  Anglo-Italian  dictionary.  He  came 
to  England  in  1751,  and  became  the  close 
friend  of  Dr.  Johnson. 

Barford,  Paul  Frederick  {b.  1811),  a 
Danish  historian  and  politician  of  the  "  Scau- 
dina\aan  party. "  He  is  the  author  of  several 
valuable  works. 

Barges,  Jean  Joseph  Leandre  {b.  1810), 
a  French  orientalist  of  distinction.  He 
held  several  important  university  chairs, 
and  took  holy  orders. 

Barham,  Richard  Harris  {b.  1788,  d.  1845), 
the  author  of  the  famous  Ingoldsby  Le- 
gends, which  first  appeared  in  Bentley''s 
Magazine.  He  was  rector  of  St.  Augustine's 
and  St.  Faith's  in  London. 

Baring,  Alexander.     \^See  Ashburton.] 

Baring;,  Sir  Evelyn  {p.  1841),  soldier  and 
diplomatist.  After  leaving  the  army,  he 
became  secretary  to  his  cousin,  Lord  North- 
brook,  when  Viceroy  of  India.  From 
1877  to  1879  he  was  Commissioner  of  the 
Egyptian  Public  Debt,  and  was  the  repre- 
sentative of  England  under  the  "Dual 
Control"  in  1879.  He  then  was  appointed 
financial  member  of  the  Indian  Council, 
returning  to  Egypt  in  1883. 

Baring,  Sir  Francis  {b.  1740,  d.  1810),  the 
founder  of  the  great  Baring  firm  of  mer- 
chant bankers.  A  Hanoverian  by  descent, 
he  became  Chairman  of  the  East  India 
Company,  and  an  M.P.  He  was  given  a 
baronetcy  in  1793. 

Earing,    Sir    Francis    Thomhili,     Lord 

398106 A 




Northbrook  {b.  1796,  d.  1866),  a  statesman, 
and  grandson  of  the  preceding.  He  entered 
Parliament  in  1826,  held  office  under  Lord 
Melbourne,  was  Chancellor  of  the  Exche- 
quer from  1839  to  1841,  and  First  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty  from  1849  to  1852.  He  was 
made  a  peer  in  1866. 

Baring,  Thomas  {b.  1800,  d.  1873),  brother 
of  the  preceding,  merchant  and  politician. 
He  entered  Parliament  in  1835.  He  was 
twice  offered  the  office  of  chancellor  of  the 
exchequer  by  Lord  Derby. 

Baring- Gould,  Sabine  {h.  1834),  an  En- 
glish clergjanau  and  a  popular  author. 
Besides  the  Lives  of  the  Saints,  he  has 
written  largely  on  theological  and  antiqua- 
rian subjects,  and  latterly  has  achieved 
great  success  as  a  novelist. 

Barker,  Edmund  Henry  {b.  1788,  d.  1839), 
an  English  philologist  and  lexicographer. 
His  edition  of  Stepliens'  Thesaurus  Linguce 
Greece  is  of  great  value. 

Barker,  Mary  Ann,  Lady,  a  popular 
authoress,  a  native  of  Jamaica.  She  has  been 
twice  married,  and  has  spent  much  time  in 
the  Colonies,  her  experiences  of  wliich  have 
supplied  the  matter  for  most  of  her  works. 

Barker,  Robert  {b.  1739,  d.  1806),  an  Irish 
artist,  and  the  originator  of  panoramas,  for 
the  production  of  which  he  forsook  por- 

Barker,  Sir  Robert  [d.  1789),  a  general 
who  commanded  the  Bengal  forces  of  the 
East  India  Company.  He  is  best  known  for 
the  treaty  he  concluded  in  1772,  between  the 
Soubadar  of  Oude  and  the  Rohillas,  and 
against  the  Mahrattas. 

Barkly,  Sir^  Henry  {b,  1815),  distin- 
guished colonial  governor.  He  entered 
Parliament  in  1845.  In  1849  he  was  ap- 
pointed Governor  of  British  Guiana ;  in 
1853  of  Jamaica ;  in  1856  of  Victoria ;  in 
1863  of  Mauritius ;  and  in  1870  of  the  Cape. 

Barkok  (b.  1338,  d.  1398),  a  Circassian 
slave  in  Egypt,  and  the  founder  of  a  dynasty. 
He  was  chief  mameluke  on  the  death  of 
Sultan  Ali,  in  1382,  and  he  secured  the 
succession  for  himself. 

Barlses,  (Gaspard  van  Baerie)  {b.  1584,  d. 
1648),  a  Flemish  poet,  theologian,  and  phy- 
sician._  He  took  holy  orders,  and  filled  a 
chair  in  the  Ley  den  university ;  but  being 
interdicted  for  heresy,  he  studied  medicine, 
and  obtained  a  great  reputation  at  the 
Amsterdam  university.  He  wrote  much  in 

Barlow,  Sir  George  Hilard  (b.  1762,  d. 
1846),  an  Indian  governor  of  distinction. 
He  entered  the  Company's  service  in  1778, 
and  was  made  provisional  Governor-general 
under  Lord  Weliesley  in  1802,  continuing  in 

the  post  imtil  he  succeeded  Lord  Comwallis 
as  governor.  Displaced  by  Fox,  he  accepted 
the  governorship  of  Madras. 

Barlow,  Joel  {b.  1775,  d.  1812),  an  Ameri- 
can poet.  He  served  in  the  war  of  Inde- 
pendence both  as  combatant  and  chaplain, 
writing  patriotic  songs  and  hymns.  In  1787 
he  produced  his  chief  work,  The  Vision  of 
CoIuDibus,  and  next  year  he  went  to 
Europe.  In  1812  he  was  appointed  minister 
at  Paris,  and  while  going  to  meet  Napoleon, 
then  in  Russia,  he  was  overtaken  with  a 
fatal  illness. 

Barlow,  Peter  (J).  1776,  d.  1862),  a  mathe- 
matician of  high  repute.  He  filled  for  some 
time  the  chair  of  mathematics  at  Woolwich 
Academy,  wrote  several  valuable  works  on 
mathematics,  and  discovered  the  means  of 
correcting  eccentricities  of  the  compass.  He 
was  also  a  good  mechanician. 

Barlow,  Thomas  Oldham,  R.A.  (b.  1824, 
d.  1889),  an  engraver.  He  studied  in  Man- 
chester, where  he  soon  obtained  a  reputa- 
tion, and  coming  to  London  he  engraved 
many  of  Sir  J.  Millais's  pictures. 

Barlow,  William,  an  Augustine  monk,  and 
a  leading  spirit  in  the  Reformation.  He  was 
appointed  to  several  bishoprics  by  Heniy 
VIII.,  but  was  im.prisoned  by  Mary,  and, 
escaping,  only  returned  to  England  on  her 

Barlow,  William  {d.  1625), mathematician, 
son  of  the  preceding.  After  having  been 
a  sailor,  he  took  orders,  and  wrote  on 
scientific  subjects,  being  the  inventor  of  the 
box- compass,  and  the  first  Englishman  to 
treat  of  the  magnet. 

Barnabas,  a  Levite  of  "Cyprus,  and  an 
early  Christian  convert;  he  introduced 
Paul  to  the  Church  in  Jerusalem,  and  after- 
wards imdertook  several  missions  with  him. 
The  two  quarrelled,  and  Barnabas  went  to 
Cj-prus,  the  remainder  of  his  career  being 

Barnard,  Lady  Anne  (6.  1750,  d.  1825),  a 
Scottish  poetess,  and  daughter  of  the  Earl 
of  Balcarres.  Her  chief  claim  to  fame  rests 
on  the  poem  Auld  Robin  Gray. 

Barnard,  Henry  {b.  1811),  an  American 
public  man  who  interested  himself  in  the 
public  school  system  and  obtained  its  com- 
plete reorganisation. 

Barnard,  Sir  John  {b.  1685,  d.  1764),_  a 
London  merchant,  who  represented  the  City 
in  Parhament  for  forty  years,  and  who 
filled  the  office  of  Lord  Mayor,  To  his 
action  at  a  critical  time  in  1745  was  due 
the  safety  of  the  Bank  of  England. 

Barnard,  John  James  {b.  1826,  d.  1851), 


(  101 


naval  officer,  acted  with  great  gallantry 
ou  the  West  Coast  of  Africa ;  in  1848  he 
joined  Clarke's  expedition  in  search  of 
Franklin,  and  he  was  lieutenant  of  the 
Enterprise  on  the  second  expedition,  in 
which  he  was  killed. 

Barnave,  Antoine  Pierre  Joseph  Maiie 
(b.  \lQ\,d.  1793),  a  distinguished  figure  of 
the  French  revolution.  Sent  to  the  States 
General  by  the  province  of  Dauphine,  he 
soon  acquired  a  great  influence,  and  became 
president  of  the  Constituent  Assembly. 
Baniave  was  entrusted  with  the  task  of  con- 
ducting the  royal  family  to  Paris  after  their 
flight,  and  his  interview  with  the  king  so 
modified  his  opinions  that  his  influence  was 
lost.  After  suffering  imprisonment  he  died 
by  the  guillotiae. 

Barnes,  Bamaby,  one  of  the  Elizabethan 
minor  poets,  and  son  of  Dr.  Barnes,  Bishop 
of  Durham,  was  a  prolific  writer  of  lyrical 

Barnes,  Joshua  {b.  1654,  d.  1712),  a  great 
Greek  scholar  and  an  English  clergyman. 
He  was  professor  of  Greek  at  Cambridge, 
edited  classics,  and  wi'ote  considerably. 

Barnes,  Robert,  one  of  the  early  promoters 
of  the  Eef  ormation.  He  was  thrown  into  pri- 
son by  Wolsey,  but  subsequently  secured  the 
favour  of  Henry  VIII.  He  fell  into  disgrace 
for  attacking  Gardiner,  and  was  burnt  at 
the  stake  in  1540. 

Barnes,  Thomas  {b.  1786,  d.  1841),  editor 
of  The  Times  and  successor  to  Dr.  Stoddart 
in  that  post.  He  was  at  first  a  reporter ;  his 
conduct  of  the  paper  was  very  successful. 

Barnes,  William  (b.  1820,  d.  1886), 
English  clergyman  of  Dorsetshire,  a  dia- 
lect poet.  He  was  also  an  orientalist,  and 
an  authoritative  writer  on  philological  and 
antiquarian  subjects. 

Bamett,  John  {b.  1802,  d.  1890),  a  musical 
composer  of  German  extraction.  He  showed 
early  talent,  and  composed  many  songs, 
and  afterwards  operettas  and  vaudevilles. 
His  opera.  The  Mountain  Sylph,  was  pro- 
duced at  the  Lyceum  in  1834,  and  was 
followed  hy  Fair  Rosamond  and  Farxnelli. 

Bamett,  John  Francis  (b.  1838),  nephew 
of  the  preceding,  and  also  a  musical  com- 
poser. Of  his  many  pieces  may  be  men- 
tioned the  Ancient  Mariner,  a  cantata,  the 
Raising  of  Lazarus^  an  oratorio,  and  the 
Good  tShepherd. 

Bamett,  Samuel  (J.  1844),  an  English 
dergyroan  and  philanthropist.  His  great 
■work  has  been  done  in  Whitechapel,  since 
his  appointment  to  St.  Jude's  in  1873.  He 
established  Toynbee  Hall,  which  is  the 
centre  of  a  great  organisation  for  the  social 

and    moral    improvement   of    the    East- 
End  population. 

Barneveldt,  Johann  van  Olden  {b.  1547, 
d.  1619),  a  great  Dutch  statesman.  He  played 
a  leading  part  in  the  effort  of  the  Nether- 
lands to  throw  off  Spanish  dominion,  and  he 
became  Grand  Pensioner  of  the  States  of 
Holland.  He  was  sent  to  England  to  offer 
tbe  Dutch  crown  to  Elizabeth,  and  again 
to  conclude  an  alliance  with  James  I.  against 
Spain.  He  used  his  influence  to  obtain  the 
appointment  of  Maurice  of  Xassau  as  Stadt- 
holder  in  1587 ;  but  Maurice  afterwards 
became  jealous  of  his  patron,  and  tried  to 
excite  distrust  and  religious  enmity  against 
him.  Barneveldt  twice  sought  to  resign  his 
olfice,  but  he  was  not  allowed  to  do  so.  At 
last,  by  raising  a  corps  of  militia  to  sup- 
press riots,  he  gave  Maurice  an  excuse  for 
arraigning  him  for  high  treason,  and  he 
was  executed. 

Barney,  Joshua  (b.  1759,  d.  1818),  a  bril- 
liant American  naval  officer  who  served  in 
the  war  of  Independence  and  captured  the 
General  Monk,  and  in  1812  bore  a  distin- 
guished part  in  the  battle  of  Bladensburg. 

Bamfield,  Richard  {b.  1547),  an  Eliza- 
bethan poet,  and  a  friend  of  Shakespeare. 
He  wrote  The  Affectionate  Shepherd. 

Barnum,  Phineas  Taylor  {b.  1810,  d. 
1891),  an  American,  showman  and  proprietor 
of  "  the  greatest  show  on  earth."  He  was 
engaged  in  several  professions,  made  and 
lost  several  fortunes,  and  his  show  was 
twice  destroyed  by  fire.  He  brought  out 
Tom  Thumb,  and  introduced  Jenny  Lind 
to  the  American  public.  He  twice  visited 
Europe,  the  last  time  in  1889. 

Baroccio,  Fiori  Frederico  {]).  1528,  d.  1612), 
an  Italian  portrait  and  historical  painter, 
who  earned  a  great  name  and  who  was  em- 
ployed in  the  decoration  of  the  palace  of 


Baroccio,  Francisco,  a  Venetian  scholar  of 
the  16th  century,  well  versed  in  the  classics 
and  mathematics.  He  was  imprisoned  by 
the  Inquisition  for  magic. 

Baroche,  Pierre  Jules  {b.  1802,  d.  1870),  a 
distinguished  French  advocate  and  states- 
man. He  entered  the  Chamber  of  Deputies 
in  1846  as  a  member  of  the  opposition,  and 
after  the  revolution  he  held  high  judicial 
offices,  and  finally  the  portfoHo  for  foreign 
affairs.  After  the  cotip  cVetat  he  was  made 
president  of  the  council  of  state. 

Baroda,  the  Gae'kwars  of.  They  held 
dominion  over  a  branch  of  the  Mahratta 
confederacy.  In  1800  Anand  Rao  {d.  1819) 
placed  his  state  in  dependence  on  the 
British ;  in  1870  Malhar  Rao  succeeded  to 
the  rule,  his  misgovernment  provoking  a 




commission  of  iuquiiy,  aucT  leading  to  his 
deposition  in  1875.  His  successor  was  Syaji 
Rao,  who  still  reigns,  audAvith  great  advan- 
tage to  the  *ate. 

Baron,  Michel  (J).  1653,  d.  1729),  a  famous 
French  actor,  and  son  of  professional 
jiarents.  His  instruction  was  largely  re- 
ceived at  the  hands  of  Moliere,  whose 
interest  he  secured. 

Baroni,  Ca^sare  {b.  1538,  d.  1607),  a  priest 
and  ecclesiastical  historian  of  Xaples.  Cle- 
ment VIII.  took  him  into  favour,  and  made 
him  a  cardinal  and  librarian  to  the  Vatican. 
His  A)i)i(iles  llcdesiastici,  dealing  with 
church  history  of  12  centuries,  was  com- 
pleted in  30  years. 

Barral,  Andre  Horace  rran9ois,  Vicomte 
de  {b.  1743,  d.  1829),  a  soldier  and  general 
in  the  army  of  the  Alps.  He  was  also  au 

Barral,  Louis  Mathias,  Comte  de  {b.  1746, 
d.  1814),  brother  of  the  pi-eceding,  and 
Archbishop  of  Tours.  In  1788  he  was 
forced  to  fly  the  country  for  refusing  to 
take  the  oath  of  submission.  Xapoleon,  as 
First  Consul,  employed  him  in  reconciling 
the  clergy  to  the  new  order,  and  promoted 
him  to  the  see  of  Tours  for  his  services. 

Barral,  Jean  Augustin  {b.  1819),  a  French 
chemist,   whose    chief  work   was  the   ex-   i 
traction  of  nicotine  from  the  tobacco  leaf,   i 
and    the    demonstration    of    its    poisonous 

Barral,  Joseph  Marie  {b.  1742,  d.  1828),  a 
distinguished  jurist  of  Grenoble,  who  was 
placed  at  the  head  of  the  municipality  on 
the  outbreak  of  the  revolution.  He  was 
imprisoned  during  the  Reign  of  TeiTor,  but 
was  released  and  restored  to  office  later. 

Barras,  Paul  Fran9ois  Jean  Nicolas, 
Comte  de  {b.  1755,  d.  1829),  a  noble  French 
revolutionist  of  the  extreme  party.  He  and 
Robespierre  became  estranged,  and  to  anti- 
cipate Robespierre's  enmity  he  distinguished 
himself  by  having  the  great  Triumvir  ar- 
rested. He  was  elected  president  of  the 
Convention,  and  afterwards  a  member  of 
the  Directory.  He  retired  on  the  subversion 
of  the  Directory,  and  was  in  late  years 
constantly  changing  allegiance  from  one 
party  to  another. 

Barreiros,  Gaspar  {d.  1574),  a  Portuguese 
geographer,  who  entered  a  Franciscan 
monastery  to  pursue  his  studies.  He  left 
several  valuable  works. 

Barret,  George  {b.  1732,  d.  1784),  an 
Irish  painter,  w^ho,  with  poor  opportunities, 
attained  a  considerable  reputation.  He 
assisted  largely  in  founding  the  Royal 
Academy,  and  was  master  painter  to  Chel- 
sea Hospital. 

Barreto,  Francisco  de  {d.  1574),  a  Por- 
tuguese governor  of  the  Indies,  who  com- 
manded an  expedition  to  the  w^est  coast  of 
Africa,  and  penetrated  far  into  the  interior. 

Barrett,  John  {h.  1746,  d.  1821),  Vice- 
Provost  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin.  A  man 
of  very  diverse  learning,  and  an  able  philo- 
logist and  orientahst.  He  wrote  An  Inquiry 
into  the  Origin  and  Sign  of  the  Zodiac. 

Barri,  Gerald  {h.  1146,  d.  1223),  a  Welsh 
ecclesiastic  of  noble  birth,  generally  known 
as  "  Giraldus  Cambrensis, "  He  left  numer- 
ous works,  the  chief  of  which  is  his  Typo- 
gruphia  Hibernia,  written  when  the  author 
was  in  Ireland  with  Prince  John.  He  was 
Archdeacon  of  St.  David's,  and  having  been 
twice  denied  the  see,  he  retired  into  private 
life,  refusing  au  offer  of  the  bishopric  when 
a  third  vacancy  occurred. 

Barrlere,  Jean  de  la  {b.  1544,  d.  1600),  a 
French  abbot  and  founder  of  the  order  of 
Feuillants,  which  was  recognised  by  Sixtus 
V.  in  1586. 

Barrin^on,  John  Shute,  Viscount  {b. 
1678,  d.  1734),  a  successful  politician,  and 
son  of  a  London  merchant.  He  was  em- 
ployed in  reconciling  the  Scottish  Pres- 
byterians to  the  Union  with  England,  and 
entered  Parliament  as  member  for  Berwick 
when  George  I.  came  to  the  throne.  He 
was  created  a  peer  of  Ireland  in  1720,  but 
for  his  connection  with  the  Harnbui'g  lottery 
he  was  expelled  from  Parliament,  devoting 
the  remainder  of  his  life  to  theology  and 

Barrington,  Samuel  {b.  1729,  d.  1800), 
fifth  son  of  preceding,  and  a  distinguished 
admiral.  He  fought  with  great  success  and 
gallantry  in  the  war  with  France,  his  last 
important  action  being  with  Lord  Howe  at 

Barrington,  William  Wildman  [b.  1717, 
d.  1793),  eldest  son  and  successor  of  John 
Shute.  He  was  a  member  of  Parliament, 
Secretary  at  War  (1755),  and  Chancellor  of 
the  Exchequer  (1781). 

Barros,  Joas  de  {b.  1496,  d.  1570),  a 
Portuguese  historian.  He  was  brought  up 
in  the  royal  household:  held  an  appoint- 
ment in  Africa  ;  and  returning  to  Portugal, 
wrote  his  Aaia  Furtugeza. 

Barrot,  Camille  Hyacinthe  Odillon  {b. 
1791,  d.  1873),  a  French  advocate  and  poli- 
tician of  note.  He  was  at  first  a  royalist, 
but  after  the  second  restoration  he  became 
a  prominent  figure  in  the  pai'ty  of  opposi- 
tion. He  joined  in  the  revolution  of  1830, 
and  became  prefect  of  the  Seine,  after 
which  he  again  entered  into  opposition,  this 
time  against  Guizot.  Returned  for  the 
department  of  Eure,  h&  was  recognised  as 




leader  of  the  Left,  and  was  largely  instru- 
mental in  bringing  about  the  fall  of  Louis 
Philippe.  He  held  office  under  Louis 
Napoleon  as  President  of  the  Republic,  but 
protested  against  the  coup  d^  etat,  and  retired 
from  public  hfe. 

Barrot,  Victorin  Ferdinand  {b.  1806,  d. 
1883),  a  French  politician  and  brother  of 
the  preceding.  He  was  returned  by  Algeria 
to  the  constitutional  Assembly  of  1848,  and 
held  several  ministerial  posts  under  Louis 

Barrow,  Isaac  {b.  1630,  d.  1677),  scholar 
and  divine,  and  the  preceptor  of  Isaac 
Newton.  He  earned  a  great  reputation  at 
Cambridge,  and  afterwards  chiefly  studied 
natural  science,  divinity  and  the  classics. 
After  some  foreign  travel  he  entered  the 
church,  and  in  1660  obtained  the  professor- 
ship of  Greek  at  Cambridge  and  that  of 
geometry  at  Gresham  College.  The  latter 
appointment  he  resigned  to  Newton,  and 
was  appointed  by  Charles  II.  to  the  Master- 
ship of  Trinity  College,  afterwards  being 
chosen  Vice -Chancellor  of  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity. He  died  a  little  later,  with  the 
reputation  of  being  one  of  the  best  wits  and 
prof oundest  scholars  of  his  day. 

Barrow,  Sir  John  (5.  1764,  d.  1848),  a 
traveller  and  man  of  science.  As  private 
secretary  to  Sir  George  Staunton,  he  ac- 
companied Lord  Macartney's  expedition  to 
China,  and  in  1797  he  went  with  Lord 
Macartney  to  the  Cape.  He  then  became 
a  secretary  to  the  Admiralty,  and  was 
created  baronet  in  1825.  He  wrote  many 
books  of  travel. 

Barrowe,  Henry  {d.  1593),  a  religious 
enthusiast  of  the  16th  century.  In  1586  he 
was  imprisoned  for  the  heterodoxy  of  his 
views ;  and  his  writings  while  he  was  in 
prison,  vindicating  his  faith,  gave  such 
offence  that  he  was  executed. 

BarruU,  Augustin  de  {b.  1741,  d.  1820), 
a  French  Jesuit,  who  wrote  against  the 
revolution  and  the  neglect  of  religion.  He 
was  twice  banished  from  France,  but  was 
finally  taken  into  favour  by  Napoleon. 

Barry,  Sir  Charles  {h.  1795,  d.  1860),  an 
eminent  architect.  He  designed  the  Travel- 
lers' and  Reform  clubs  and  the  College 
of  Surgeons,  bctt  the  great  work  of  his  life 
was  the  construction  of  the  Houses  of  Par- 
liament, and  for  this  work  he  was  knighted. 
He  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

Barry,  Sir  David  {b.  1780,  d.  1845),  an 
Irish  physician.  He  served  in  the  Penin- 
sular war  as  army  surgeon ;  made  some 
valuable  researches  into  the  circulation  of 
the  blood  ;  and  was  sent  by  Government  to 
Gibraltar  and  Russia  to  investigate  epi- 
demics of  yellow  fever  and  cholera. 

Barry,  Elizabeth  {b.  1658,  d.  1713),  a 
famous  tragedy  actress.  She  established 
her  gi-eat  reputation  by  a  representation 
of  Monimia  in  Otway's  Orphan,  and  was, 
before  her  death,  the  creator  of  112  parts. 
She  was  a  great  favourite  at  Court,  and  it 
was  in  her  behalf  that  "benefits"  were 
invented  by  James  11. 

Barry,  Edward  Middleton  {b.  1830,  d. 
1880),  an  architect  and  son  of  Sir  Charles 
Barry,  whom  he  succeeded  as  architect  of 
the  Houses  of  Parliament.  He  also  de- 
signed the  National  Gallery  building. 

Barry,  James  {b.  1741,  d.  1806),  an  Irish 
artist  of  considerable  genius.  His  Landing 
of  St.  Fatrick,  painted  in  his  20th  year, 
secured  the  interest  of  Burke,  by  whose  aid 
BaiTy  visited  Italy.  In  1776  he  finished 
the  famous  Death  of  Wolfe,  which  was 
not  appreciated,  though  Barry's  reputation 
was  great.  For  seven  years,  from  1774, 
Barry  devoted  himself  to  the  unremunera- 
tive  task  of  decorating  the  great  hall  of  the 
Society  of  Arts  with  seven  great  pictures. 
He  died  in  poverty. 

Barry,  John  {b.  1745,  d.  1803),  an  Ameri- 
can naval  officer,  who  distinguished  himself 
greatly  in  the  war  of  Independence.  In 
1794  he  was  made  first  commodore  of  the 
U.S.  navy. 

Barry,  Marie  Jeanne  Goraard  de  Vau- 
bernier,  Comtesse  du  {b.  1746,  d.  1793),  the 
mistress  of  Louis  XV.  She  exercised  the 
greatest  influence  over  the  king  ;  was 
banished  by  his  successor ;  and  giullotined 
by  the  revolutionary  tribunal. 

Barry,  Martin  {b.  1802,  d.  1855),  a  physi- 
cian and  scientist,  whose  researches  in 
embryology  are  of  European  celebrity. 

Barry,  Spranger  {b.  1719,  d.  1777),  a  cele- 
brated actor  of  Irish  extraction.  He  was 
the  great  rival  of  Garrick,  with  whom  he 
competed  in  the  representation  of  Romeo. 

Barry,  Mrs.  Spranger  {b.  1733,  d.  1801),  a 
gifted  actress,  who  made  a  London  reputa- 
tion in  the  character  of  Desdemona.  She 
later  appeared  in  the  name  of  her  third  hus- 
band, Cra^vford. 

Bart,  Jean  {h.  1651,  d.  1702),  a  gallant 
French  naval  officer,  whose  daring  exploits 
against  the  Dutch  and  English  earned  for 
him  a  great  reputation,  and  the  especial 
favour  of  Louis  XIA". 

Bartas,  Guillaume  de  Salluste,  Sieur  du 
{b.  1544,  d.  1590),  a  poet  soldier  of  Gascon)^, 
whose  La  Premiere  Semaine  was  highly  ets- 
teemed.  He  was  mortaUy  wounded  at  the 
battle  of  Ivry. 

Barth,   Heinrich    (b.   1821,  d.    1865),  a 




German  African  explorer.  From  1845  to 
1854:  he  was  constantly  occupied  with 
expeditions  into  Africa,  first  into  the  north, 
and  afterward  along  the  course  of  the  Nile. 
The  records  of  his  travels  are  of  great  value. 

Bartlieleniy,  Auguste  Marseille  {b.  1796, 
d.  1867),  a  very  popular  French  writer  of 
politico-satirical  verse.  He  bitterly  attacked 
the  monarchical  government  of  the  restora- 
tion, and  twice  suffered  imprisonment  for 
his  writings  before  the  revolution  of  1830. 
Afterwards  he  was  as  scathing  in  his  satire 
of  Guizot,  but  having  lost  his  pension,  he 
suddenly  began  to  write  in  dii'ect  contradic- 
tion of  his  earlier  effusions. 

Barthelemy,  Francois,  Marquis  de  {b. 
1747,  d.  1830),  a  French  diplomatist,  em- 
ployed on  various  missions  prior  to  the 
revolution.  He  was  for  a  time  member  of 
the  Directory,  but  he  was  imprisoned  later. 
He  was  a  pronounced  adherent  of  Xapoleon, 
but  he  secured  honour  and  distinctions  xmder 
the  restored  king. 

Barthelemy,  Jean  Jacques  {b.  1716,  d. 
1795),  a  French  antiquary.  He  succeeded 
Gros  deBoze  as  keeper  of  the  king's  cabinet 
of  medals,  and  held  the  appointment  until 
the  revolution.  His  great  work  is  The 
Travels  of  Anacharsts,  over  which  he  spent 
thirty  years. 

Barthelemy  Saint-Hilaire,  Jules  C^- 
1805),  a  French  scholar  and  politician.  He 
was  classical  professor  at  the  University  of 
France,  translated  Aristotle,  and  wrote  on 
Oriental  literature  and  religious.  He  was 
active  in  the  revolutions  of  "1830  and  1848, 
was  elected  life  senator  in  1875,  and  was 
foreign  minister  in  Ferry's  cabinet  of  1880. 

Barthes,  Paul  Joseph  {b.  1734,  d.  1806), 
a  Fi-ench  physiologist  and  physician.  He 
was  physician  to  the  king,  his  valuable 
medical  researches  and  writings  gaining  for 
him  a  gieat  reputation. 

Bartholdy,  Jacob  Solomon  {h.  1779,  d. 
1825),  a  Prussian  diplomatist  and  litterateur. 
He  fought  against  the  French  under  Napo- 
leon, and  later  in  life  was  employed  on 
several  important  missions. 

Bartholomseus  Anglicus,  a  learned  monk 
of  the  Franciscan  order,  named  Glanvil, 
who  lived  in  the  14th  century,  and  is 
known  as  the  author  of  De  Proprietaiibus 

Bartholomseus  a  Martyribus  {b.  1514,  d. 
1590),  a  distinguished  Dominican,  Arch- 
bishop of  Braga.  He  bore  an  honourable  part 
in  the  Council  of  Trent,  and  obtained  the 
removal  of  certain  indignities  upon  his 

Bartholomew,  St.,  one  of  the  Apostles 

and  the  son  of  Tholomaeus  or  Tolmai.  It  is 
supposed  from  internal  evidence  that  he 
is  identical  with  the  person  referred  to  in 
some  of  the  gospels  as  Nathaniel.  He  is 
spoken  of  by  tradition  as  carrying  the 
gospel  into  India. 

Bartleman,  Hippolyte  {b.  1741,  d.  1808),  a 
French  violinist  and  composer  of  opera.  He 
came  to  London  in  1766,  where  he  did  all 
his  best  work,  and  achieved  a  considerable 

Bartelman,  James  {b.  1769,  d.  1821),  a 
celebrated  bass  singer,  noted  for  his  render- 
ing of  classical  music. 

Bartlett,  William  Henry  {b.  1809,  d.  1854), 
a  clever  artist  and  illustrator  of  books.  He 
reproduced  the  scenery  of  Switzerland, 
Scotland,  Turkey,  and  the  Holy  Land,  and 
other  countries  in  pen  and  pencil  drawnngs 
with  the  gi-eatest  success.  He  also  visited 

Bartoli,  Daniele  (6.  1608,  d.  1685),  an 
Italian  Jesuit,  known  for  his  Storia  della 
Societa  de  Gesu^  an  exhaustive  history  of 
the  Jesuit  order. 

Bartoli,  Pietro  Santo  {b.  1635,  d.  1700), 
Italian  painter  and  engraver,  especially 
noted  for  his  excellent  engravings  of  the 
great  works  of  Greek  and  Roman  art. 

Bartolini,  Lorenzo  {b.  1778,  d.  1850),  a 
Florentine  sculptor  of  the  highest  repute. 
He  studied  first  in  Paris,  where  he  soon  made 
a  name,  and  received  commissions  from 
Napoleon.  At  the  fall  of  the  empire  he 
returned  to  Italy,  and  produced  his  most 
famous  pieces  of  v:oxk— Charity  and  Her- 
cules and  Lycas. 

Bartolommeo,  Fra.     [See  Baccio.] 

Bartolommeo  Maestro,  Venetian  sculpiur 
and  architect  of  the  14th  century. 

Bartolozzi,  Francesco  {b.  1725,  d.  1813), 
a  Florentine  artist  and  engraver,  who  was 
so  successful  in  the  latter  capacity  that  he 
abandoned  painting.  In  1764  he  came  to 
London  and  w^as  made  a  member  of  the 
Royal  Academy. 

Barton,  Sir  Andrew,  Scottish  sea-captain, 
who  caused  much  destruction  among  the 
English  traders  iu.^he  middle  of  the  16th 
century.  His  ships  were  at  last  cap- 
tured,'and  he  was  slain,  by  Sir  Thomas 
Howard  in  1571. 

Barton,  Benjamin  Smith  {h  1776,  d. 
1815),  an  American  physician  and  botanist. 
He  studied  in  Great  Britain  and  Gennany 
with  distinction,  and  afterwards  held  high 
university  dignities  in  America. 

Barton,    Bernard    {b.   1784,    d.   1849),  a 




native  of  Loudon,  known  as  the  "Quaker 
poet."  He  was  a  bank-clerk  for  forty 
years.    His  writings  were  very  nmnerous. 

Barton,  Elizabeth,  a  religious  fanatic, 
known  as  the  "  Holy  Maid  of  Kent," 
lived  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  Influ- 
enced by  an  unscrupulous  priest,  she  claimed 
prophetic  inspiration,  and  gained  the  credu- 
lity of  many.  The  Star  Chamber  forced  her 
and  her  accomplices  to  confession,  and  they 
were  executed  in  1534. 

Bartram,  John  {b.  1701,  d.  1777),  an 
American  botanist,  who  established  the 
first  American  botanical  garden.  He  was 
appointed  royal  botanist  by  George  III. 

Bartsch,  Adam  von  {b.  1757,  d.  1820),  a 
distinguished  designer  and  engraver  of 
Vienna,  of  official  rank.  His  works  are  of 
high  merit. 

Barucli,  the  friend  and  secretary  of  the 
prophet  Jeremiah.  He  it  was  who  read 
before  the  assembled  Jewish  chiefs  the  pro- 
phecies of  Jeremiah  which  King  Jehoiakim 
destroyed,  and  who  delivered  to  Babylon 
Jeremiah's  denunciation  of  that  city. 

Barwell,  John,  a  distinguished  servant  of 
the  East  India  Company.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  new  council  appointed  in  1773, 
with  Warren  H  astings  as  Governor-general. 
He  served  for  five  years,  consistently  sup- 
porting Hastings  in  aU  dissensions,  and  re- 
tired in  1780. 

Barze,  Antoine  Louis  {b.  1795,  d.  1875), 
a  French  sculptor.  He  was  first  a  worker 
in  metals,  and  an  engraver,  and  only  exhi- 
bited statuary  for  the  first  time  when 
thirty-four  years  old.  His  work  in  bronze 
is  highly  esteemed. 

Basaiti,  Marco,  an  Italian  painter  of  the 
early  part  of  the  16th  centuiy.  His  best 
work  is  in  Venice. 

Baschi,  Matteo.  The  founder  of  the  order 
of  the  Capuchins,  lived  in  the  15th  cen- 

^Basedow,  Johann  Bernhard  {b.  1723,  d. 
1790),  a  Gemian  educationalist,  of  eccentric 
temper,  who,  after  occupying  chairs  at 
several  universities,  was  inspired  by  Eous- 
seau's  Emile  to  establish  a  system  of  pic- 
torial education.  His  writings  on  the  sub- 
ject were  very  popular,  but  his  model 
school  failed. 

Basevi,  George  {b.  1794,  d.  1845),  an 
English  architect  of  great  talent,  who  was 
much  employed  in  London,  and  who  de- 
signed the  Cambridge  Fitzwilliam  museum. 

Basevi,    James   Palladio    {d.    1871),    an 
engineer   engaged  in   the    trigonometrical  i 
survey  of  India.    For  seven  years  he  gave 

his  attention  to  pendulum  observations  for 
determining  the  variations  of  the  force  of 


Basil,  Saint  {b.  329,  d.  379),  sumamed 
"the  Great."  One  of  the  Greek  Fathers 
of  the  Church.  He  was  born  in  Csesarea, 
and  after  studying  in  Athens,  became  an 
advocate.  He  abandoned  this  calling  for 
ascetic  seclusion,  and  finally  instituted  a 
monastery  near  Ibora  in  Pontus.  In  370  he 
succeeded  Eusebius  as  Bishop  of  Csesarea, 
and  in  this  office  carried  on  a  long  struggle 
against  Arianism,  championed  though  it 
was  by  the  Emperor  Valens.  The  goodness 
and  devotion  of  his  life  gave  him  great  in- 
fluence, and  his  monastic  rules  were  gener- 
ally adopted.  His  writings  were  widely 
circulated,  and  have  always  been  highly 

Basil  or  Basilius,  a  Bulgarian  monk  of 
the  twelfth  century,  who  foimded  the  sect 
of  "Bogomiles."  In  1118  he  was  tried  for 
heresy  by  a  council  at  Constantinople,  and 
burnt  at  the  stake. 

Basil  I.  (6.  813,  d.  886),  sumamed  the 
' '  Macedonian, ' '  Byzantine  emperor ;  though- 
reputed  to  be  of  royal  descent,  his 
father  was  a  small  farmer  near  Adria- 
nople,  from  whence  Basil  was  carried  away 
hy  the  Bulgarians.  He  ultimately  went  to 
Constantinople,  and  by  his  powers  as  an 
athlete  gained  the  favour  of  the  Emperor 
Michael  III.  In  867  he  murdered  Michael, 
and  seized  the  imperial  power,  wielding 
it  with  great  effect.  He  re -organised  the 
army  and  reformed  the  process  of  justice, 
and  his  death  was  generally  lamented. 

Basil  II.  {h.  958,  d.  1025),  great  grand- 
son of  the  preceding.  He  assumed  the 
government  in  976,  on  the  death  of  the 
regent,  John  Zimisces,  and  succeeded  in 
defeating  in  Asia  two  insurgent  generals. 
He  also  conquered  the  Bulgarians. 

Basillscus  {d.  ^17)^  a  Greek  emperor. 
He  was  brother-in-law  to  the  Emperor  Leo, 
at  whose  death  he  seized  upon  the  throne, 
He  was,  however,  soon  oiisted,  and  he 
perished  in  prison. 

Basin,  Thomas  {b.  1402,  d.  1491),  French 
prelate  and  historian.  In  1447  he  was  made 
Bishop  of  Lisieux,  and  his  defence  of  Joan 
of  Arc  against  the  sentence  of  the  Pope 
gained  him  the  favour  of  Charles  VII. 
Incurring  the  enmity  of  the  Dauphin,  he 
fled  from  France.  He  wrote  the  histories 
of  Charles  VII.  and  Louis  XI. 

Basire,  Claude  {b.  1764,  d.  1794),  a  French 
revolutionist.  As  a  member  and  secretary 
of  the  Convention  he  was  remarkable  for 
his  extreme  views.  He  discovered  the  re- 
actionary "Comity  Autrichien,"  but  was 
later  guillotined  for  treachery. 




Basire,  Isaac  (b.  1607,  d.  1676),  chaplain- 
in-orcliuary  to  Charles  I.  After  the  sur- 
reuder  of  Oxford  to  the  Parliament  he 
went  ou  a  mission  to  the  East,  and  preached 
with  much  success.  In  1661  Charles  II.  re- 
stored him  to  his  former  position. 

Baskerville,  John  (h.  1706,  d.  1775),  a 
writing  master  of  Birmingham,  who  eifected 
great  improvements  in  typography. 

Bassal,  Jean  {b.  17o2,  d.  1802),  a  French 
priest  and  revolutionist.  He  was  elected 
secretary  of  the  Convention  ;  was  president 
of  the  Jacobins ;  accompanied  Championnet 
to  Italy,  and  was  imprisoned  with  him. 

Bassano,  Giacomo  da  Ponte,  II  Vecchio 
[b.  1510,  d.  1592),  an  ItaUan  painter,  a 
native  of  Bassano,  from  which  he  took  his 
name.  He  is  best  known  for  his  landscape 
and  animal  painting. 

Bassano,  Francesco  {b.  1518,  d.  1591),  son 
of  the  preceding,  and  also  a  painter  of  note. 
He  committed  suicide  from  a  morbid  fear  of 
the  Inquisition. 

Bassano,  Hugues  Bernard  Maret,  Duke 
of  (b.  1763,  d.  1839),  a  French  statesman 
and  wi'iter.  He  was  closely  associated  with 
Napoleon  from  the  first,  was  employed  on 
several  missions  by  him  and  held  high 
offices.  In  1811  he  was  ennobled  and  made 
minister  of  foreign  affairs.  After  Waterloo 
he  was  banished,  but  in  1830  he  was  re- 

Bassantin,  James  {b.  1504,  d.  1568),  a 
Scottish  mathematician  and  astronomer, 
and  professor  at  the  University  of  Paris. 

Basse,  William,  a  minor  poet  of  the 
reign  of  James  I. ,  who  wrote  an  epitaph  ou 

Basse ville,  Nicolas  Jean  Hugou  de 
{d.  1793),  a  French  politician  and  writer. 
He  made  the  acquaintance  of  Mirabeau  in 
Berlin,  where  he  attained  some  literary  dis- 
tinction. After  editing  papers  in  Paris,  he 
was  sent  by  the  National  Assembly  to 
Naples  and  Eome,  where  he  was  murdered 
by  the  mob. 

Bassi,  Laura  Maria  (^.1711,  d.  1778),  a 
learned  lady  of  Bologna,  who  took  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy  at  the  age 
of  21,  and  was  professor  of  philosophy  at 

Bassi,  Ugo  (/;.  1804,  d.  1849),  an  Italian 
priest  and  nationalist.  In  1848  he  joined 
the  Roman  volunteers;  and  he  was  attached 
to  the  Garibaldi  Legion  during  the  siege  of 
Rome,  acting  as  chaplain,  medical  assistant, 
and  combatant.  Later,  he  was  taken  by  the 
Austrians,  and  after  the  cro-mi  of  his  head 
and  the  palms  of  his  hands  had  been  flayed, 
he  was  executed. 

Bassompierre,  Francois,  Baron  de  {b.  15?9, 
d.  1646),  a  French  noble,  and  an  important 
figure  in  the  court  of  Henry  IV.  He 
distinguished  himself  as  a  soldier,  was 
made  colonel  of  the  Swiss  Guards  and  a 
Marshal  of  France,  and  was  employed  on 
important  embassies.  Through  the  disfavour 
of  Richelieu  he  was  imprisoned  in  the  Bas- 
tille for  ten  years,  where  he  wrote  his 

Bastard,  D'Estang.  Dominic  Francois 
Marie,  Comte  de  {b.  1783,  d.  1844),  a  dis- 
tinguished French  jurist,  who  was  made  a 
peer  of  France  and  president  of  the  cour 
de  cassation. 

Bastard,  Thomas  {d.  1618),  an  English 
clergyman  and  a  notable  wit.  His  sallies 
made  him  many  enemies,  and  he  died  in  a 
debtor's  prison. 

Basti,  Pien-e  {b.  1768,  d.  1814),  a  French 
admiral,  who  rose  to  that  rank  from  the 
position  of  a  common  sailor.  He  served 
with  distinction  in  the  war  of  1808  against 
Spain,  and  was  ennobled  by  Napoleon. 

Bastian,  Henry  Charlton  (b.  1837),  an 
eminent  physician  and  biologist,  professor  of 
pathological  anatomy  at  University  College. 
He  has  written  much  on  the  origin  of  the 
lower  orgduisms. 

Bastiat,  Frederick  (b.  1801,  d.  1850),  a 
French  political  economist  noted  for  his  early 
advocacy  of  free  trade.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Legislative  Assembly  of  1848. 

Bastide,  Jules  (^.  1800,  d.  1879),  a  French 
politician  and  writer.  He  was  actively 
engaged  in  the  revolution  of  1830,  and  was 
condenmed  to  death  for  sharing  in  the 
Grenoble  insun-ection  of  1832,  but  escaped  to 
London.  After  editing  several  papers,  he 
became  minister  of  foreign  affairs  in  1848. 

Bastien-Lepage,  Jules  (b.  1848,  d.  1885), 
a  French  painter  of  high  repute  as  an 
impressionist.  His  fame  was  secured  by  his 
Joan  of  Arc  Brooding  in  the  Garden. 

Baston,  Robert,  a  Yorkshire  monk,  and 
poet-laureate  to  Edward  I.,  by  whom  he 
was  taken  to  Scotland  in  1304  to  celebrate 
his  triumphs.  Taken  prisoner  by  the  Scots, 
he  was  compelled  to  buy  his  freedom  by 
singing  the  deeds  of  Robert  Bruce. 

Bastwick,  John  {b.  1593,  d.  1650),  an 
English  physician  and  theological  contro- 
versialist. For  his  denunciation  of  the 
extreme  pretensions  of  the  episcopacy  he  was 
heavily  fined  and  imprisoned,  and  had  his  eai-s 
cut  off.  He  was  liberated  and  indemnified 
after  the  Civil  war. 

Batbie,  Anselme  Polycarpe  {b.  1828),  a 
Fi-euch  politician  and  writer  on  legal  and 
economical  subjects.    In  1870  he  abandoned 




his  work  as  professor  of  jurisprudence  for 
political  life,aud  was  returned  to  theNational 
Assembly  of  1 870  as  a  monarchist.  He  was 
an  active  opponent  of  Thiers,  and  in  1873 
held  a  portfolio  in  the  Due  de  Broglie's  ad- 

Bate,  Charles  Spence  (h.  1819),  an  English 
zoologist,  and  an  eminent  authority  on  the 
crustacean  order  and  other  of  the  lower 
forms  of  animal  life.  He  is  also  in  active 
practice  as  a  dentist,  and  in  188o  was  Presi- 
dent of  the  Odontological  Association  of 

Bateman,  Kate  Josephine  (b.  1842), 
American  actress,  who  appeared  on  the 
Loudon  stage  when  only  eight  years  old, 
and  afterwards  in  1863  gained  a  high 
reputation  by  her  acting  in  Khiff  Lear. 

Bates,  Henry  Walter  (b.  1825),  a  dis- 
tinguished entomologist.  He  started  with 
Mr.  Alfred  Eussel  Wallace,  in  1848,  on  a 
naturalistic  expedition  to  the  Amazon 
valley,  and  remained  there  eleven  years, 
returning  with  observations  and  collections 
.  of  exceptionally  high  value.  The  record  of 
his  visit  proved  very  popular.  He  is  now 
the  secretary  of  the  Royal  Geographical 

Bates,  Joah  {b.  1740,  d.  1799),  a  gifted 
musician,  director  of  the  "concerts  of 
ancient  music,"  and  organiser  of  the  great 
Handel  festival  of  1784.  He  held  several 
offices  in  the  Civil  Service. 

Bates,  Wilham  {b.  1625,  d.  1709),  a  cele- 
brated Nonconformist  divine.  He  was 
appointed  chaplain  to  Charles  II.,  but  refus- 
ing to  subscribe  to  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  in 
1662,  he  lost  his  appointments  and  hopes  of 
preferment.    He  was  a  popular  preacher. 

Bathe  or  Bathonia,  Henry  de  {d.  1261), 
an  English  judge  of  the  reign  of  Henry  III, 
In  1251  he  was  arraigned  before  Parliament 
for  bribery  and  treason,  but  although  the 
king  endeavoured  to  procure  his  undoing,  his 
friends  were  too  numerous  and  powerful,  and 
he  was  restored  to  office. 

BathUde,  Saint  {d.  680),  a  beautiful  and 
virtuous  Anglo -Saxon  lady,  who  was 
carried  into  slavery,  and  coming  under  the 
notice  of  Clovis  II.,  became  his  wife.  She 
acted  as  regent  during  the  minority  of  her 
son,  Clotaire  III. 

Bathory,  Stephen  {d.  15S6),  King  of 
Poland.  As  the  ruler  of  Transylvania  he 
succeeded  Henry  of  Anjou  to  the  throne  of 
Poland  in  1575.  Thebeneficeuceof  his  rule 
and  the  success  of  his  arms  against  Russia  and 
Austria  have  made  him  famous. 

Bathurst,  Allen.  Earl  {b.  1684,  d.  1775), 
politician,  entered  Parliament  as  a  supporter 

of  Harley,  and  in  1711  was,  with  others, 
created  a  peer  to  overwhelm  the  Whig 
majority.  He  was  true  to  his  leaders  when 
Walpole  came  into  office,  and  in  1757  was 
treasurer  to  George  III.,  then  Prince  of 

Bathurst,  Henry,  Earl  {b.  1714,  d.  1794), 
son  of  the  preceding.  He  represented 
Cirencester  till  1754,  when  he  was  raised  to 
the  bench,  and  in  1771  was  created  Lord 
Chancellor,  resigning  the  office  in  1778. 

Bathyani,  Casimir,  Count  {b.  1807, 
d.  1854),  a  JHungarian  noble,  who  played  a 
prominent  part  in  the  Hungarian  revolution 
of  1848.  He  held  command  in  the  National 
forces,  and  when  Kossuth  was  appointed 
governor  of  independent  Himgary,  Bathyani 
accepted  the  portfolio  of  foreign  affairs. 
In  1849  Gorgei's  assumption  of  the  dictator- 
ship induced  Bathyani  to  surrender  his 
army  to  the  Russians,  and  together  with 
Kossuth  he  escaped  to  Turkey. 

Bathyani,  Louis  (b.  1809,  d.  1849),  a 
Hungarian  statesman  and  patriot.  After 
much  travel  he  entered  political  life  and 
became  a  zealous  supporter  of  Kossuth.  In 
1847  he  accepted  office  under  the  Archduke 
Stephen,  endeavouring  to  maintain  the 
j)olitical  union  with  Austria,  for  which 
purpose  he  visited  Vienna.  After  the  out- 
break of  the  revolution  he  was  taken 
prisoner  and  shot. 

Batinskcov,  Constantine  Nicholaird 
{b.  1787,  d.  1816),  Russian  poet  of  high 
estimation,  and  imperial  librarian  at  St. 

Batman,  Stephen  (b.  1537,  d.  1587),  an 
English  divine  and  poet,  who  filled  the 
office  of  librarian  to  Archbishop  Parker. 

Bato.  The  name  borne  by  two  insurrec- 
tionary chiefs  in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Augustus.  Their  joint  forces  were  at  length 
defeated  by  Germanicus  (a.d.  8),  but  one  of 
them  having  killed  the  other,  the  survivor 
again  revolted,  surrendering  however  on  the 
promise  of  pardon. 

Batoni,  Pompeo  {b.  1708,  d.  1787),  a 
notable  Italian  painter  of  the  Elorentine 
school,  whose  work,  founded  on  a  study  of 
the  old  masters,  did  much  to  revive  their 

BattishiU,  Jonathan  {b.  1731,  d.  1801), 
English  musical  composer,  best  known  for 
his  sacred  pieces,  although  in  earlier  years 
he  produced  opera  music. 

Batu  Khan,  a  great  Mogul  chief,  ruler 
(1223)  of  the  Kapzac  provinces  on  the 
Vistula.  He  joined  the  expedition  of  Octal, 
his  uncle,  against  China,  and  commanded  a 
large  division  of  the  armv  which  invaded 




Europe,  ravaging  Poland,  Silesia,  Moldavia, 
Hungary  and  Dalmatia. 

Batula,  Ibn,  Moorish  traveller  of  the 
14  th  century.  After  visiting  Africa  and 
South-eastern  Europe,  he  crossed  the  Hin- 
doo Khoosh  mountains  and  reached  Delhi 
in  1341.  He  was  taken  into  high  favour  by 
the  emperor,  and  later  sent  an  embassy  to 
China.  Returning  to  Taugiers  in  1348,  he 
set  out  to  explore  Africa,  and  reached 
Timbuctoo.    He  left  a  record  of  his  travels. 

Batz,  Jean,  Baron  de  {b.  1760,  /.  1883), 
French  general,  distinguished  himself  as 
a  financier  in  the  States  General ;  but  in 
1794  he  was  proscribed  for  attempting  to 
rescue  Louis  XVI.  and  his  queen.  He 
was  made  a  marshal  on  the  restoration. 

Baude,  Henri  {b.  1430,  d.  1495),  French 
poet,  greatly  esteemed  by  his  contempo- 
raries, and  a  rival  of  Villon.  A  poem 
satirising  the  court  brought  imprisonment 
on  him. 

BaUdissin,  Wolf  Heinrich  Friederich 
Karl,  Count  of  {b.  1789),  a  Danish  littera- 
teur. He  entered  the  diplomatic  service, 
but  left  it  for  literature,  and  settling  in 
Dresden  he  became  intimate  with  Tieck 
and  Schlegel.  Together  they  translated  all 
Shakespeare's  plays,  and  Baudissin  also 
wrote  a  book  on  Ben  Jonson  and  his  school. 

Baudrand,  Marie  Etienne  Frant^ois  Henri 
{b.  1774,  d.  1848),  one  of  Napoleon's  generals, 
promoted  from  the  ranks.  After  the  1830 
revolution  he  was  made  a  peer. 

Baudry,  Paul  Jacques  Aime  (b.  1828,  d. 
1886),  French  painter,  who  won  the  Grand 
Prix  de  Home  in  1850,  and  exhibited  with 
much  success  in  the  Salon.  He  spent  ten 
years  in  decorating  the  boxes  and  galleries 
of  the  Grand  Opera. 

Bauer,  Bruno  (b.  1809,  d.  1882),  a  German 
biblical  critic,  whose  writings  procured  his 
explusion  from  the  chair  of  theologv  at  Bonn. 
inl842.  ^^ 

Baulot  or  Beaulieu,  Jacques  [b.  1651, 
d.  1720),  a  poor  Frenchman,  who  under  the 
name  of  Frere  Jacques  acquired  a  great 
reputation  as  a  lithotomist.  Only  late  in 
life  did  he  receive  any  instruction  in 
auatbmy,  and  then  he  operated  at  the  Hotel 
Dieu  of  Paris,  while  a  medal  was  struck  at 
Amsterdam  as  a  recognition  of  his  services 
in  that  city. 

Baume,  Autoiue  {b.  1728,  d.  1804),  a  dis- 
tinguished French  chemist.  He  established 
the  first  European  manufactoiy  of  sal- 
ammoniac,  and  mvented  an  areometer.  He 
left  numerous  works. 

Baumgarten,  Alexander  Gottlieb  (i.  1714, 

d.    1762),   German  philosopher,   known    as 
the  originator  of  the  sesthetic  philosophy. 

Baumgartner,  Andreas  {b.  1793,  d.  1865), 
an  Austrian  scientist,  and  professor  of  phy- 
sics at  Vienna  university.  Subsequently  he 
became  minister  of  public  works  and  com- 
merce. From  1826  to  1837  he  conducted 
the  Journal  of  Fhysics  and  Mathematics. 

Baune,  Eugene  {b.  1799,  c?.  1880),  an  active 
French  politician.  He  joined  the  Carbonari 
in  1830,  and  fought  in  the  revolution  of  1848. 
Later  he  was  a  leading  member  of  the 
"Moimtain"  party,  and  for  his  opposition 
to  Louis  Napoleon  was  banished. 

Bavaria,  Kings  of.  1.  Maximilian 
Joseph  I.  {b.  1756,  d.  1825),  succeeded  to 
the  Electorate  in  1799,  and  in  1805  sided 
with  Napoleon,  who  created  him  king,  and 
granted  him  an  accession  of  territory.  In 
18 1 3,  his  new  title  having  been  acknowledged 
by  treaty,  he  joined  the  allies.  2.  Louis  I. 
(h.  1786,  d.  1868)  succeeded  the  preceding. 
He  was  a  man  of  refined  tastes,  and  his 
reign  began  auspiciously  ;  but  he  incurred 
the  odium  of  his  subjects  by  his  submission 
to  nuworthy  influences,  and  abdicated  in 
1848.  3.  Maximilian  IL  {b.  1811,  d.  1864) 
succeeded  the  preceding.  He  ruled  with  a 
strong  hand,  and  held  aloof  from  federation 
with  Germany.  4.  Louis  II.  {b.  1845, 
d.  1886)  succeeded  the  preceding,  a  weak 
ruler.  He  allowed  Bavaria  to  fight  with 
Austria  against  Prussia  in  1866,  but  joined 
the  German  States  against  France  in  1870. 
He  it  was  who  offered  King  William  the 
title  of  German  Emperor.  He  was  deposed 
in  1 886,  as  being  of  unsound  mind,  and  soon 
after  committed  suicide. 

Bavaux,  Franc^ois  Nicolas  {b.  1774,  d.  1848), 
a  French  jurist,  and  professor  of  law  in  the 
school  of  Paris.  In  1819  he  was  prosecuted 
for  anti-royalist  tendencies,  but  was  ac- 
quitted. In  1830  he  joined  the  revolution, 
and  was  made  prefect  of  pohce,  but  at  once 
entered  into  opposition  of  the  Government. 

Baxter,  Andrew  {b.  1686,  d.  1750),  a  Scot- 
tish metaphysician,  known  as  the  author  of 
An  Enquiry  into  the  Nature  of  the  Human 

Baxter,  Richard  {h.  1615,  d.  1691),  a  cele- 
brated divine  and  preacher.  He  was  or- 
dained in  1638,  and  in  1640  obtained  a  living 
at  Kiddenninster,  where  he  soon  obtained  a 
reputation  for  his  oratory.  During  the  Civil 
war  he  was  with  the  army  of  the  Parliament 
preaching  to  the  soldiers,"^  though  he  refused 
to  support  Cromwell  in  his  assumption  of  the 
Protectorship.  On  the  Restoration  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  royal  chaplains,  and 
offered  the  see  of  Hereford,  which  he  de- 
clined. In  1662  he  refused  to  subscribe  to 
the  Act  of  Uniformity,  and  suffered  much 




persecution  in  consequence,  being  sent  to 
prison  in  1685  by  Judge  Jeftrej's,  Of  his 
many  writings,  the  Call  to  the  Unconverted, 
and  'Tlie  SninCs  Everlasting  Rest,  obtained  a 
remarkable  popularity. 

Baxter,  WilHam  Edward  {b.  1825,  d.  1890), 
a  distinguished  public  man.  In  1855  he 
entered  Parliament  as  member  for  Montrose, 
in  succession  to  Hume.  He  twice  held 
office  under  Mr.  Gladstone,  and  was  a  Privy 
Councillor.  The  impressions  of  his  extensive 
travels  are  published. 

Bayard,  PieiTedu  Terr  ail  (5. 1475,  d.  1524), 
a  Fi-ench  knight  of  noble  birth,  who  lives  in 
history  as  the  highest  and  best  type  of  the 
age  of  chivalry.  Entering  the  service  of 
Charles  VIIL,  he  distinguished  himself  by 
his  prowess  in  tournaments,  and  in  1495,  at 
the  battle  of  Formova,  his  daring  was 
conspicuous.  In  1503,  in  the  war  against 
the  Spaniards  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples, 
he  single-handed  stopped  a  force  of  200  from 
crossing  the  bridge  over  the  Garigliano ; 
and  he  fought  with  equal  gallantry  in  all 
the  wars  of  Louis  XII.  and  Francis  I.,  the 
latter  sovereigninsisting  upon  being  knighted 
by  Bayard  alone.  In  1524  Bayard  was  sent 
to  Italy  to  assist  Bounivet  in  the  war  against 
Charles  v.,  and  while  conducting  a  retreat 
which  Bonnivet's  rashness  had  necessitated 
he  was  mortally  woxmded.  His  death  was 
as  noble  as  his  life,  and  the  Spaniards,  with 
all  honours,  rendered  up  to  the  French  the 
body  of  the  ^^  chevalier  sans  peur  et  sans  re- 

Bayan,  Pierre  {b.  1725,  d.  1798),  a  distin- 
guished French  chemist,  and  the  conductor 
of  much  original  and  valuable  research. 
Many  of  his  most  valuable  memoirs  were 
destroyed  in  the  Reign  of  Terror. 

Bayer,  Gottlieb  Siegfried  {b.  1694,  d. 
1731),  a  profound  German  philologist,  and 
student  of  oriental  languages,  including 
Chinese.  In  1726  he  visited  Russia,  where 
he  died. 

Bayer,  Johann  (b.  1572,  d.  1625),  grand- 
father of  the  preceding,  and  a  laborious 
astronomical  investigator.  He  first  instituted 
the  use  of  Greek  letters  to  distinguish  the 
members  of  a  constellation  in  the  place  of 
the  Arabic  names. 

Bayer,  Karl  Emmerich  Robert  (b.  1835),  a 
popular  Austrian  novelist  who  served  for 
some  time  in  the  army,  and  whose  works 
are  mostly  founded  on  his  military  experi- 

Bayeu  y  Subias,  Francesco  (b.  1734,  d. 
1795),  a  notable  Spanish  artist,  who  was 
appointed  royal  painter  by  Charles  V. 

Bayle,  Pierre  [b.  1647,  d.  1706),  a  pro- 
minent French  man  of  letters.    He  became 

professor  of  philosophy  in  the  Protestant 
academy  of  Sedan,  and  in  that  position 
wrote  a  defence  of  the  Duke  of  Luxembourg 
against  a  charge  of  sorcery,  and  also  pub- 
lished several  controversial  essays.  The 
Sedan  academy  being  suppressed,  Bayle 
accepted  the  chair  of  history  and  philosophy 
at  Rotterdam,  and  his  crftique  on  Maine- 
bourg's  History  of  Calvinism,  written  at 
this  time,  created  a  great  sensation.  In 
1684  he  founded  the  periodical,  Les  Nou- 
velles  de  la  Kepublique  des  Lettres,  and  soon 
afterwards  he  lost  his  professorship  through 
the  intrigues  of  enemies.  His  great  work, 
Bictionnaire  Historique  et  Critique,  was  pro- 
duced in  1697. 

Bayley,  Sir  Edward  Clive  {b.  1821,  d.  1884), 
a  distinguished  Indian  Civil  servant.  In 
1849  he  was  Under  Secretary,  and  in  1861 
Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs  in  the  Indian 
Government.  In  1862  he  was  transferred 
to  the  Home  Office,  where  he  remained  ten 
years.     He  wrote  on  archasological  subjects. 

Bayley,  Sir  John  [b.  1763,  d.  1841),  an 
able  judge  of  the  King's  Bench  from  1808 
to  1830,  and  the  author  of  a  standard  work 
on  bills  of  exchange. 

Bayly,  Thomas  Haynes  {b.  1797,  d.  1839), 
a  writer  of  considerable  talent.  He  wrote  a 
great  many  slight  dramatic  pieces,  one  or 
two  novels,  and  some  volumes  of  songs  and 
ballads,  among  which  were  The  Mistletoe 
Bough,  and  She  wore  a  Wreath  of  Roses. 

Bayly,  WilUam  {d.  1810),  an  eminent 
astronomer,  of  humble  parentage.  In  1769 
he  Avas  commissioned  by  the  Royal  Society 
to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus,  and  in  1772 
he  went  roimd  the  world  with  Captain 

Bayne,  Peter  {b.  1830),  writer,  has  contri- 
buted largely  to  many  newspapers  and  maga- 
zines ;  has  written  of  the  Puritan  period ; 
and  has  published  several  volumes  of  critical 
essays,  and  is  author  of  a  Life  of  Luther. 

Baynes,  Thomas  Spencer  (jb.  1823,  d.  1887), 
a  jom-nalist  and  professor  of  logic  and  men- 
tal philosophy.  He  was  editor  of  the 
Encyclopcedia  Brittanica. 

Bayrutll,  Sophie  Wilhelmina,  Margra\ane 
of  {b.  1709,  d.  1758),  sister  of  Frederick  the 
Great,  and  writer  of  interesting  memoirs  of 
the  court  of  Prussia, 

Baz  Bahadur  (cl.  1572),  the  last  king  of 
Malwah  and  successor  of  Bahadur  Shah, 
reigned  seventeen  years.  He  fled  from 
Mandoo  on  the  invasion  of  the  Emperor 
Akbar,  wandering  from  state  to^  state. 
Tradition  has  woven  many  romantic  tales 
around  the  story  of  his  life. 

Bazaine.FrancjoisAchille  {b.  \%\\,d.  1888), 




a  Preuch  general.  He  saw  active  service  in 
Algeria  and  Spain,  and  commanded  a  di- 
vision in  the  Crimean  war,  the  Kinbiirn 
expedition,  and  the  Itahan  war.  In  1862 
he  held  chief  command  in  Mexico,  and  was 
created  Marshal  of  France  on  his  return. 
He  commanded  the  army  of  the  Rhine  at  the 
outbreak  of  the  Franco  German  war,  and 
was  shut  up  in  Metz.  After  a  three  months' 
siege  he  surrendered  with  170,000  men. 
For  this  he  was  tried  by  a  military  tribunal 
in  1871,  and  sentenced  to  degradation  and 
imprisonment  for  life.  He  escaped  by 
violating  his  parole,  and  settled  in  Madrid, 
where  he  died. 

Bazalgette,  Sir  Joseph  William  {b.  1819, 
d.  1890),  a  distinguished  engineer.  As  the 
official  of  the  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works 
he  devised  an  original  scheme  for  the  drain- 
age of  London,  and  designed  the  Victoria, 
Albert  and  Chelsea  embankments. 

Bazancourt,  Caesar,  Baron  de  {b.  1810,  d. 
1865),  a  French  litterateur.  He  was  sent  by 
the  French  Government  to  the  Crimea  to 
record  the  incidents  of  the  war ;  and  he  was 
also  the  author  of  romances  and  other 

Bazhenov,  Vasili  Ivanovich  {b.  1737,  d. 
1799),  a  Russian  architect  of  note,  employed 
by  Catherine  in  the  reconstruction  of  the 
Kremlin  at  Moscow.  The  work  proved  so 
costly  that  when  a  portion  of  the  designs 
was  completed  Catherine  had  the  structure 

Bazley,  Sir  Thomas  {b.  1797,  d.  1885), 
a  large  Manchester  cotton-spinner,  and 
member  for  that  city  from  1858  to  1880. 
He  took  part  in  Bright  and  Cobden's  Free 
Trade  agitation. 

Beach,  Sir  Michael  Edward  Hicks-  {h. 
1837),  a  prominent  politician,  who  has 
sat  in  Parliament  as  a  Conserv^ative  since 
1864.  He  was  first  Irish  Secretary  in  the 
Government  of  1874,  and  later  Secretary  for 
the  Colonies.  In  1885  he  became  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer  in  Lord  Salisbury's  Govern- 
ment, and  leader  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
and  in  1886  was  Irish  Secretary,  when  a 
disease  of  the  eyes  compelled  him  to  retire 
from  public  life.  In  1888  he  again  entered 
the  Salisbury  Cabinet  as  President  of  the 
Board  of  Trade. 

Beaconsfield,  Benjamin  Disraeli,  first  Earl 
of  (6.  1805,  d.  1881),  statesman  and  novelist, 
the  son  of  Isaac  D'Israeli.  He  first 
attracted  attention  by  the  publication  of 
his  novel  Vivian  Grey,  in  1827.  After 
four  years'  travel  in  Eastern  Europe  he 
appeared  as  a  parliamentary  candidate  at 
High  Wycombe,  in  1832,  but  was  unsuc- 
cessful ;  in  1837,  however,  he  was  returned 
for    Maidstone.     A    certain    extravagance 

of  dress  and  manner  provoked  an  unfavour- 
able recejition  in  the  House,  but  he  soon 
became  a  prominent  political  figure,  while 
his  novels  Coning sby  and  Sibyl  secured 
him  a  very  high  literary  reputation.  When 
Sir  Robert  Peel  declared  for  Free  Trade, 
Disraeli  at  once  stepped  to  the  front  of 
the  Tory  party,  though  until  the  death  of 
Lord  George  Bentinck,  in  1848,  he  was  not 
nominally  leader.  He  was  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer  in  Lord  Derby's  brief  adminis- 
tration before  the  coalition  government  of 
1852,  and  again  in  1858,  when  he  introduced 
his  RefoiTn  Bill,  which  wrecked  the  Govern- 
ment. In  1866  he  returned  to  power  again, 
and  carried  a  new  Refcra  Bill,  but  was 
defeated  at  the  general  election,  and  re- 
mained in  opposition  imtil  1874.  Then 
he  became  Prime  Minister,  and  in  1877 
was  created  Earl  of  Beaconsfield.  The 
chief  activity  of  his  last  government  was 
displayed  in  foreign  politics,  and  his  part 
in  the  treaty  of  Berlin  won  him  great 
popularity.  In  the  elections  of  1880,  how- 
ever, his  party  was  crushingly  defeated,  and 
he  only  survived  the  disaster  a  year. 

Beale,  Mary  {b.  1632,  d.  1697),  a  portrait 
painter  of  some  note,  and  a  less  admirable 
writer  of  poetry. 

Beaton,  David  {h.  1494,  d.  1546),  a  famous 
Scottish  ecclesiastic,  and  Cardinal  Archbishop 
of  St.  Andrew's,  in  which  office  he  succeeded 
his  uncle.  By  this  uncle's  influence  he  was 
appointed  to  several  high  offices  in  the  State, 
and  in  1530  was  sent  on  a  mission  to  France, 
where  he  resided  for  some  years,  being  in 
high  favour  with  the  French  king.  In  1538 
he  was  created  cardinal,  and  in  1639  Primate 
of  Scotland,  when  he  entered  upon  a  fierce 
persecution  of  heretics.  His  attempt  to 
seize  the  regency  was  frustrated  by  Arrau, 
by  whom  he  was  imprisoned,  but  his  gre  it 
iufluence  compelled  Arran  to  rehabilitate 
him.  His  determined  enmity  against  Eng- 
land greatly  enraged  Henry  VIII.  He  was 
murdered  at  St.  Andrew's  in  1546, 

Beaton,  James  {d.  1539),  uncle  of  the 
preceding,  and  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's, 
to  which  office  he  was  elevated  in  1523.  He 
was  Lord  High  Treasurer  to  James  VI. ,  and 
Chancellor  in  the  regency  of  the  Duke  of 
Albany.  The  accession  of  Angus  to  supreme 
power  brought  imprisonment  on  Beatou,  and 
afterwards  he  spent  some  years  in  hiding. 
He  was  restored  on  the  accession  of  James, 

Beaton,  James  (6.  1523,  d.  1603),  grand 
nephew  of  the  preceding,  and  Archbishop  of 
Glasgow.  He  negotiated  the  marriage 
between  Mary  and  the  French  dauphin, 
and  was  afterwards  ambassador  at  Paris  for 
Mary  and  James  VI. 

Beatrice  Portinari  (&.  1266,  d.  1290),  a 
lady  of  Florence,  known  to  the  world  as  the 




Beatrice  of  Daute's  poems.     She  married 
Simeoue  de  Bardi, 

Beattie,  James  (b.  1735,  d.  1803),  philoso- 
pher aud  poet.  At  first  a  schoolmaster,  he 
was  appoiuted,  in  17C0,  professor  of  logic 
aud  moral  philosophy  iu  the  Marischal  col- 
lege, Aberdeen.  He  occupied  the  post  for 
forty  years,  aud  his  lectures  were  highly 
popular.  In  1770  he  published  his  Xature 
and  Immutability  of  Truth,  which  excited 
the  greatest  attention,  aud  won  him  a 
pension  of  £200.  Coming  to  London,  he 
became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Johnson,  Gold- 
smith and  other  men  of  the  day,  and 
published  his  poem,  The  Jlinstrel.  The 
Evidences  of  the  Christian  Religion  ap- 
peared in  1786,  but  when  his  celebrity  was 
at  its  zenith  his  health  failed  under  a  series 
of  domestic  afflictions,  and  he  died  of  palsy. 

Beauchamp,  Alfonse  (&.  1767,  d.  1832),  a 
French  historical  AVi'iter,  at  one  time  a 
soldier  iu  the  Sardinian  army.  His  His- 
tory of  La  Vendee  was  suppressed  by  the 
Directory  because  of  certain  inconvenient 

Beauchamp,  Joseph  (6.  1752,  d.  1801),  a 
distinguished  French  astronomer  who  spent 
much  time  in  the  East.  Napoleon  sent  him 
on  a  secret  mission  to  Constantinople  iu 
1799,  when  he  was  nearly  executed  as  a  spy. 

Beauclerk,  Topham  (6.  1739,  d.  1780),  one 
of  the  famous  Johnson  circle,  and  grandson 
of  the  first  Duke  of  St.  Albans.  Although 
addicted  to  fashionable  vices,  he  had  wit 
and  culture,  and  was  held  iu  considerable 
regard  by  Dr.  Johnson. 

Beaufort,  Sir  Fi-ancis  (6.  1774,  d.  1857),  a 
naval  oificer,  who  distinguished  hunseK  by 
several  brilliant  actions  iu  the  French  and 
Spanish  wars.  He  was  made  head  of  the 
Hydrographic  Department  of  the  Admiralty 
in  1829,  his  work  there  being  of  great 

Beaufort,  Franc^ois  de  Yendome,  Due  de 
{h.  1616,  d.  1669),  grandson  of  Henry  IV. 
He  fought  for  Anne  of  Austria  against  the 
Duke  of  Orleans,  and  afterwards  joined  the 
Fronde.  Under  Louis  XIV.  he  was  placed 
iu  command  of  the  navy,  aud  served  against 
the  English  and  Turks. 

Beaufort,  Henry  {d.  1447),  cardinal  and 
statesman,  and  son  of  John  of  Gaunt.  He 
was  Lord  Chancellor  to  Henry  LV. ;  in  1404 
he  became  Bishop  of  Winchester,  in  1417 
he  took  part  in  the  Council  of  Constance, 
and  in  1427  he  was  made  cardinal. 

Beaufort,  Margaret  (6.  1441,  d.  1509), 
Countess  of  Eichmond  and  Derby,  and  a 
woman  of  much  learning.  She  *  founded 
Christ's  College,  Cambridge,  and  endowed 
several  chairs. 

Beaufort  d'Hautpoul,  Charles  Marie 
Napoleon  {b.  1804),  a  French  general  of 
distinction,  who  served  in  Syria  and  Egypt, 
but  most  notably  in  Algeria. 

Beaufort  d'HautpouL  Edouard  (6.  1782, 
d.  1831),  a  French  military  engineer  who 
served  through  Napoleon's  campaigns  and 
was  made  a  peer,  minister  of  war,  and 
chief  engineer  of  Paris  by  Louis  XVIII. 

^Beaufort  de  Thorigny,  Jean  Baptiste  {b, 
1761,  d.  1825),  a  French  general  who  rose 
from  the  ranks.  He  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  the  troops  of  Paris,  against  Eobespien-e, 
and  was  later  imprisoned  as  a  conspirator 
against  the  First  Consul. 

Beauharnais,  Alexander,  Vicomte  de  (6. 
1760,  d.  1794),  a  French  general  who  served 
in  America,  aud  afterwards  a  member 
of  the  French  States  General  and  president 
of  the  National  Assembly.  He  was  be- 
headed for  alleged  treason  iu  connection 
with  the  siege  of  Mayence. 

Beauharnais,  Eugeue  (6.  1781,  d.  1824), 
one  of  the  most  biilliant  of  Napoleon's 
generals,  and  son  of  the  preceding.  The 
marriage  of  Napoleon  with  his  mother 
secured  for  him  a  place  on  Napoleon's  staff 
in  Italy  and  Egypt,  and  his  gallantry  in 
several  battles  brought  rapid  promotion, 
and  finally  he  was  appointed  Viceroy  of 
Italy  and  Prince  of  Venice.  In  18U9  Italy 
was  invaded  by  the  Austrians,  but  they 
were  defeated  by  Eugene,  who  carried  the 
war  successfully  across  the  frontier.  He 
held  a  high  command  in  the  Eussian  cam- 
paign, aud  his  masterly  conduct  of  the 
retreat,  at  the  most  critical  period,  won 
Napoleon's  open  admiration.  A  second 
invasion  of  Italy  by  the  Austrians  Eugene 
resisted  with  varying  success,  when  Napo- 
leon's abdication  ended  the  war,  and  the 
Viceroy  retired  to  Munich,  where  he  died. 

Beaulieu,  Augustin  (6.  1589,  d.  1637),  a 
French  navigator,  who  left  records  of  his 
voyages  of  the  highest  value. 

Beaulieu,  Jean  Pierre,  Baron  de  (6.  1725, 
d.  1820),  a  Belgian,  who  served  in  the 
Austrian  artillery  during  the  Seven  Years' 
war,  and  commanded  the  Netherland 
troops  against  the  French  with  success. 
In  1796,  as  general  in  chief  in  Italy,  he 
was  defeated  by  Naj)oleon. 

Beaulieu,  Sebastien  de  Pontault,  Sire  de 
{d.  1674),  a  distinguished  French  military 
engineer  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.,  and 
author  of  Les  Glorieuses  ConqtiUes  de  Louis 
le  Grand. 

Beaumarcliais,  Pierre  Augustin  Caron  de 
{b.  1732,  d.  1799),  a  man  of  many-sided 
genius,  was  the  son  of  a  watchmaker. 
After  writing  verse  successfully  he  adopted 


(112  J 


his  father's  trade,  invented  an  improve- 
ment in  the  works  of  watches,  and  became 
horologer  to  Louis  XV.  His  musical  ac- 
complishments procured  him  a  place  in  the 
royal  concerts,  and  he  became  rich  by  the 
fortunes  of  two  widows  whom  he  married, 
and  by  successful  financial  speculation. 
Becoming  involved  in  litigation,  he  gained 
considerable  reputation  as  an  advocate  in 
conducting  his  own  case  before  the  courts. 
He  made  another  fortune  by  supplying 
arms  and  provisions  to  the  Americans 
during  the  war  of  Independence,  and 
then  turned  to  dramatic  writing,  producing 
several  highly  successful  pieces.  In  1793 
he  was  accused  of  treason  to  the  State,  and 
fled  to  England.  Returning  to  France,  he 
was  for  some  time  imprisoned,  and  finally 
died  in  poverty. 

Beaume,  Joseph  {b.  1798),  a  French  his- 
torical painter,  whose  principal  work  con- 
sists of  a  series  of  pictures  illustrating  the 
great  battles  of  Napoleon; 

Beaumelle,  Laurent  Angliviel  de  la  (6. 
1726,  d.  1773),  a  French  litterateur,  best 
known  for  his  hostility  to  Voltaire.  His 
criticisms  of  Voltaire  drove  him  from  Berlin 
to  Paris,  where  he  was  thrown  into  the 
Bastille,  to  the  confinement  of  which  he 
returned  in  1756,  after  publishing  his 
Memoirs  of  MadcDne  Maintenon.  After  a 
long  exile,  he  secured  a  pension. 

Beaumont,  Basil  (6.  1669,  d.  1703),  an 
English  admiral,  who  first  distinguished 
himself  at  the  blockade  of  Dunquerque, 
and  whose  last  service  was  a  second 
blockade  of  the  same  port. 

Beaumont,  Francis  (6.  1584,  d.  1616),  an 
English  dramatist.  Designed  for  the  law, 
he  left  it  for  the  pursuit  of  literature,  and 
in  collaboration  Avith  Fletcher  produced  a 
number  of  plays  which  rank  high  in  the 
literature  of  the  Elizabethan  period. 

Beaumont,  William  (6.  1796,  d.  1853),  a 
surgeon  in  the  United  States  army.  A 
remarkable  casualty  on  the  battle-field 
enabled  him  to  make  observations  of  the 
process  of  digestion  which  were  of  the 
highest  value. 

Beaumont  de  la  Bonni^re,  Gustavo 
Auguste  (6. 1802,  d.  1866),  French  politician 
and  writer.  In  1831  he  was  sent  to  the 
United  .States  to  report  on  the  prison  system 
there,  and  his  memoir  on  the  subject  was 
highly  esteemed.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
politics,  was  sent  on  several  embassies,  and 
was  imprisoned  after  the  coup  d^etat. 

Beaumont  de  la  Bonniere,  Marc  Antoine, 
Comte  de  (6.  1760,  d.  1830),  French  soldier, 
was  condemned  to  dea^h  at  Lyons  for 
opposing    the    revolutionary  excesses,   but 

was  rescued  by  his  regiment,  and  after- 
wards served  in  Napoleon's  campaigns, 
and  was  ennobled  by  Louis  XVIII. 

Beaumont -Vassy,  Edward  Ferdinand  de 
la  Bonniere,  Vicomte  de  (6.  1816,  d.  1875), 
French  writer  and  politician.  After  publish- 
ing several  successful  novels,  he  was  sent  on 
a  mission  to  Sweden,  after  which  he  pro- 
duced works  on  Swedish  history.  He  held 
oifice  under  Napoleon  III.,  but  fell  into  dis- 
grace, and  spent  the  rest  of  his  life  in 
writing  novels  and  historical  memoirs. 

Beaunoir,  Alexandre  Louis  Bertrand  (&. 
1746,  d.  1823),  French  dramatist.  His 
distaste  for  the  law  procured  his  disin- 
heritance, and  he  entered  the  Church,  but 
he  had  to  resign  his  orders  after  the  pro- 
duction of  his  first  drama.  He  obtained 
oifice  on  the  Bourbon  restoration. 

Beauregard,  Jean  Nicolas  (6.  1731,  d. 
1804),  a  French  Jesuit,  celebrated  as  a 
preacher,  and  known  to  posterity  for  the 
delivery  of  a  remarkable  prediction,  in  a 
sermon  before  the  court,  of  the  atheistic 
excesses  of  the  revolution. 

Beaureg'ard,  Pierre  Gustavo  Toussaint  (b. 
1818),  a  general  of  the  Confederate  army. 
He  took  up  the  cause  of  the  Southern  States, 
on  their  ^  secession,  and  captured  Fort 
Sumpter.  He  defeated  Butler  at  Bull's 
Run,  and  afterwards  commanded  the  army 
of  the  Mississippi.  His  obstinate  defence  of 
Charleston  is  one  of  the  remarkable  episodes 
of  the  G\\\\  war. 

Beaurepaire-Rohan,  Henrique  de  (6. 
1818),  a  Brazilian  explorer,  whose  daring 
explorations  of  the  primeval  regions  of 
Southern  Brazil  and  Paraguay  enabled  him 
to  publish  several  works  of  great  scientific 

Beausobre,  Isaac  (&,  1659,  d.  1730),  a 
French  Cahduist  who,  driven  from  France, 
was  received  vrith  honour  in  Holland  and 
Berlin.  He  wrote  a  Defence  of  Calvinism 
against  Lutherism,  and  a  History  of  Mani- 

Beautemps-Beaupr6,  Charles  Frangois, 
(6.  1766,  d.  1854),  practically  the  first  of 
French  hydrographers.  "When  only  nineteen 
he  was  commissioned  by  the  government  to 
complete  the  marine  survey  of  the  Baltic. 
In  1798  he  made  a  complete  survey  of  the 
coast  of  France. 

Beauvais,  Bertrand  Poirier  de  (p.  1775,  d. 
1827),  prominent  French  royalist,  who  held 
command  in  the  Vendean  army.  He  died 
in  England. 

Beauvau,  Charles  Juste  de  (6.  1730,  d. 
1793),  a  chivalrous  French  soldier,  who  was 
regarded  as  a  second  Bayard.    In  1763,  as 




commandant  of  Lanpfuedoc,  he  released,  in 
deflauce  of  the  Court,  foiu-teen  "women  who 
were  imprisoued  for  Protestantism.  He  was 
made  Marshal  of  France  in  1783. 

Beauvau,  Een^  Francois  de  (6.  1664,  d. 
1739).  French  prelate  remembered  for  his 
xmselfish  devotion  to  the  people,  and  for  the 
high  place  wliich  he  held  in  their  affections. 
He  was  Bishop  of  Bayonne  and  then  of 
Toumay,  and  later  Archbishop  of  Toulouse, 
and  finally  «f  Xarbonne. 

Beau  vols,  Ambrose  PaHsot  de  (6.  1752,  d. 
1820),  French  naturaUst,  who  \4sited  the 
west  coast  of  Africa,  San  Domingo,  and  the 
United  States,  and  as  a  result  of  his  patient 
observation  left  several  valuable  works,  to- 
gether with  a  remarkable  collection  of  speci- 

Beauzee,  Nicolas  (6.  1717,  d.  1789),  a 
"French  philologist,  and  a  contributor  to  the 
great  E^icychpwdia.  Frederick  the  Great 
in  vain  endeavoured  to  attract  him  to  his 

^  Beaver,  Philip  (6.  1766,  d.  1813),  an  Eng- 
lish naval  officer  who  served  in  the  Ameri- 
can war,  and  in  later  life  under  Abercrombie 
in  the  French  war.  He  is  best  known,  how- 
ever, for  his  devoted  but  unsuccessful  at- 
tempt to  establish  a  colony  of  free  negroes 
on  the  west  coast  of  Africa. 

Beccadelli,  Lodovico  (6.  1501,  d.  1572),  an 
Italian  prelate  and  biographer.  He  was 
employed  on  several  important  missions  by 
the  Pope,  and  came  iuto  intimate  con- 
nection with*  Cardinals  Bembo,  Pole,  and 
Contaiini,  whose  biographies  he  wrote. 

Beccafmni,  Domenico  (sumamed  Mecher- 
ino)  (6.  USi,  cl.  1549).  Italian  painter  of 
peasant  bii'th,  his  untutored  genius  for  paint- 
ing asserted  itself  at  an  early  age.  His  best 
work  is  to  be  found  at  Siena. 

Beccari  Agostino  (6.  1510,  d.  1590),  a 
celebrated  Italian  poet,  whose  special  genius 
was  not  incompatible  with  a  profound  know- 
ledge of  law  and  philosophy. 

Beccaria,  Cesare  Bonesana  (&.  1738, 
d,  1794),  Italian  refonner,  a  native  of 
Milan.  He  early  became  intimate  with 
Pietro  Verri,  the  economist,  whose  influence 
over  him  was  great.  Turning  his  attention 
to  the  savage  penal  code  of  that  time,  he 
published,  when  only  twenty-six,  a  book 
on  Crimes  and  Funishments,  in  which  he 
advocated  a  more  humane  and  just  treat- 
ment of  social  offenders.  The  vigour  of  liis 
style  and  the  originality  of  his  views  gained 
him  a  European  celebrity.  He  was  received 
with  honour  in  Paris,  and  was  offered  state 
appointments  by  the  Empress  Catherine.  He 
filled  for  some  years  the  chair  of  economy 
a,t  Milan. 

Becerra,  Gaspard  (6.  1520,  d.  1570),  a 
celebrated  master  of  Spanish  art,  who  ex- 
celled as  painter,  sculptor,  and  architect. 
He  was  employed  by  Philip  II. 

Becher,  Alfred  J.  (6.  1804,  d.  1848),  a 
German  musician  and  critic,  bom  in  Man- 
chester. After  leading  an  unsettled  life  in 
Germany  he  obtained  a  professorship  of 
music  in  London,  and  in  1845  achieved 
some  reputation  in  Vienna  as  a  critic  and 
composer.  In  1848  he  joined  the  revolution- 
ary movement,  started  a  journal,  and  was 
soon  after  shot  as  a  rebel. 

Becher,  Lady  Ehzabeth  {b.  1792,  d.  1872), 
a  tragic  actress  who  in  the  early  part  of 
the  century  was  very  popular  in  London. 
She  married  Sir  W.  Becher,  M.P. 

Becher,  Johann  Joachim  [h.  1635,  d.  1682), 
an  inventive  and  erudite  German,  entirely 
self-educated.  He  held  the  chair  of  medicine 
at  Mayence,  and  superintended  the  chemical 
laboratory  at  Munich  ;  and  in  Vienna  he  was 
made  a  councillor  of  the  chamber  of  com- 
merce, in  recognition  of  ser\dces  to  com- 
mercial enterprise.  He  afterwards  visited 
Holland  and  England. 

Bechstein,  Johann  Matthias  {b.  1757,  d. 
1822),  a  very  distinguished  German  natur- 
alist. He  published  a  Fopular  Natxiral  His- 
tory of  Gerniutiy,  and  established  a  forest 
school  at  Waltershausen. 

Beck,  Karl  (b.  1817,  d.  1879),  Hungarian 
poet,  best  known  for  his  patriotic  songs, 
which  had  a  great  vogue. 

Beck,  Matthias  Friedrich  (b.  1649,  d,  1701), 
a  German  pastor  at  Augsburg,  and  one  of 
the  first  orientalists  of  his  time.  He  de- 
clined to  leave  his  ministrations  for  the 
university  chairs  which  were  offered  him. 

Becker,  Charles  Ferdinand  {b.  1804,  d. 
1877),  a  Gennan  musician  of  Leipzig.  He 
excelled  as  an  organist,  composed  much,  and 
wrote  several  interesting  works  on  music. 

Becker,  Ferdinand  {b.  1740,  d.  1810),  a 
Westphalian  pastor,  who  devoted  his  hf e  to 
the  education  of  the  young.  His  books  on 
education  were  condemned  as  heretical,  and 
in  consequence  for  a  time  he  suffered  im- 

Becker,  Jakob  {b.  1810,  d.  1872),  a  German 
painter,  native  of  Worms,  whose  fame  chiefly 
rests  on  his  representation  of  scenes  from 
contemporary  German  life. 

Becker,  Johann  Philip  (&.  1809),  Gennan 
revolutionist.  He  edited  a  paper  in  Bavaria, 
which  several  times  brought  imprisonment 
upon  him,  and  finally  compelled  his  flight 
to  Switzerland.  There  his  writings  at- 
tracted attention,  and  he  became  a  leader  o^ 




the  German  colony.  In  1848,  wlieu  the 
revolution  broke  out  in  Germany,  he  led  a 
band  of  his  followers  into  Baden,  and  in 
1849  took  part  in  the  Carlsruhe  rising. 
Finally  he  settled  to  trade  in  Geneva,  where 
he  made  a  fortune. 

Becker,  Karl  Friedrich  (b.  1777,  d.  1806), 
German  historian,  whose  works  are  much 
used  for  educational  pm-poses.  His  chief 
work  is  Die  Weltgeschichte  filr  Kinder  und 

Becker,  Nicolaus  {b.  1816,  d.  1845),  a 
German  poet,  whose  fame  rests  on  the 
authorship  of  a  single  poem,  Die  Wacht 
am  Mhein,  now  sung  as  a  national  song. 

Becker,  Wilhelm  Adolf  {b.  1796,  d.  1846), 
a  German  scholar,  and  profoimd  student  of 
the  antiquities  and  classics  of  Greece  and 
Rome.  His  works  are  authoritative  on  the 
manners  and  hfe  of  the  classical  age. 

Beckerath,  Hermann  de  (6. 1801,  d.  1870), 
German  politician,  who  for  some  time  was 
a  prominent  figure  in  the  Prussian  Diets 
as  a  Liberal.  In  1848  he  was  minister  of 
finance,  and  he  was  always  a  strong  oppo- 
nent of  Austrian  dominance. 

Becket,    Gilbert    a    (6.  1810,    d.    1856), 

humorist    and    journalist,  whose    writings 

w^ere  popular  in  his  day.  He  was  magis- 
trate at  Southwark. 

Becket,  St.  Thomas  a  (&.  1119,  d.  1170). 
The  son  of  a  London  merchant,  he  obtained 
the  patronage  of  Theobald,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  who  made  him  archdeacon,  and 
employed  him  in  missions  at  Rome.  Henry 
II.  took  him  into  his  favour,  made  him  his 
chancellor  and  gave  him  lands,  by  which 
Becket  was  enabled  to  maintain  great 
pomp.  In  1162  he  succeeded  Theobald 
as  Ai'chbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  im- 
mediately changed  his  habit  of  life.  He 
turned  ascetic,  and  instead  of  deferring  to 
the  king's  pleasure,  he  opposed  him  strongly 
on  the  question  of  the  privileges  of  the 
clergy.  In  1 164  the  Constitutions  of  Claren- 
don were  passed,  which  Becket  only  agreed 
to  reluctantly,  and  renounced  on  the  Pope's 
disapproval  of  them.  In  the  same  year  a 
council  at  Nottingham  proclaimed  the  for- 
feiture of  his  goods  and  the  confiscation  of 
the  revenues  of  his  see ;  and  the  archbishop 
fled  to  France.  In  1170  he  returned,  and 
promptly  exconmaunicated  the  Archbishop 
of  York  and  other  prelates  who  had  usurped 
his  functions  during  his  expatriation.  The 
king  was  incensed  at  this  action,  and  four 
of  his  retinue,  in  the  hoi^e  of  gaining  Henry's 
favour,  set  off  for  Cantcrbuiy  and  murdered 
the  Archbishop. 

Beckett,  Sir  Edmund.  {See  Grimthorpe, 

Beckett,  Isaac  (6.  1653,  d.  1719),  ou«  of 
the  earliest  and  the  best  of  English  engravers 
in  mezzo -tinto. 

Beckford,  William  (6.  1760,  d.  1844),  an 
English  millionaii-e  and  distinguished  author. 
When  only  twenty  he  published  a  clever 
satire,  Biographical  Memoirs  of  Uxtraor- 
dinarij  Painters.  After  some  foreign  travel 
he  entered  Parliament,  and  published  his 
great  work,  The  Romance  of  Vathek,  in 
the  French  language,  a  book  which  excited 
the  wildest  admifation.  The  chief  episodes  of 
the  remainder  of  his  life  were  the  erection, 
at  enormous  cost,  of  two  vast  mansions  in 
England  and  a  "fairy  palace  "  in  Portugal. 

Beckington,  Thomas  de  {d.  1465), 
Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells  and  secretary  of 
state  to  Henry  VI.  In  1442  he  was  sent  to 
negotiate  a  marriage  betw^een  the  king  and 
the  Count  d'Armagnac's  daughter.  Hia 
record  of  the  event  has  been  published. 

Eeckmann,  Johann  (6.  1739,  d.  1811),  a 
Hanoverian  naturalist  and  economist,  and 
the  writer  of  several  valuable  treatises. 

Beckwith,  Sir  George  (6.  1753,  d.  1823), 
a  distinguished  soldier  and  West  Indian 
governor.  He  served  in  the  American  war, 
and  in  the  French  w^ar  captiu'ed  Martinique 
and  Guadeloupe. 

Beckx,  Peter  John  (5, 1795,  (f.  1887),  general 
of  the  order  of  Jesuits.  A  Belgian  by  birth,  he 
was  appointed  procurator  of  Austria  in  1847, 
and  in  1853  was  chosen  general  of  the  order 
at  Rome.  *His  influence  and  policy  w^ere 
very  effective  in  extending  the  order. 

Beclard,  Pierre  ,Augustin  (6.  1785,  d. 
1825),  a  distinguished  French  physician 
and  anatomist,  and  author  of  Les  Elements 
d' Anatomic  Generale. 

Becon,  Thomas  (6.  1510,  d.  1570),  an 
English  clergyman  and  adherent  of  the 
Reformation,  deprived  of  his  living  by 
Mary.  He  was  a  prolific  author  in  con- 
troversial theology. 

Becquerel,  Antoine  Caesar  (&.  1788,  d. 
1878),  a  French  scientist,  served  through 
the  Peninsular  war  in  the  Engineers,  and 
afterwards  devoted  himself  to  the  experi- 
mental study  of  electricity,  magnetism  and 
heat,  his  researches  being  of  great  value. 

Becquerel,  Alexandre  Edmond  (6.  1820), 
son  of  the  preceding,  and  his  collaborator 
in  many  of  his  experiments. 

Beda  or  Bede  (6.  672,  d.  735),  an  English 
monk,  and  celebrated  chronicler,  generally 
known  as  the  "Venerable  Bede."  He 
spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  at  the 
monastery  of  Jarrow,  where  he  devoted 
himself  to  study  in  every  branch  of  learning. 
There  he  wrote  his  Ecclesiastical  History 




of  the  English  Nation,  a  work  of  the 
highest  value,  translated  from  the  Latiu 
to  Saxon  by  King  Alfred.  His  last  great 
•work  was  a  ti-anslation  of  St.  John's  Gospel 
into  the  vernacular. 

Beddoe,  John  (6.  1826),  an  eminent  phy- 
sician and  anthropologist,  and  the  author  of 
several  valuable  scientific  memoirs.  He 
served  on  the  medical  staff  during  the 
Crimean  war. 

Beddoes,  Thomas  (6.  1760,  d.  1808), 
eminent  physician  and  scientist.  He 
was  an  accomplished  scholar  and  linguist, 
and  was  elected  president  of  the  Royal 
Medical  and  Natural  History  Society  before 
he  took  his  M.D.  His  greatest  experiment 
Avas  the  establishment  of  the  Pneumatic 
Institution  at  Clifton,  which  was  not,  how- 
ever, a  success. 

Beddoes, Thomas  Lovell  (&.  1803,  d.  1849), 
son  of  the  preceding,  and  nephew  of  Maria 
Edgeworth.  He  was  learned  in  medicine 
and  physiology,  but  is  remembered  prin- 
cipally for  his  poems,  the  chief  of  which  is 
The  Bride'' s  Tragedy. 

Bede,  Cuthbert  (6.  1827,  d.  1890),  the 
pseudonym  of  the  Rev.  Edward  Bradley,  a 
novelist  and  humorous  writer,  whose  cele- 
brity depends  upon  his  book  The  Adventures 
of  Verdatit  Green  at  Oxford,  which  achieved 
great  popularity. 

Bedeau,  Marie  Alphonse  (6. 1804,  d.  1865), 
French  general,  was  at  the  siege  of 
Antwerp  in  1832,  and  subsequently  served 
with  much  distinction  in  Algeria.  He  was 
commandant  of  Paris  under  the  Provisional 
Groveniment  of  1848,  was  a  member  of  the 
legislature  for  some  years,  and  was  banished 
after  the  coup  d'etat. 

Bedell,  Wniiam  (&.  1570,  d.  1642),  a 
distinguished  bishop  of  the  Irish  Protestant 
Church.  In  1627  he  was  elected  provost  of 
Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  in  1629  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  Kihnore  and  of 
Ardagh.  His  devoted  life  made  him 
extremely  popular  with  the  people  of  every 
creed.  He  translated  the  Old  Testament 
into  Irish,  and  caused  the  Common  Prayer 
to  be  read  in  Irish  at  the  cathedral  services 
on  Sunday.  In  the  outbreak  of  1641  he 
harboured  many  Protestants,  until  he  was 
imprisoned  by  the  rebels.  He  died  shortly 
after  his  liberation. 

Bedford,  John  Plantagenet,  Duke  of  (6. 
1389,  d.  1435),  brother  of  Henry  V.,  and 
regent  of  the  English  dominions  in  France. 
It  was  by  his  commands  that  Joan  of  Arc 
was  burnt  at  the  stake. 

Bedloe,  William  {d.  1680),  a  disreputable 
adventurer,  who  concocted  a  story  about  a 
Popish  plot  in  Charles  II.'s  time,  in  corro- 
boration of  the  figment  of  Titus  Gates. 
I  2 

BedmaT,  Alfonso  de  Cueva,  Marquis  de 
{b.  1572,  d.  1655),  a  Spanish  ambassador  at 
Venice,  who  participated  in  the  unsuccess- 
ful intrigues  of  1618  for  the  destruction  of 
Venice.    In  1622  he  was  made  a  cardinal. 

Beecher,  Henry  Ward  {b.  1813,  d.  1887), 
popular  American  preacher,  was  attached  to 
the  Plymouth  Congregational  church  at 
Brooklyn,  where  his  preaching  attracted 
enormous  congregations.  In  1886  he  visited 

Beecher-Stowe,  Haniet  Elizabeth  (b. 
1812),  an  American  authoress,  daughter  of 
the  Rev.  Ljinau  Beecher,  an  eminent 
Presbyterian  minister.  She  had  written 
fiction  for  some  years  before  she  achieved 
her  great  popularity  by  the  production  of 
Uncie  Tom^s  Cabin,  in  1850,  when  the 
slavery  question  was  most  intense.  Mrs. 
Beecher-Stowe  has  written  many  other 
books,  and  rather  imperilled  her  popularity 
by  one  in  which  she  endeavoured  to  establish 
a  horrible  charge  against  Lord  Byron. 

Beechey,  Sir  Frederick  WiUiam  (b.  1796, 
d.  1856),  naval  olficer  and  explorer, 
accompanied  Franklin  on  his  first  Arctic 
voyage,  and  in  1819  went  with  Sir  Edward 
Parry's  expedition.  In  1821  he  undertook 
the  survey  of  the  north  coast  of  Africa,  and 
in  1825  he  commanded  an  Arctic  expedition 
in  the  Blossom,  and  made  some  interesting 

Beek,  David  (b.  1621,  d.  1656),  a  Dutch 
portrait  painter,  appointed  by  Charles  I.  as 
instructor  to  the  royal  children.  He  was 
commissioned  by  Queen  Christina  of  Sweden 
to  paint  the  portraits  of  the  sovereigns  and 
celebrities  of  Europe. 

Beer,  George  Joseph  {b.  1763,  d.  1821),  a 
very  distinguished  surgeon  of  Vienna,  and 
an  authority  on  the  subject  of  ophthalmia. 
He  invented  many  sm-gical  instruments. 

Joseph  (b.  1744,  d.  1811),  a 
Bohemian  soldier,  renowned  for  his  pro- 
ficiency on  the  clarionet.  He  served  as  a 
trumpeter  during  the  Seven  Years'  war,  and 
then  went  to  Paris,  where  his  playing  on  the 
clarionet  excited  great  attention. 

Beer,  Wilhelm  (6.  1797,  d.  1850),  a  Berlin 
banker,  who  devoted  himself  to  astrpnomy, 
and  made  some  valuable  observations  of 
Mars  and  the  moon. 

Beerbul,  or  Bisbul,  Rajah  (d.  1586),  a 
Hindoo  statesman  and  the  close  friend  of  the 
Mogul  Emperor  Akber,  over  whom  he 
exercised  a  great  influence.  He  is  re- 
membered for  the  wisdom  of  his  counsels  and 
the  wittiness  of  his  discourse.  He  was  killed 
in  a  rash  expedition  against  the  Afghans. 

Beesly,  Edward  Spencer  (3.  1831),  a  well 




known  professor  of  histoiy,  and  a  leader  of 
the  English  Positivist  Society.  In  1886  he 
unsuccessfully  contested  a  London  con- 
stituency as  a  Eadical  and  Home  Euler. 

Beethoven,  Lud-vvig  van  (&.  1770,  d. 
1827),  German  composer,  was  descended 
fi'om  a  musical  family,  and  received  his 
first  lessons  from  his  father.  His  pre- 
cocity attracted  the  notice  of  the  Elector 
of  Cologne,  who  secui-ed  good  tuition  for 
him,  and  finally  sent  him  to  Vienna  to 
study  under  Haydn  aud  Albrechtsberger. 
His  remarkable  powers  of  improvisation, 
and  his  compositions,  which  now  began  to 
be  published,  gained  him  a  great  reputation, 
and  made  for  him  many  influential  friends. 
A  pension  was  granted  to  him,  in  order  to 
retain  him  at  Vienna,  but  the  troubled  times 
which  succeeded  reduced  its  value  almost  to 
nothing.  When  in  his  twenty- seventh  year 
Beethoven  was  afilicted  with  tlie  first  symp- 
toms of  that  deafness  which  only  increased 
with  years,  and  which  did  so  much  to  sour 
his  disposition.  He  was  further  distressed 
by  family  dissensions,  and  the  imgrateful 
behaviour  of  a  nephew  over  whom  he  had 
assumed  guardianship.  He  continued  to 
compose,  in  spite  of  his  loss  of  hearing, 
right  up  to  his  last  illness,  and  the  imposing 
funeral  which  was  accorded  him  showed  the 
appreciation  in  which  his  great  genius  was 
held  by  his  contemporaries. 

Begas,  Karl  {h.  1794,  d.  1855),  a  Prussian 
portrait  and  historical  painter  of  note.  He 
was  painter  in  ordinary  to  the  Eling  of 
Prussia,  from  whom  he  also  received  a 

Begh,  or  Le  Begue,  Lambert  {d.  1177),  a 
Belgian  priest  of  Li^ge,  and  a  supposed 
founder  of  the  order  of  the  Beguines.  He 
was  remarkable  for  his  severity  against 
clerical  looseness  of  Kfe. 

Beham,  or  Behaim  (6.  1436,  d.  1506),  a 
celebrated  Gennan  geographer.  Originally 
a  merchant,  his  skill  in  mapping  attracted 
notice  at  Lisbon,  whither  he  had  gone,  and 
he  was  appointed  geographer  to  Diego  Cam's 
expedition  to  Africa  in  1484,  the  results  of 
which  he  included  in  his  charts. 

Behn,  Aphi-a  (&.  1642,  d.  1689),  novelist, 
dramatist,  and  poetess.  Her  early  life  was 
spent  in  Surinam,  where  she  was  friendly 
with  the  native  prince,  Oroonoko,  whose 
life  she  pubhshed  on  returning  to  England, 
and  thereby  obtained  considerable  celebrity. 
She  married  a  rich  old  merchant  named 
Behn,  who  soon  died,  and  left  her  free  to 
devote  herself  to  authorship  and  poUtical 
intrigue,  her  great  beauty  assisting  her  in 
the  latter  direction.  She  managed  while  in 
Antwerp  to  obtain  information  of  the  in- 
tended descent  of  the  Dutch  on  the  Thames, 
but  her  warning  was  unheeded.     She  passed 

her  life  in  the  corrupt  court  of  the  restored 
Stuarts,  and  most  of  her  writing  is  irredeem- 
ably stained  with  the  wantonness  of  her 

Behnes,  William  (6.  1794,  d.  1864),  a 
notable  English  sculptor,  of  Hanoverian 
extraction.  Extravagant  habits  consumed 
the  f  ortvme  made  by  his  art,  and  he  died  in 

Behring,  or  Bering,  Veit  (6. 1680,  d.  1741), 
a  Danish  navigator,  whose  name  has  been 
given  to  the  straits  wliich  he  discovered, 
between  Kamschatka  and  Alaska .  He  ob- 
tained service  with  Peter  the  Great,  and 
commanded  the  expedition  sent  to  discover 
whether  Asia  and  America  were  connected 
at  the  north.  In  1741  he  made  a  second 
expedition  to  the  same  region,  when  he  was 
wrecked  and  died. 

Beiram  Bin  Musagood  Ghiznevi  {d.  1152), 
the  son  of  Musagood,  Sultan  of  Ghuzni, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  1117.  He  was  a 
great  patron  of  Mohammedan  literature, 
and  held  a  brilliant  court  of  Persian  poets 
aud  writers.  He  was  driven  from  his  king- 
dom by  Prince  Alla-oo-deen,  of  Ghoor. 

Beiram  Khan,  Toorkoman  {d.  1561),  gene- 
ral-in-chief»  of  Hoomayon,  Emperor  of 
Delhi,  for  whom  he  conducted  victorious 
campaigns  against  the  Afghans  and  the 
King  of  Delhi.  He  became  the  guardian  of 
Hoomayon' s  successor,  Akber,  but  his  am- 
bition becoming  too  great  he  was  sent  by 
Akber  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  and  was 
murdered  on  the  way. 

Beke,  Charles  Tilstone  (&.  1800,  d.  1874), 
an  English  traveller  and  scholar.  In  1834 
he  pubhshed  his  Origmes  Biblicce,  which 
brought  him  into  celebrity  by  the  attacks  of 
the  orthodox  world.  He  was  apj)ointed 
British  Consul  in  Saxony  in  1836,  and  he 
spent  the  years  from  1840  to  1843  in  explo- 
rations in  Abyssinia.  He  also  visited  the 
Nile,  and  in  1865  was  sent  to  Abyssinia 
again  to  negotiate  the  release  of  captives 
from  King  Theodore.  His  last  journey  was 
a  visit  to  Syria  to  establish  the  site  of 
Mount  Sinai. 

Bekker,  Balthasar  (6.  1634,  d.  1698),  a 
Dutch  pastor,  known  to  fame  for  his  supe- 
riority to  the  superstitions  of  his  time.  He 
wrote  Researches  into  ComHs,  to  overcome 
the  panic  caused  by  the  1680  comet, 
and  The  World  Beivitched,  to  expose 
the  folly  of  popular  beliefs  in  witchcraft 
and  the  hke.  The  latter  work  was  widely 
read,  but  brought  on  its  a?uthor  all  but 

Bekker,  Ehzabeth  (6.  1733,  d.  1804),  a 
very  gifted  authoress,  and  collaborateur  of 
Aaghje  Deken.  She  is  best  known  as  Madame 
Wolff,  her  name  after  marriage. 




Bekker,  Emanuel  (6.  1785,  d.  1871),  a 
German  philologist  and  editor  of  classics. 
He  was  professor  of  Greek  literature  at 
Berlin,  and  travelled  extensively  in  Europe, 
studying  the  MSS.  in  the  gi-eat  collections. 

Bela  I.  (d.  1063),  King  of  Hungary, 
brother  of  Andi'ew  I.  of  Hungary,  and 
husband  of  Casimir,  sister  to  the  King  of 
Poland.  He  was  promised  the  succession 
by  Andrew  for  assisting  to  repel  a  German 
invasion,  but  the  promise  being  revoked,  he 
invaded  Hungary,  and  deposed  Andrew  in 

Bela  II.  {d.  1141),  sumamed  the  Blind, 
his  eyes  having  been  put  out  by  Coloman, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  1131.  I 

Bela  m  {d.  1196)  succeeded  Stephen  i 
111.1174.  He  recovered  Dabnatia  from  the  1 
Venetians,  and  did  much  to  organise  the  : 
government  of  his  country. 

Bela  rV.  (d.  1270)  succeeded  to  the 
throne  1235,  and  in  1241  was  diiven  from 
his  kingdom  by  the  Mongol  invasion  under 
Batu  Khan.  On  his  return  he  successfully 
resisted  the  aggression  of  Frederick  of  Aus- 
tria, but  invading  Austria  in  turn,  he  was  j 
himself  defeated.  | 

Belair,  Alexandre  Pierre  Julienne  de  (b. 
1747,  d.  1819),  French  general  and  military 
engineer.  In  1792  he  was  charged  with  the 
defence  of  Paris,  but  his  plans  of  fortifica- 
tion were  not  executed.  He  was  the  author 
of  treatises  on  fortification. 

Belcher,  Sir  Edward  (6.  1800,  d.  1877), 
explorer  and  hydrographer.  His  first  expe- 
dition was  in  the  Blossom,  under  Beecher, 
to  the  Behring  Straits.  Prom  1830  to  1852 
he  was  employed  constantly  in  surveying 
and  charting  different  parts  of  the  world's 
coasts  and  oceans,  and  then  he  was  placed 
in  command  of  a  Prank! iu  search  squadron. 
He  spent  two  winters  in  the  arctic  zone, 
and  made  several  discoveries.  He  left 
impoi-tant  records  of  his  voyages. 

Belderbusch,  Charles  Leopold,  Count  de 
(b.  1749,  d.  1826),  Belgian  statesman,  who 
represented  the  Elector  of  Cologne  in  Paris 
ttt  the  outbreak  of  the  revolution.  After 
the  union  of  France  and  Belgium  he  became 
deputy  and  senator. 

Belgians,  Kings  of  the.  A  line  created  in 
1830,  the  first  of  which  was  Leopold  L,  Duke 
of  Saxe-Coburg  (b.  1790,  d.  1865).  Leopold 
was  appointed  by  the  European  powers  after 
the  separation  of  Holland  and  Belgium,  and 
the  reluctance  of  Holland  to  acquiesce  in 
this  an-angement  compelled  the  siege  of 
Antwei-p  by  the  French  and  English.  Leo- 
pold's reign  was  marked  by  internal  reform 
and  commercial  expansion.  He  sanctioned 
the  first  continental  railroad.    Leopold  II. 

(6.  1835),  son  of  preceding,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded in  1865.  During  the  reign  the  faction 
fights  between  Catholics  and  Liberals  have 
been  very  fierce.  King  Leopold  was  mainly 
instrumental  in  the  establishment  of  the 
Congo  Free  State. 

Belgiojoso,  Christina  Trivulzio,  Princess 
of  (b.  1808,  d.  1871),  an  accomplished  Italian 
lady,  and  a  pronounced  patriot.  During  the 
Austrian  occupation  she  resided  in  Paris, 
where  her  salon  became  famous.  On  the 
ItaUan  insuiTection  of  1843  she  equipped  at 
her  own  expense  a  force  of  200  men,  for 
which  act  she  was  banished.  She  then 
retired  to  Asia  Minor. 

Belidor,  Bernard  Forest  de  (6.  1693,  d. 
1761),  a  French  military  engineer.  After 
serving  in  the  amiy  he  obtained  a  professor- 
ship in  the  school  of  artillery  at  La  Fere, 
where  his  lectures  established  for  him  a 
wdde  reputation.  He  lost  his  oflice  through 
the  jealousy  of  officials,  and  afterwards 
served  under  Segur  and  the  Prince  of 

Bellng,  Kichard  (b.  1613,  d.  1677),  an 
Irish  Roman  Catholic  and  insurrectionist. 
He  was  secretary  of  the  Council  of  Kil- 
kenny, and  visited  Italy  to  enlist  the  sym- 
I  pathy  of  the  Pope  in  the  Irish  cause.  He 
afterwards  joined  the  Duke  of  Ormond, 
and  on  the  defeat  of  the  Eoyalists  he  went 
to  France. 

Belisarius  (b.  505,  d.  565),  a  great  general 
of  the  Byzantine  empire.  He  served  in 
Justinian's  private  guard,  and  when  Justin- 
ian became  emperor  he  was  appointed  to  a 
high  command  in  the  army.  His  conduct  of 
the  campaign  against  the  Persians  brought 
him  into  high  honour.  He  married  Anto- 
nina,  a  woman  of  vicious  character,  who 
greatly  embittered  his  life,  and  in  532  he 
suppressed  an  insurrection  in  Constanti- 
nople, when  the  emperor  was  preparing  to 
fly.  He  next  conducted  a  victorious  war 
against  the  dreaded  Vandals  of  Africa,  from 
which  he  was  recalled,  bringing  immense 
booty,  and  in  536  he  destroyed  the  power  of 
the  Goths  in  Italy.  Again  recalled,  he  was 
soon  after  sent  against  the  Persians,  but  his 
success  thoroughly  roused  the  jealousy  of 
the  emperor,  and 'he  was  exposed  to  much 
humiliation.  In  544  he  was  sent  on  a  second 
expedition  to  Italy  against  the  Goths,  but 
his  plans  were  frustrated  by  the  refusal  of 
j  supplies ;  and  in  559  he  repulsed  the  Bul- 
garians from  the  walls  of  Constantinople. 
The  emperor,  who  had  constantly  treated 
Belisarius  with  jealous  distrust  and  ingrati- 
tude, now  caused  fresh  indignities  to  be 
heaped  on  the  great  commander,  who  was 
imprisoned  and  deprived  of  his  posses- 
sions. Of  his  latter  end  nothing  is  certainly 




Belknap,  Jeremy  (6.  1774,  d.  1798),  an 
American  minister  and  writer.  He  wrote 
the  History  of  New  Hiunpshire.,  and  much 
other  minor  work,  theological  and  his- 

Bell,  Andrew  (6.  1752,  d.  1832),  a  Scottish 
educationalist  and  foimder  of  the  Madras 
or  monitorial  system  of  teaching.  It  was  in 
his  work  at  the  Madi'as  military  asylum, 
where  he  was  an  Episcopalian  clergyman, 
that  he  formed  the  ideas  of  his  system.  In 
England  a  model  school  was  founded  by 
Joseph  Lancaster  and  Bell,  but  the  former 
being  a  dissenter,  a  breach  between  the  re- 
formers took  place,  resulting  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  British  schools  and  the  National 
schools.  Bell's  labours  were  recognised  be- 
fore his  death,  and  he  left  a  large  fortune 
for  educational  endowments. 

BeU,  Sir  Charles  (6.  1774,  d.  1842), 
surgeon  and  anatomist.  A  high  reputa- 
tion gained  in  Edinburgh  was  confinned 
in  London,  where  the  publication  of 
two  interestiug  and  valuable  books  made 
Bell's  name  Imown.  In  1812  he  was  ap- 
pointed surgeon  to  the  Middlesex  Hospital, 
and  in  1821  he  read  a  paper  before  the  Eoyal 
Society  embodjdng  the  result  of  years  of  re- 
search— The  Nervous  System  of  the  Human 
Body.  This  obtained  a  European  reputa- 
tion and  secured  the  investigator  a  knighthood 
and  other  honours.  In  1836  he  returned  to 
Edinburgh  as  a  professor  of  sui-gery. 

BeU,  George  Joseph  (6.  1770,  d.  1843), 
brother  of  the  preceding,  and  an  eminent 
lawyer  of  Scotland.  He  was  the  author  of 
Commentaries  on  the  Laws  of  Scotland. 

BeU,  Henry  (6.  1767,  d.  1830),  the  first 
British  subject  to  apply  steam  as  a  motive 
power  for  ships.  He  Avas  born  in  Scotland, 
and  laboured  as  a  working  engineer.  In 
1812  he  constructed  the  first  British  steam- 
ship— a  vessel  of  about  25  tons,  with  an 
engine  of  three-horse  power,  which  was  used 
for  traffic  on  the  Clyde.  The  people  of  Glas- 
gow raised  a  subscription  for  him,  and  he 
received  a  pension  of  £100. 

BeU,  Isaac  Lowthian  (b.  1816),  a  con- 
siderable ironmaster,  and  founder  of  the 
Clarence  iron  works  on  the  Tees,  He  has 
written  on  the  metallurgy  of  iron,  and  on 
the  chemical  phenomena  of  the  blast  furnace. 
From  1875  to  1880  he  was  M.P.  for  Hartle- 

BeU,  John  (&.  1811),  a  prominent  sculptor. 
Among  his  more  widely  known  works  are  the 
Wellington  monument  at  the  Guildhall,  the 
Guards'  Memorial  in  Waterloo  Place,  and 
the  Crimean  Memorial  at  Woolwich. 

BeU,  John  (6.  1782,  d.  1865),  a  Newcastle 
antiquary.     He  was  an  industrious  writer ; 

his  Notes  on  the  Roman  Remains  in  Nor- 
thumberland is  his  most  important  work. 
His  Rhymes  of  the  Northern  Bards  also 
attracted  considerable  notice. 

BeU,  John  (6. 1763,  cZ.  1820),  a  distinguished 
Scottish  surgeon  and  anatomist.  He  opened 
a  school  of  anatomy  in  Edinburgh,  and 
thereby  excited  much  professional  criticism, 
which  was  aggravated  by  his  attacks  on 
Monro  and  Benjamin  Bell.  In  conjunction 
with  his  brother  Charles  he  produced  his 
valuable  Anatomy  of  the  Human  Body. 

BeU,  John  (6.  1691,  d.  1780),  a  Scottish 
physician  and  traveller.  In  1715  he  was 
appointed  physician  to  the  Russian  embassy 
to  Persia,  and  in  1719  he  joined  a  mission  to 
China,  travelling  to  Pekin  through  Siberia 
and  Tartary,  In  the  suite  of  Peter  the  Great 
he  visited  the  Caucasus,  and  later  was  sent 
on  a  mission  to  Constantinople,  where  he 
resided  for  some  years. 

BeU,  Eobert  (6.  1800,  d.  1867),  an  Irish 
writer.  After  some  j  oumalistic  and  dramatic 
work  in  Dublin  he  came  to  London  and 
became  editor  of  the  Atlas.  A  History  of 
Russia  and  Lives  of  the  English  Poets 
were  among  his  works. 

Bell,  Thomas  (6.  1792,  d.  1880),  a  dis- 
tinguished naturalist.  He  practised  with 
much  success  as  a  surgeon-dentist,  devoting 
liis  leisure  to  the  study  of  zoology,  and  writ- 
iag  several  valuable  memoii's.  He  was  also 
one  of  the  secretaries  of  the  Royal  Society, 
and  president  of  the  Linnasan  Society.  The 
latter  part  of  his  life  he  spent  in  retu-ement 
at  Selboi-ne. 

BeU,  William  (6. 1731,  d.  1816),  an  English 
clergyman,  remarkable  alike  for  his  learning 
and  his  mmiificence.  He  endowed  eight 
scholarships  at  Cambridge  for  the  sons  of 
poor  clergy,  and  his  writings  were  highly 
thought  of. 

Bella,  Giano  Delia  {d.  1294),  a  noble 
Florentine,  who  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
people.  He  organised  a  citizen  protective 
force,  and  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  exclu- 
sion of  the  nobles  from  Florentine  affairs. 
Further  reforms  procured  his  exile. 

BeUa,  Stephano  Delia  (6.  1610,  d.  1664), 
a  celebrated  engraver  of  Florence,  whose 
industry  is  credited  with  no  less  than  1,400 
works.  In  1642  he  went  to  Paris  and 
executed  commissions  for  Richelieu. 

Bellamont,  Richard  Coote,  Earl  of  (d. 
1700),  an  Irish  statesman,  ennobled  by 
William  of  Orange  for  services  to  his  cause. 
His  chief  celebrity  is  associated  with  his  able 
governorship  of  New  York,  undertaken  in 

BeUamy,  Jakob  (6.  1757,  d.  1786),  a  very 




popular  Dutch  poet,  who  began  life  as  a 
baker's  apprentice.  He  first  attracted  at- 
tention by  his  poems  on  the  jubilee  of 
Holland's  liberation. 

Bellang6,  Joseph  Louis  Hyppolite  (b.  1800, 
d.  1866),  French  painter  of  battle  pieces. 
His  paintings  commemorate  the  great  wars 
of  the  republic  and  of  Napoleon. 

Ballanger,  Fran9ois  Joseph  (6.  1744,  d. 
1818),  a  French  architect  of  note,  who  was 
employed  by  Napoleon  and  appointed  archi- 
tect to  the  CoTint  D'Artois  on  the  restora- 
tion, for  his  constant  efforts  in  the  royalist 

Bellaxmino,  Eoberto  (6.  1542,  d.  1621), 
a  powerful  Jesuit  preacher.  He  was 
made  cardinal  in  1598,  and  later  Archbishop 
of  Capua,  and  librarian  to  the  Vatican.  He 
published  many  learned  works,  and  won 
considerable  repute  by  his  polemical  writings 
in  favour  of  absolute  papal  supremacy, 
which  he  artfully  associated  with  the  rights 
"of  the  people  against  their  rulers.  His  con- 
tentions were  strongly  opposed  by  Catholics 
as  well  as  Protestants  in  France,  Italy,  and 
especially  in  England,  where  he  absolved  the 
people  from  their  allegiance  to  James  I.  It 
was  Bellarmino  who  in  1616  gave  GaKleo 
a  certificate  from  the  Holy  Office  as  to  the 
falsity  of  his  reputed  recantation. 

Bellart,  Nicolas  Francois  (6.1761,  d.  1826), . 
a  very  distinguished  French  advocate  who 
defended  many  of  the  royalist  victims  of  the 
revolution.  He  was  afterwards  appointed 
public  orator  to  the  general  council  of  the 
Seine,  and  greatly  lauded  Napoleon,  whom 
he  however  denounced  after  his  fall.  He 
was  ennobled  and  given  office  on  the  restora- 
tion, and  distinguished  himself  as  public 

Bellay,  Guillaume  du,  Sieur  de  Langey 
(6.  1491,  d.  1543),  soldier,  diplomatist  and 
scholar,  and  eminent  in  each  capacity.  He 
wrote  a  histoiy  of  his  time. 

Bellay,  Jean  du  (6.  1492,  d.  1560),  a 
French  cardinal,  and  brother  of  the  pre- 
ceding. He  was  sent  by  Francis  I.  on 
missions  to  England  and  Kome,  and  in  1536 
he  was  appointed  lieutenant-general,  in  the 
absence  of  the  king  on  the  Proven9al  cam- 
paign against  Charles  V. 

Bellay,  Joachim  (6.  1524,  d.  1560),  nephew 
of  the  preceding,  a  poet  known  as  the 
"  French  Ovid."  He  obtained  celebritv  for 
his  verse  in  the  court  of  Francis  I.,  and 
later  in  that  of  Henry  II.  He  vrrote  odes, 
elegies  and  hymns,  but  principally  sonnets 
in  praise  of  his  mistress. 

Belle,  Jean  Frangois  Joseph  de  (6.  1767, 
d.  1802),  a  French  general  and  brother- 
in-law  of  Hoche,  with  whom  he  served, 

afterwards  serving  on  the  Rhine  and  in  Italy. 
He  died  at  San  Domingo,  whither  he  was 
sent  to  suppress  Toussaint  L'Ouverture's 

Belleau,  Remi  (6,  1528,  d.  1577),  one  of 
the  seven  French  poets  who  were  styled 
"the  Pleiades."  He  translated  Anacreon, 
but  his  poems  are  not  of  great  value. 

Bellecourt,  Jean  Claude  Gille  (b.  1725,  d. 
1778),  a  French  actor.  The  son  of  a  distin- 
guished portrait  painter,  named  Colson,  he 
studied  for  the  same  profession,  and  showed 
much  ability.  But  becoming  "  stage- 
struck,"  he  devoted  himself  to  acting  and 
ultimately  reached  the  Com^die  Fran^aise. 

Bellecourt,  Rose  Petronelle  (6.  1730,  d. 
1799),  wife  of  the  preceding,  and  a  famous 
actress.  She  fu-st  appeared  on  the  Paris  stage 
at  the  age  of  thirteen. 

Bellegarde,  Antoine  due  Bois  de  (6.  1740, 
d.  1825),  a  French  revolutionary,  who  sat 
in  the  Legislative  Assembly  as  an  extremist. 
He  was  secretary  of  the  Convention  and 
of  "  Le  Conseil  des  Anciens."  He  fled  from 
France  at  the  restoration. 

Bellegarde,  Henri,  Coimt  de  (b.  1755,  d. 
1831),  a  Savoyard,  and  field-marshal  in  the 
Austrian  army.  In  1805  he  was  president 
of  the  Aulic  Council  of  war,  and  after  being 
governor  of  Galicia  he  was  made  governor- 
general  of  the  Italian  provinces. 

Bellegarde,  Roger  de  Saint  Lary  de  (d. 
1579),  a  marshal  of  France.  For  promoting 
an  alliance  between  the  Duke  of  Savoy  and 
the  French  king  he  was  made  a  marshal  by 
Henry  III.  Falling  into  disgrace,  he  in- 
duced the  Duke  to  declare  war  against 
France,  with  the  result  that  Catherine  de 
Medici  brought  about  his  death  by  poison. 

Bellegarde,  Roger  de  Saint  Lary  de, 
Duke  of  Tormes  (d.  1563,  d.  1646),  French 
soldier,  who  served  in  the  wars  of  Henry  III. , 
Henry  VI.,  and  Louis  XIII.  He  was  the 
favoured  lover  of  Gabrielle  d'Estrees,  who 
became  Henry  IV. 's  mistress,  when  BeUe- 
garde  was  promptly  banished. 

Belle-Isle,  Charles  Louis  Auguste 
Fouquet,  Due  de  {b.  1684,  d.  1761),  a  French 
marshal.  Commanding  the  French  troops 
in  the  Austrian  campaign  of  1740,  he 
suffered  a  disastrous  defeat,  and,  being  taken, 
was  sent  to  England  as  a  prisoner.  He  re- 
turned to  France  at  the  end  of  a  year,  and 
repelled  the  Austrian  invasion  of  Provence 
in  1744.  In  1748  he  was  ennobled,  and  next 
year  became  minister  of  war. 

Bellenden,  or  BaUentyne,  John  {d.  1560), 
a  Scottish  poet,  of  considerable  repute,  who 
wrote  in  the  time  of  James  V.  He  also  trans- 
lated historical  works  into  the  vernacular. 




BeUeteste,  B.  (b.  1778,  d.  1808),  a  French  ' 
Orientalist,     who    was    wounded    in    the  j 
Egyptian  expedition,  which  he  accompanied  I 
as  a  member  of  the  Science  and  Art  Com- 
mission.    His  Forty  Viziers  is  a  translation 
from  the  Tui-kish. 

BeUeval,Pien'eEiche  de  {b.  1558,  d.  1623), 
a  French  physician  and  botanist,  who  in- 
augurated the  botanical  schools  of  France. 
He  occupied  the  first  chair  of  botany, 
created  in  1596  by  Henry  IV. 

Belliard,  Augustin  Daniel  (6.  1769,  d. 
1832),  a  French  general  of  the  revolution. 
He  had  almost  won  a  general's  rank  when 
he  was  degraded  on  suspicion.  Enlisting 
again  as  a  private,  he  rose  to  his  former 
rank  under  Hoche.  He  fought  with  dis- 
tinction in  Italy,  Egypt,  Germany,  Eussia, 
and  Spain.  He  was  imprisoned  at  the  re- 
storation, but  after  the  revolution  of  1830 
was  sent  as  ambassador  to  Belgium. 

Bellievret,  Pompone  de  (6.  1529,  d.  1607), 
a  French  diplomatist,  employed  on  embassies 
by  Charles  IV,  and  Henry  III.,  and  made 
chancellor  by  Henry  IV.  He  was  sent  to 
England  to  demand  the  release  of  Mary 
Queen  of  Scots. 

Bellini,  Giovanni  (6.  1422,  d.  1512), 
Venetian  painter,  son  of  Jacopo  BelHni, 
himself  a  painter  of  note,  and  the  teacher 
of  Titian,  who  finished  several  of  his 
works.  He  began  by  portrait  painting ; 
and  he  afterwards  executed  some  great 
historical  pieces  for  the  Hall  of  the  Great 
Council  of  Venice,  which  were  destroyed  by 
fire  in  1577. 

Bellini,  Gentile  {d.  1501),  brother  of  the 
preceding,  and  also  a  great  painter.  He 
visited  Constantinople,  and  was  received 
with  great  favour  by  the  Sultan. 

BeUini,  Vincenzo  (6.  1802,  d.  1835),  an 
Italian  musical  composer,  and  a  disciple  of 
Bossini.  The  son  of  a  Sicilian  organist,  he 
proceeded  to  the  royal  music  school  of 
Naples,  where  he  produced  his  first  opera. 
He  attracted  attention  with  II  Firata, 
brought  out  at  Milan  and  played  succes- 
sively in  all  the  European  capitals ;  and  in 
1831  the  production  of  his  greatest  opera, 
La  ISomnambula,  established  his  high  reputa- 
tion. This  was  followed  by  the  tragic  opera 
Norma,  and  in  1835  by  .7  Furitani,  the  com- 
poser's last  work.  He  was  buried  in  Pere 
la  Chaise  at  Paris. 

Bellmann,  Karl  Michael  (6.  17-40,  d.  1795), 
a  Swedish  lyrical  poet  of  considerable  popu- 
larity. The  nature  of  his  verse  is  indicated 
by  the  name  given  to  him — the  Swedish 

Belloc,  Jean  Louis  (6.  1730,  d.  1807),  an 
eminent  French  surgeon,  and  professor  of 

medical  jurisprudence  at  Paris.  Among 
several  valuable  works,  he  wrote  Le  Coursde 
Medecine,  Ligale,  Judiciaire,  Tkeorehgue  et 

Bellori,  Giovanni  Pietro  (6. 1615,  d.  1696), 
a  distinguished  antiquarian  and  an  excellent 
painter,  who  also  claims  remembrance  for 
his  biographies  of  eminent  men. 

Bellot,  Joseph  Rene  (6.  1826,  d.  1853),  a 
gallant  French  naval  officer,  who  before  he 
w^as  twenty  years  old  was  received  into  the 
Legion  of  Honour.  In  1851  he  sailed,  under 
Mr.  Kennedy,  in  the  Frince  Albert,  with  the 
Franklin  expedition,  and  in  1852  he  joined 
another  Arctic  expedition  under  Captain 
Inglefield,  and  in  this  he  lost  his  life.  A 
moniunent  was  erected  to  him  at  Greenwich 
by  public  subscription. 

Bellovesus,  a  Gallic  chief  who,  according 
to  Livy,  emigrated  from  Gaul  during  the 
reign  of  Tarquinius  Priscus,  and,  settling  in 
the  plains  of  Lombardy,  founded  Milan. 

BeUoy,  Jean  Baptiste  (6.  1709,  d.  1808),  a 
French  prelate.  As  Bishop  of  Glandeves  he 
took  part  in  the  convocation  of  1755.  At 
the  outbreak  of  the  revolution  he  retired  to 
Chambly,  and  was  the  first  bishop  to  resign 
his  title  in  1801,  for  the  sake  of  the  Con- 
cordat. He  was  some  time  cardinal  and 
Archbishop  of  Paris. 

Belloy,  Pierre  Laurent  Buyrette  de  {h. 
1727,  d.  1775),  a  French  dramatist.  He  for- 
sook the  law  for  the  stage,  and  in  1758  he 
produced  his  tragedy  Titn^,  which  failed  dis- 
mally. In  1765  he  produced  The  Siege  of 
Calais,  which  succeeded  as  notably  as  the 
first  piece  failed,  and  which  was  the  pre- 
cursor of  several  other  dramas.  The  bad 
reception  accorded  to  his  Feter  the  Cruel  is 
said  to  have  caused  his  death. 

Belmeis  or  Beaumes,  Richard  de  {d. 
1127),  Bishop  of  London,  remembered  for 
his  efforts  in  the  restoration  of  St.  Paul's 
after  its  destruction  by  fii'e  in  1086. 

Belmontet,  Louis  (&.  1799.  d.  1879),  a 
French  poet,  best  known  for  his  political  odes. 
He  was  consistently  the  devoted  admirer  of 
Napoleon  and  the  Bonapai-tes,  and  wrote 
against  every  government  which  was  not 
Bonapartist.  In  1817  he  was  banished  from 
Toulouse;  later  he  was  an  editor  of  the 
Paris  Tribune,  and  when  Louis  Napoleon 
assiuned  sovereign  power  he  was  taken  into 

Belon,  Pierre  (6.  loll,  d.  1564),  a  French 
physician  and  an  eminent  nattiralist.  By 
means  of  influential  patronage  he  was 
enabled  to  make  extensive  travels  in  Eastern 
Europe  and  Egypt,  his  observations  and 
records  being  of  the  greatest  value.  He  was 
murdered  by  robbers. 




Belowselsky,  Alexander,  Prince  (b.  1757, 
d.  1809),  a  Russian  man  of  letters  and  a 
patron  of  the  fine  arts.  He  Avas  for  some 
time  Catherine's  ambassador  at  Turin. 

Belsham,  Thomas  (6.  1750,  d.  1829),  an 
eminent  Unitarian  minister,  whose  writings 
on  religious  subjects  were  much  esteemed  in 
his  day.  He  preached  at  the  Essex  Street 
chapel  in  London. 

Belshazzar,  the  last  king  of  Babylon  and 
gi-andson  of  Nebuchadnezzar.  He  it  was 
whose  feast  was  interrupted  by  the  writing 
on  the  wall,  as  narrated  in  the  5th  chapter 
of  Daniel. 

Belsunce  de  Castel  Moron,  Henri  Fran- 
cois Xavier  (6.  1671,  d.  1755),  archbishop  of 
Marseilles,  and  a  provincial  grand  vicar  of 
the  Jesuits.  He  is  remembered  for^his 
noble  conduct  during  the  plague  of  1720, 
and  for  his  persecution  of  the  Jansenists. 

Belzoni,  Giovanni  Battista  (6.  1778,  d. 
1823),  an  Italian  explorer,  who  rendered  the 
most  signal  services  to  archaeology.  After 
travelling  in  France  and  HoUand,  he  came 
to  Great  Britain.  He  was  of  singularly 
powerful  build,  and  married  an  English  wife 
of  equally  remarkable  physique,  and  the  two 
for  some  time  maintained  themselves  by  itin- 
erant exhibitions  of  feats  of  strength.  After 
\isiting  Spain,  he  went  to  Egypt;  he  was 
employed  there  by  Mr.  Consul  Salt  in  the 
Nile  Valley  excavations,  and  removed  from 
Thebes  the  gi-anite  bust  of  the  "Young 
Memnon."  Then  he  excavated  from  the 
sand  the  Temple  of  Ipsambouh  and  found  the 
tomb  of  Seti  I.  at  Thebes.  He  made  valu- 
able researches  in  the  Valley  of  the  Tombs 
of  the  Kings,  and  crowned  his  labours  by 
discovering  the  entrance  to  the  Second 
PjTamid.  He  received  a  very  cordial  re- 
ception in  England  and  Italy  after  this,  and 
in  1822  he  set  out  again  to  penetrate  Africa 
from  the  Guinea  coast.  On  the  way  he 
contracted  a  serious  illness,  which  shortly 
cari-ied  him  off. 

Bern,  Joseph  (6.  1795,  d.  1850),  a  brave 
and  skilful  Polish  general.  He  served  as 
general  of  artillery  in  the  Polish  revolution 
of  1830,  and  afterwards  travelled  in  Europe. 
He  joiaed  Kossuth  in  1848  in  the  revolt 
against  Austria,  and  won  several  battles  for 
the  national  cause.  Later  he  entered  the 
service  of  the  Turkish  sultan,  adopting  the 
Mohammedan  religion. 

Bembo,  Pietro  (b.  1470,  d.  1547),  an  emi- 
nent Italian  cardinal,  and  aprof  ound  scholar. 
His  early  life  he  spent  studying  in  one 
city  and  another,  and  he  attained  such  a 
reputation  for  culture  that  when  in  1512 
he  went  to  Rome  he  was  appointed  one  of 
the  pontifical  secretaries,  and  in  1539  he 
was    created  cardiual.      He    wrote    prose 

and  verse,  both  in  Italian  and  Latin,  and 
his  compositions  are  most  remarkable  for 
their  purity  of  style. 

Benalcazar,  Sebastian  de  (d.  1550),  one 
of  the  Spanish  pioneers  in  South  American 
conquest.  He  left  Spain  ia  the  expedi- 
tion to  Darien  of  1514,  and  soon  attracted 
the  attention  of  Pizarro.  He  defeated  the 
Indians,  and  took  possession  of  Quito,  of 
which  he  was  made  governor,  and  from 
which  he  undertook  adventurous  expeditions 
of  conquest.  He  joined  Blasco  Nunez  in  his 
revolt  against  Pizarro,  but  after  their  defeat 
he  was  restored  to  his  office. 

Benbow,  John  (6.  1650,  d.  1702),  a  gallant 
British  admiral,  promoted  from  the  mer- 
chant service.  After  some  active  service 
against  the  French  ia  Europe  he  was  sent 
to  the  West  Indies,  and  encountering  a 
superior  French  fleet  he  engaged  it  for  five 
days.  The  cowardly  desertion  of  some  of 
his  captains  on  this  occasion  threw  the  brunt 
of  the  fighting  on  Benbow's  ship,  and  the 
admiral  lost  a  leg,  dying  of  the  wound 
shortly  afterwards. 

Benda,  Franz  (&.  1709,  d.  1788),  a  Bohe- 
mian violinist  of   gi'eat  ability.     He  took 
violin  lessons  from  Koniesk,  and  his  talent 
was  so  great  that  he  became  recognised  as 
I  the  first  violinist  of  his  time,  and  was  taken 
'■  into  the  service  of  Frederick  the  Great. 

Benda,  Georg  (6.  1722,  d.  1795),  cousin  of 
the  preceding,  and  also  a  notable  violiuist. 
He  was  kapellmeister  to  the  Duke  of  Saxe- 
Gotha,  and  produced  several  successful 
operas.    He  spent  some  time  in  Italy. 

Bendemann,  Edward  (b.  1811,  d.  1889), 
a  Gennan  painter  of  repute.  He  became 
known  by  his  religious  pieces,  and  in  1860 
was  appointed  director  of  the  DUsseldorf 
Academy  of  Arts. 

Bender,  Blaise  Colomban,  Baron  de  (6. 
1713,  d.  1798),  an  Austrian  field  marshal, 
who  rose  to  that  rank  and  to  nobility  from 
the  artisan  class.  He  was  in  high  favour 
with  Maria  Theresa,  and  served  ia  the 
Seven  Years'  war. 

Benedek,  Ludwig  von  (h.  1804,  d.  1881), 
an  Austrian  general  who  served  with  dis- 
tiuction  against  the  revolutionists  in  Hun- 
gary and  the  Nationalists  of  Italy.  He  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  Austrian  army 
against  the  Prussians  in  1866,  and  was  totally 
defeated  at  Sadowa,  largely  owing  to  his 
own  ineptitude. 

Benedetti,  Giovanni  (a'.  1590),  a  Venetian 
mathematician  of  considerable  genius,  whose 
work  has  endured  better  than  his  personal 

Benedetti,  Vincent  (6.  1815),  a  Corsican 




by  birtli,  and  a  prominent  figure  in  French 
diplomacy.  He  was  ambassador  at  Berlin 
before  the  war  of  1870,  and  he  it  was  who 
drew  up  the  secret  treaty  published  in  the 
Times,  by  which  Prussia  and  France  were 
to  co-operate  in  the  annexation  of  Belgium. 

Benedict,  the  name  of  fourteen  popes,  from 
674  to  1758.  Benedict  I.  died  (578)  during  the 
siege  of  Kome  by  the  Longobards :  Bene- 
dict II.  {d.  685)  was  canonised ;  Benedict 
III.  {d.  858)  was  for  a  short  time  displaced 
by  a  pretender,  who  secured  the  support  of 
the  emperor,  Louis  II. ;  Benedict  IV.  (d. 
903)  ruled  but  three  years ;  Benedict  V.  {d. 
965)  was  elected  to  the  pontificate  by  the 
Romans,  while  Leo  VIII.  was  nominated 
by  the  Emperor  Otho  I.  He  resigned,  and 
retired  to  Germany  at  the  solicitation  of  the 
emperor ;  Benedict  VI.  {d.  974)  was  deposed 
by  a  faction,  and  murdered  by  Cardinal 
Boniface,  who  usurped  the  Holy  Office ; 
Benedict  VII.  (d.  983)— it  was  under  this  pope 
that  Otho  11.  -undertook  his  famous  expedi- 
tion against  the  Saracens  in  southern  Italy; 
Benedict  VIII.  (d.  1024)  was  expelled  by  a 
faction,  but  restored  by  Henry  II.  of  Ger- 
many. He  promoted  the  crusade  of  Pisa 
and  Genoa  against  the  Saracens ;  Benedict 
IX.  (pope  1033)  was  elected  by  bribery,  and 
was  expelled  for  his  bad  life  by  the  Romans. 
Restored  by  his  friends,  he  sold  liis  office, 
and  was  finally  deposed  by  the  Emperor 
Henry  III. ;  Benedict  X.  was  elected  by  a 
faction,  and  deposed  (1059)  by  a  council 
held  at  Siena;  Benedict  XL  (d.  1304)— 
after  his  death  the  papal  see  was  transferred 
to  Avignon  ;  Benedict  XII.  {d.  1342)  ruled 
at  Avignon,  and  to  him  was  made  the  pro- 
posal by  the  Emperor  Andronicus  for  the 
union  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  churches; 
Benedict  XIIL  {b.  1649,  d.  1730)  was  best 
known  for  his  liberality  and  piety.  His 
authority  was  defied  by  the  King  of  Portugal 
because 'the  Lisbon  nuncio  was  refused  a 
cardinal's  hat,  and  Parma  and  Piacenza 
were  snatched  by  Austria  from  the  j^apal 
see  ;  Benedict  XIV.  (6.  1675,  d.  1758),  the 
last  pope  of  the  name,  is  distinguished  for 
the  sagacious  concessions  which  he  made  in 
regard  to  the  privileges  and  power  of  the 
papacy.  He  endeavoured  to  reform  the  dis- 
cipline of  the  clergy,  and  to  put  in  order 
the  finances  of  the  see. 

Benedict,  Sir  Julius  (6.  1804,  d.  1885), 
musical  composer.  He  was  bom  at  Stutt- 
gart, and  studied  under  Weber,  and  in 
1825  took  the  directorship  of  the  San  Carlo 
theatre  at  Naples,  where  he  produced  his 
first  opera.  In  1835  he  came  to  London,  and 
produced  in  1838  his  first  English  opera.  The 
Gipsy'' s  Warninri ;  and  later,  as  orchestral 
director  at  Druvy  Lane,  he  brought  out  his 
two  best  works,  The  Brides  of  Venice  and 
The  Crusader.  He  accompanied  Jenny 
Lind  in  her  American  tour,   and  in  1862 

produced  The  Lily  of  Killarney.    He  was 
knighted  in  1871. 

Benedict,  Saint  {d.  542  or  547),  the  founder 
of  the  famous  Benedictine  order.  For  many 
years  of  his  early  life  he  lived  in  a  cave  near 
Subiaco,  holding  no  communication  with 
the  world.  Through  the  shepherds  he 
became  known  in  the  district,  and  several 
miracles  were  attributed  to  him.  Around 
liis  cave,  whither  people  of  all  degrees 
flocked,  twelve  monasteries  were  built,  in 
which  his  rules  of  life  were  observed ;  but 
the  hostility  of  a  neighbouring  priest  drove 
Benedict  to  Monte  Casino,  where,  after 
demolishing  the  temple  and  grove  of  Apollo, 
he  built  a  monastery.  From  this  the  order 
si^read  all  over  Eui'ope,  being  distinguished 
for  the  severity  of  discipliue  imposed. 
Benedict  died  after  fourteen  years  of  work 
in  his  new  abode.  His  sister,  Scholastica, 
also  founded  many  convents. 

Benedict  of  Aniane  (6.  750,  d.  821),  a 
priest  known  as  a  reformer  of  monastic  dis- 
cipline. He  retired  from  the  service  of 
Charlemagne  to  build  a  monastery  on  the 
bank  of  the  Aniane. 

Benediktof,  Vladimir  (&.  1810,  d.  1873), 
a  Russian  lyrical  poet  of  the  highest  repute. 

Beneke,  Friedrich  Edouard  (6.  1798,  d. 
1854),  an  eminent  Gennau  philosopher. 
His  teaching  was  on  the  same  lines  as  that 
of  the  Scottish  metaphysicians,  and  his 
lectures  in  Berlin  were  forbidden  by 
Government.  In  1 827  the  interdiction  was 
removed,  and  in  1832  he  succeeded  Hegel  as 
professor  of  philosophy  at  the  Berlin 
University.  An  excessively  laborious  life 
was  closed  by  suicide. 

Benelli,  Antonio  Peregriuo  (6.  1771,  d. 
1830),  an  Italian  tenor  of  note,  and  a  musical 
composer  and  critic  of  ability.  In  1798  he 
appeared  in  the  Italian  opera  at  London. 

Benezet,  Anthony  (6.  1713,  d.  1784),  a 
Frenchman,  who  was  brought  to  England  as 
a  child  and  who  subsequently  went  to 
America,  where  he  devoted  his  life  to  better- 
ing the  condition  of  the  negroes.  His 
\vritings  first  aroused  attention  to  the  slave 
trade  question. 

Benfey,  Theodore  (6.  1809,  d.  1881),  a  dis- 
tinguished German  Orientalist,  and  pro- 
fessor of  Sanscrit  at  G5ttingen.  He  left 
several  important  works  on  philological 

Bengel,  Johann  Albrecht  (6. 1687,  d.  1752), 
a  German  pastor  of  the  Lutheran  church 
known  for  his  piety  and  learning.  The 
principal  of  several  theological  works  was 
his  Gnomoyi  Novi  Testamenti. 

Benignus,  St.,  an   Irish    priest,  and   a 




disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  by  wlioin  he  was 
baptised  in  433,  and  whom  he  succeeded  as 
Bishop  of  Armagh  in  465. 

Benincasa,  Count  Bartolomeo  (6.  1745,  d, 
182.3),  an  Italian  writer  and  diplomatist. 
At  Venice  his  literary  abilities  secm'ed  the 
favour  of  the  Countess  de  Eosenberg.  When 
Napoleon  annexed  Italy  he  was  sent  on  a 
mission  to  Dalmatia,  where  he  founded  a 

Beniowski,  Maurice  Augustus  de  (6. 
1741,  d.  1786),  a  Hungarian  soldier,  who, 
while  serving  in  Poland  against  Russia,  was 
taken  prisoner  and  exiled  to  Khamtschatka. 
He  escaped  to  France,  whence  he  was  sent 
to  found  a  colony  at  Madagascar.  He  was 
elected  king  by  the  natives,  and  returned  to 
Eui'ope  to  open  up  commercial  relations  with 
his  subjects.  After  serving  in  the  French 
anny  he  returned  to  Madagascar,  and  was 
next  year  killed  in  an  engagement  with 
troops  from  the  Isle  of  France. 

Benivicui,  Girolamo  {b.  1453,  d.  1542),  a 
greatly  esteemed  poet  of  Florence,  and  the 
friend  of  Savonarola. 

Benjamin,  Judah  PhiUp  (6.  1811,  d.  1884), 
an  American  politician,  who  later  became  a 
distinguished  member  of  the  English  bar. 
He  was  bom  in  the  "West  Indies,  and  prac- 
tised as  a  barrister  at  New  Orleans.  He  sat 
in  the  Senate,  and  became  Attorney-General 
and  Secretary  of  State  to  the  Confederate 
Government  under  Jefferson  Davis.  When 
the  cause  of  the  South  was  lost,  he  fled  to 
England,  and  was,  by  influence,  at  once 
called  to  the  English  bar,  obtaining  a  large 
practice  and  becoming  a  Q.C. 

Benjamin,  Park  (6.  1809,  c?.  1864),  an 
American  poet  and  journalist.  He  was 
connected  with  many  of  the  New  York 
papers  and  periodicals,  and  some  of  his 
numerous  poems  have  much  merit. 

Benjamin  of  Tudela,  a  celebrated  Jewish 
Rabbi,  who  lived  in  Spain  during  the  latter 
part  of  the  12th  century.  He  visited  all  the 
synagogues  in  Europe,  and  travelled  much 
in  Asia.  The  record  of  his  journeyings  is 
pubhshed  in  most  European  languages. 

Bennet,  Henry,  Earl  of  Arhngton  {b.  1618, 
d.  1685),  an  English  statesman,  and  member 
of  the  famous  "  Cabal,"  He  fought  on  the 
Royalist  side  in  the  Civil  war,  and  was 
secretary  to  James  II.  while  in  exile.  On 
the  Restoration  he  was  made  principal 
Secretary  of  State  and  Lord  Chamberlain. 

Bennet,  James  Henry  {b.  1816),  an  emi- 
nent physician  and  a  specialist  in  gynaec- 
ology. He  first  practised  in  Paris,  but  in 
1843  he  settled  in  London  where  he  obtained 
a  first-rate  position.  He  has  published 
several  important  medical  works. 

Bennet,  Sir  John  {d.  1627),  gi-andfather  of 
the  first  Lord  Arlington.  He  was  a  promi- 
nent member  of  the  House  of  Commons  in 
EUzabeth's  reign,  and  held  a  judicial  office 
imder  James  I.,  but  was  removed  for  mal- 

Bennett,  Edward  Turner  {b.  1797,  d. 
1836),  an  eminent  zoologist  and  first  secre- 
tary of  the  Entomological  Society.  He 
wrote  several  valuable  memoirs. 

.  Bennett,  James  Gordon  (6. 1800,  d.  1872), 
an  American  journalist  and  native  of  Scot- 
land. Having  emigrated  to  America,  he 
founded  in  1835  the  Keiv  York  Herald,  which 
he  conducted  for  40  years. 

Bennett,  Sir_  James  Risdon  (6.  1809),  an 
eminent  physician,  elected  in  1876  President 
of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians.  He  is 
an  F.R.S.,  and  has  written  several  medical 

Bennett,  John  Hughes  {b.  1812,  d.  1875), 
a  Scottish  physician  and  physiologist.  He 
took  his  degree  at  Edinburgh,  and  afterward 
studied  in  France  and  Germany.  A  treatise 
on  the  curative  properties  of  cod-liver  oil 
won  distinction  for  him,  and  after  a  time  he 
obtained  the  chair  of  physiology  at  Edin- 
burgh, where  his  lectures  were  highly  es- 
teemed. He  was  a  bitter  and  prolific  con- 
troversialist, and  wrote,  besides,  some  medi- 
cal works. 

Bennett,  Sir  William  Sterndale  {b.  1816, 
d.  1875),  a  distinguished  musical  composer. 
He  studied  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music, 
where  his  first  pieces  were  produced,  and 
soon  secured  him  a  reputation.  Going  to 
Leipzig,  he  enjoyed  the  friendship  and 
advice  of  Mendelssohn  and  Schirmann.  He 
continued  to  compose  with  increasing  repu- 
tation, particularly  in  Germany,  and  several 
of  his  pieces  were  produced  under  Mendels- 
sohn's direction.  In  1856  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  music  at  Cambridge,  and  con- 
ductor of  the  Philharmonic  Society,  In 
1867  his  most  celebrated  work.  The  JFonian 
of  Samaria,  appeared,  and  he  was  knighted 
in  1871. 

Benningsen,  Levin  Augustus  Theophilus, 
Count  de  (6.  1745,  d.  1826),  a  native  of 
Brunswick,  who  held  the  highest  commands 
in  the  Russian  army.  He  was  made  Major- 
General  by  Catherine,  and  took  the  lead 
among  the  conspirators  hj  whom  Paul  I. 
was  assassinated.  Under  Alexander  he  was 
constantly  employed  against  the  French, 
and  won  several  victories.  In  1812  he 
commanded  the  Russian  centre  at  Moscow  ; 
he  defeated  Murat  at  Winkowo,  fought  at 
Leipzig,  and  for  his  victory  at  Zweinaun- 
doi-f  was  made  a  count  on  the  field  of  battle, 
and  soon  after  commander-in-chief  of  the 
Russian  anny.     He  died  in  Hanover, 




Bennigsen,  Eudolph  von  (6.  1824),  a 
German  politician.  He  entered  the  Han- 
overian parliament,  where  he  advocated  the 
unity  of  the  German  States  imder  Prussia. 
To  accomplish  this  object  he  founded  the 
National  Verein,  which  before  its  dissolution 
had  30,000  members.  In  1873  he  became 
president  of  the  Prussian  Chamber  of 

Benoist,  PieiTC  Vincent  {b.  1758,  d.  1834), 
a  French  politician  and  writer.  His  work 
as  a  journalist  at  the  time  of  the  revolu- 
tion brought  him  into  prominence,  and  he 
was  given  a  post  in  the  ministry  of  the 
interior.  He  held  several  high  posts  under 
Louis  XVIII. ,  and  was  elected  a  deputy. 

Benoist  de  Sainte  Maur,  a  troubadour 
who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II,,  for 
whom  he  wrote  a  Metrical  History  of  the 
Dukes  of  Kormandy.  Another  poem,  Le 
RomaJi  de  Troye,  still  exists. 

Benso,  Giulio  (&.  IGOl,  d.  1668),  a  Genoese 
historical  painter  of  considerable  rejiute, 
whose  works  for  the  most  part  remain  still 
in  his  native  city. 

Benson,  Edward  White  (6.  1829),  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury;  he  succeeded  Dr. 
Tait.  Sometime  assistant  master  at  Eugby, 
in  1858  he  was  appointed  head  master  of 
Wellington  college,  and  in  1872  chancellor 
of  Lincoln  cathedral.  In  1876,  on  the 
creation  of  the  bishopric  of  Truro,  he  ac- 
cepted the  see,  from  which  he  passed  to 
the  Primacy  in  1882. 

Benson,  William  (&.  1682,  d.  1754),  a  man 
of  letters  only  remembered  as  one  of  the 
persons  satirised  in  Pope's  Dnnciad.  He 
was  appointed  surveyor- general  in  suc- 
cession to  Sir  C.  Wren,  but  found  himself 
imequal  to  the  duties. 

Bentham,  George  (6.  1779,  d.  1884),  a 
distinguished  botanist.  At  first  he  studied 
law,  but  from  1828  he  devoted  himself 
entirely  to  botany,  and  in  1854  he  presented 
to  the  Royal  Gardens  at  Kew  his  valuable 
collection  and  books.  He  was  given  a  room 
at  Kew,  and  for  nearly  twenty  years  he 
worked  there  almost  daily,  classifying  and 
recording  his  observations,  and  'together 
with  Sir  Josej)h  Hooker  he  wrote  Genera 
Plantarum.  In  spite  of  the  great  value  and 
scope  of  his  work,  he  died  ahnost  unknown 
to  the  general  public, 

Bentham,  Jeremy  (6.  1748,  d.  1832),  a 
writer  on  ethics  and  jurisprudence.  He 
was  called  to  the  bar  in  1772,  but  never 
practised.  The  works  of  Helvetius  directed 
his  thoughts  to  the  utilitarian  principle  of 
"the  greatest  happiness  of  the  greatest 
number,"  and  in  1776  he  ^iroduced  anony- 
mously his  Fragment  on  Government^  which 

excited  much  criticism  and  which  was 
variously  attributed  to  several  of  the  greatest 
lawyers  of  the  day.  In  1780  appeared  An 
Introduction  to  the  Frinciplcs  of  Morals  and 
Legislation ;  and  in  1791  the  Pano2)ticon,  or 
The  Inspection  House,  was  published,  in 
which  Bentham  set  forth  new  principles 
of  prison  construction.  The  Principles  of 
International  Law  was  written  in  1786, 
though  not  published  for  half  a  century 
later.  In  1792  the  honoiu'  of  French  citizen- 
ship was  conferred  on  Bentham,  and  in  1797 
his  attention  having  been  turned  to  the 
Poor  Law,  he  wrote  his  Pauper  Manage- 
ment Improved,  many  of  the  proposals  con- 
tained therein  being  realised  by  the  Act  of 
1834.  After  dealing  with  the  reform  of  the 
Scottish  judicial  system,  he  brought  out  in 
1818  his  Civil  and  Criminal  Codes,  and 
Ids  rerawcksible  Chrestomathia.  The  Consti- 
tutional Code,  Bentham's  great  work,  was 
published  in  1827,  together  with  The  Ba- 
tionale  of  Judicial  Evidence.  After  his  death 
his  body  was  dissected  in  accordance  with 
the  terms  of  his  will. 

Bentham,  Sir  Samuel  (6.  1757,  d.  1831), 
brother  of  the  preceding.  A  brigadier-gen- 
eral and  inspector-general  of  naval  works. 
He  effected  great  improvements  in  the  dock- 

Bentham,  Thomas  (6.  1513,  d.  1579).  an 
English  ecclesiastic,  who  suffered  persecution 
for  advocating  the  Eeformation  in  Mary's 
reign.  Elizabeth  made  him  Bishop  of  Lich- 
field, and  at  her  request  he  translated  the 
Psalms  and  the  books  of  Ezekiel  and 

Bentinck,  Lord  George  [h.  1802,  d.  1848), 
a  statesman,  nephew  of  Canning,  and  younger 
son  of  the  Duke  of  Portland.  He  entered 
Parliament  in  1826  as  a  Whig,  but  seceded 
with  the  Earl  of  Derby  (then  Lord  Stanley), 
in  1835.  On  the  repeal  of  the  Com  Laws 
he  assumed  the  leadership  of  the  Tory  pro- 
tectionist party,  and  disi^layed  an  ability 
in  the  post  which  was  not  altogether  expected. 
He  was  a  great  hunter  and  patron  of  the  turf, 
and  used  to  ride  to  hounds  between  the  de- 
bates in  the  House  of  Commons. 

Bentinck,  William  (6.  1649.  d.  1709),  first 
Earl  of  Portland.  Of  Dutch  biith,  he  was 
attached  to  the  Prince  of  Orange,  with 
whom  he  formed  the  closest  friendship; 
and  when  William  became  King  of  England 
Bentinck  was  created  a  peer.  He  served  in 
Holland  and  Ireland,  and  went  on  a  mission 
to  France,  concluding  the  first  partition 
treaty.  For  his  share  in  the  second  treaty 
he  was  impeached,  though  his  unswerving 
fidelity  and  integrity  were  always  con- 

Bentinck,  Lord  William  Henry  Cavendish 
(6. 1774,  f;?.  1839),  Go vernor- General  of  Indi^, 




After  seeing  active  service  in  the  army,  he 
was  made  in  1803  Governor  of  Madras,  but 
was  recalled  in  1808.  He  then  sat  in  Parlia- 
ment till  1827,  when  he  was  made  Governor- 
General  of  India.  He  immediately  set  on 
foot  sweeping  financial  ref onns  ;  he  opened 
the  Civil  service  to  nativos,  promoted  the 
spread  of  education,  and  extended  trade.  On 
his  return  to  England  in  1837  he  entered 
Parliament  as  member  for  Glasgow. 

Bentivoglio,  Guido  (6.  1579,  d.  1644),  an 
Italian  cardinal.  He  early  won  the  favour  of 
Pope  Clement  VIII.,  and  in  1607  went  as 
nuncio  to  Flanders,  and  in  1616  to  Paris. 
He  was  made  cardinal  in  1621  and  Louis 
XIII.  gave  him  the  title  of  Protector  of 
France  in  Kome.  His  succession  to  the 
papal  chair  was  only  prevented  by  an  un- 
timely death.  He  wi'ote  a  history  of  the 
Flemish  war,  and  left  many  interesting  and 
valuable  memoirs. 

Bentley,  Richard  (6.  1662,  d.  1742), 
scholar  and  critical  writer.  He  first  at- 
tracted attention  by  a  Latin  epistle  to  Dr. 
Mill,  and  in  1692  was  appointed  Boyle  Lec- 
turer, His  lectures  were  highly  esteemed, 
and  in  1694  he  was  appointed  royal  librarian. 
He  was  now  involved  in  a  bitter  literary  con- 
troversy, from  which  he  emerged  with  flying 
colours,  and  in  1700  he  was  appointed  Master 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and  Ai'ch- 
deacon  of  Ely.  As  Master  of  Trinity  he  pro- 
voked much  enmity,  and  was  involved  in  a 
continuous  legal  struggle  with  the  fellows  for 
many  years.  He  published  many  valuable 
editions  of  the  classics,  and  in  1717  was 
appointed  Regius  Professor  of  Divinity,  when 
he  again  became  involved  in  litigation. 
Editions  of  the  Greek  Testament  and  of 
Homer  were  both  undertaken,  but  never 

Benton,  Thomas  Hart  (&.  1782,  c?.  1858), 
an  American  statesman.  For  thirty  years 
he  was  a  leading  member  of  the  Missouri 
Senate,  and  later  he  entered  the  House  of 
Representatives.  His  Historij  of  the  IFork- 
ing  of  the  American  Government  for  Thirty 
Years,  which  was  published  in  1853,  proved 
immensely  popular. 

Benzel-Sternau,  Christian  Ernst,  Coimt 
{h.  1767,  d.  1849),  a  German  politician,  who 
held  several  administrative  posts,  and  who 
also  achieved  a  considerable  reputation  as  a 
humorous  writer. 

Beranger,  Pierre  Jean  de  (6.  1780,  d.  1857), 
the  great  French  song  writer,  was  of 
bourgeois  origin,  and  served  some  time  as  a 
printer's  devil.  He  then  took  up  his  father's 
business,  and  when  that  failed,  devoted  him- 
self to  the  composition  of  verse  in  a  garret. 
He  received  assistance  from  Lucien  Bona- 
parte, and  later  obtained  a  post  in  the  new 
Imperial  University.  His  songs  having  taken 

a  political  turn,  the  publication  of  Le  Hoi 
d'Yvetot,  made  his  name  a  household  word 
in  France.  In  1815  the  first  collection  of  his 
songs  was  published,  but  the  second  volume, 
full  of  pungent  satire  on  the  monarchy  and 
government,  brought  on  its  author  fine  and 
imprisonment.  In  1828  he  was  again  fined 
and  imprisoned,  but  the  fine  was  met  by  public 
subscription,  and  after  the  revolution  of 
1830  he  was  offered  a  pension,  which,  how- 
ever, he  refused.  After  the  1848  revolution 
he  appeared  for  a  short  time  in  public  life, 
and  then  retired  to  the  country.  His  claim 
to  be  a  national  poet  was  fully  established 
by  the  great  popular  demonstration  which  his 
funeral  provoked. 

Berad,  Auguste  Simon  Louis  (6.  1783,  d. 
1859),  a  French  politician,  who  held  office 
during  the  Hundred  Days  and  again  in  1817. 
As  a  deputy  he  supported  the  Duke  of 
Orleans  against  Charles  X.,  but  retired  soon 
after  the  accession  of  the  latter.  He  did 
much  for  the  development  of  industry  and 
commerce. " 

Berard,  Auguste  (6.  1802,  d.  1846),  a 
highly  distinguished  French  surgeon,  and 
founder  of  the  Paris  Chirurgical  Society. 
He  was  professor  of  chemical  surgery  in 
Paris,  and  left  several  valuable  works. 

Berard,  Pierre  Honore  (6.  1797,  d.  1858), 
son  of  the  above,  and  also  a  distinguished 
surgeon.  He  was  inspector-general  of  the 
schools  and  faculties  of  medicine. 

Berardier,  Denis  (6.  1729,  d.  1794),  a 
French  abbe,  who  sat  in  the  Constituent 
Assembly  as  representative  of  the  clergy. 
At  one  time  he  was  piincipal  of  the  college 
of  Quimper,  and  Desmoulins  and  Robes- 
pierre were  his  pupils. 

Beraud,  Laurent  (6.  1703,  d.  1777),  a 
French  Jesuit,  and  a  distinguished  mathe- 
matician and  astronomer.  He  was  for  some 
time  director  of  the  Lyons  observatory. 

Berchet,  Giovanni  (6.  1790,  d.  1851),  one 
of  the  best  of  the  Italian  patriotic  poets  who 
wi'ote  during  Italy's  struggle  for  indepen- 
dence. In  1821  he  fled  to  France  and  thence 
to  England. 

Berchoux,  Joseph  (b.  1765,  d.  1839),  a 
French  satirical  poet,  who  served  in  the 
Republican  army  to  avoid  prosecution  as  a 
Royalist.  He  became  in  1814  one  of  the 
editors  of  Za  Quotidienne. 

Berchtold,  Leopold,  Count  von  (6.  1738, 
d.  1809),  an  Austrian  philanthropist,  who 
travelled  much  in  Europe  endeavouring  to 
alleviate  distress.  After  the  battle  of 
Wagram  he  converted  his  chateau  into  a 
hospital  for  the  wounded,  and  died  from  an 
attack  of  typhus  fever  then  contracted. 

Bereed,  .Kasim  (J).  1504),  founder  of  the 




dynasty  of  Beeder  in  the  Deccan.  He  was 
sold  as  a  Georgian  slave  to  Mahomed  Shah 
Bahmuny  II. ,  in  whose  service  he  rose  to  the 
grand  viziership  ;  finally  he  proclaimed 
himself  king  of  a  part  of  Bahmuny  domi- 

Bereed,  Ameer  (d.  1549),  son  of  the  pre- 
cedmg,  whom  he  succeeded  both  as  king  and 
minister.  He  was  constantly  intriguing 
with  his  neighbours  for  the  pui-pose  of  re- 
coveriag  the  lost  Bahmuny  dominions,  and 
he  plunged  into  war  with  the  king  of 
Beejapoor,  by  whom  he  was  defeated  and 

Berends,  Karl  Augustus  "Wilhelm  (6. 1753, 
d.  1826),  a  distiaguished  German  physician 
for  whom  a  special  chair  at  Berlin  univer- 
sity was  endowed.  His  Lessons  on  Fractical 
Medicine  is  a  work  of  the  highest  value. 

Berengario,  Jacopo  (d.  1550),  an  Italian 
anatomist  of  note,  known  as  "II  Carpi," 
who  conducted  much  valuable  research. 

Berenger,  orBerengarius  (6. 1000,  d.  1088), 
a  French  churchman  known  for  his  repudia- 
tion of  the  doctrine  of  the  real  presence.  He 
was  repeatedly  summoned  to  Rome,  and  his 
teachings  were  several  times  condemned  in 
Councd.  He  was  twice  compelled  to  recant, 
but  finally  adhered  to  his  original  doctrines. 

Berenger,  Alphonse  Marie  Marcellin 
Thomas  (6.  1785,  d.  1866),  a  French 
politician  and  jiuist.  He  retii-ed  from  the 
legislature  on  the  restoration,  but  returned 
in  1828,  and  imder  Louis  Phihppe  held  an 
influential  position  in  the  Chamber.  After 
the  revolution  of  1848  he  was  made  president 
of  the  High  National  Court  of  Justice  and 
one  of  the  presidents  of  the  Court  of  Cassa- 
tion. His  work  on  the  French  criminal  law 
was  of  great  authority. 

Berenice,  the  daughter  of  Agrippa  I. 
She  was  first  the  wife  of  Herod,  her  uncle, 
and  afterwards  of  King  Polemon.  Later 
she  became  the  mistress  of  Vespasian  and 

Beresford,  Sir  John  (h.  1769,  d.  1844),  a 
distinguished  admiral.  He  served  through- 
out the  French  war,  and  rendered  brilliant 
services  m  the  American  war  of  1812.  For 
more  than  20  years  he  was  a  member  of  the 
House  of  Commons. 

Beresford,  Lord  John  George  (h.  1773,  d. 
1862),  son  of  the  first  Marquis  of  Waterford, 
Ai-chbishop  of  Armagh  and  Primate  of 
Ireland.  He  was  a  munificent  patron  of 
literature  and  science,  and  founded  the 
observatory  at  Armagh. 

Beresford, William  Carr,  Viscount  (6. 1770, 
d.  18.j4),  a  natural  son  of  the  first  Marquis 
of  "Waterford.      He  entered  the  army  in 

1785,  served  in  Egypt,  Ireland,  at  the  Cape, 
and  commanded  the  successful  expeditions 
against  Buenos  Ayres  (1806)  and  Madeira 
(1807).  He  was  then  placed  in  cormnand 
of  the  Portuguese  troops  during  the  Penin- 
sular war,  and  won  the  battle  of  Albuera. 
He  was  made  Viscount  in  1822. 

Beresford,  Lord  Wilham  Charles  Dela- 
poer  {d.  1846),  son  of  the  fourth  marquis  of 
Waterf  ord.  He  entered  the  navy  at  thirteen ; 
accompanied  the  Prince  of  Wales  to  India 
as  naval  aide-de-camp,  and  has  received  two 
medals  for  saving  life  at  sea.  At  the  bom- 
bardment of  Alexandria  in  1882  he  com- 
manded the  Condor,  and  rendered  brilUant 
services.  In  1885  he  took  part  in  Lord 
Wolseley's  expedition  for  the  rehef  of  Gor- 
don. He  was  member  for  Waterf  ord  from 
1874  to  1880,  and  for  East  Marylebone  from 
1884  to  1889,  when  he  resumed  active  ser- 
vice. From  1886  to  1887  he  was  a  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty. 

Beresovsky,  Maximus  Soznovich  (3.  1745, 
d.  1778),  a  Russian  musician  and  composer. 
He  was  sent  to  study  in  Italy  by  Catherine 
II. ,  and  devoted  himself  to  the  composition 
of  rehgious  pieces  on  his  return. 

Bergasse,  Nicolas  (6.  1750,  d,  1832), 
French  lawyer  and  politicisin.  He  was  for 
some  time  an  active  member  of  the  Estates 
General,  and  after  the  restoration  returned 
to  public  life.  He  entered  into  a  correspon- 
dence with  the  Emperor  Alexander  of 
Russia,  and  some  of  his  works  had  a  con- 
siderable vogue. 

Berge,  Ernest  GottHeb  Q).  1649),  a  German 
litterateur,  known  as  the  translator  of 
Faradise  Lost. 

Berger,  Ludwig  {b.  1777,  d.  1839),  a 
German  composer  and  pianist.  He  spent 
many  years  in  St.  Petersbui'g,  and  after- 
wards went  to  Stockholm  and  London.  He 
was  the  instructor  of  Mendelssohn. 

Bergerac,  Savinieu  Cyrano  de  {b.  1620,  d. 
1655),  French  wi-iter  of  drama  and  ro- 
mance. A  notoriously  wild  career  in  the 
anny  was  closed  by  a  wound  at  the  siege  of 
Arras  (1641).  From  two  of  his  romances 
Swift  is  said  to  have  received  his  inspii-ation 
for  Gulliver'' s  Travels. 

Bergeret,  Charles  {b.  1771,  d.  1857), 
French  admiral,  who  saw  much  active 
service,  and  who  was  captured  in  the 
Virginie  by  Sir  Edward  Bellew. 

Berghaus,  Heinrich  (6.  1797,  d.  1884), 
Prussian  geographer.  Aiter  serving  in  the 
army,  he  was  appointed  geographical  en- 
gineer to  the  war  department  at  Berlin. 
He  published  a  large  number  of  very  fine 
maps,  and  several  scientific  books. 

Berghem,  Nicolas  (6.  1624,  d.  1683),  one 




of  the  best  of  the  Flemish  painters.      He 
excelled  in  landscape  and  cattle  subjects. 

Bergier,  Nicolas  Sylvestre  (6.  1718,  d. 
1790),  a  French  ecclesiastic,  distinguished 
as  a  philologist  and  classical  antiquarian. 
He  also  earned  a  considerable  reputation  as 
a  writer  in  refutation  of  infidel  doctrines. 

Berginaiin,Torbeni  Olof  (6. 1735,  d.  1784), 
Swedish  savant,  distinguished  as  chemist, 
botanist,  mineralogist,  physicist,  and  mathe- 
matician. He  was  professor  of  physics  and 
chemistry  at  Upsala  university,  and  left 
many  valuable  papers. 

Berington,  Joseph  (&.  1743,  d.  1820),  an 
English  Koman  Catholic  priest  and  writer. 
He  strongly  advocated  reforms  in  his  Church, 
and  also  Catholic  emancipation  in  England. 
His  Literary  History  of  the  Middle  Ages  is 
an  authoritative  work. 

Beriot,  Charles  Auguste  de  (6.  1802,  d. 
1870),  a  celebrated  violinist,  and  composer 
of  viohn  music.  He  appeared  first  at  Paris, 
and  the  publication  of  his  Airs  Varies 
gave  him  a  very  wide  popularity,  which  ex- 
tended to  this  country  when  he  visited  it  in 
1826.  He  married  the  famous  singer,  Mali- 
bran  Garcia,  and  on  the  death  of  his  wife 
retired  for  some  years. 

Berkeley,  George  {h.  1684,  d.  1753),  an 
English  divine,  famous  for  the  keenness  of 
his  intellect  and  the  greatness  of  his  nature. 
He  was  bom  in  Ireland,  and  educated  at 
Trinity  College,  Dublin.  In  1709  he  pub- 
lished his  Theory  of  Vision,  and  in  1710 
his  Pri72ciples  of  Human  KnoicJedge,  prov- 
ing the  non-existence  of  matter,  a  view 
which  he  afterwards  elaborated.  Coming 
to  England  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  the 
great  literary  men  of  the  day,  and  in  1724 
was  made  Dean  of  Deny.  In  1725  he  pub- 
lished A  Scheme  for  Converting  the  Savage 
Americans  to  Christianity.  This  scheme 
involved  the  erection  of  a  college  at  tho 
Bermudas,  and  the  Government  granted  a 
charter,  and  promised  a  grant  in  aid. 
Berkeley  set  out  for  the  Bermudas,  but  the 
money  not  being  forthcoming,  the  scheme 
had  to  be  abandoned.  In  1733  he  was  made 
Bishop  of  Cloyne,  when  he  retired  to 
Oxford.  His  last  publication  was  a  treatise 
on  The  Virtues  of  Tar  Water. 

Berkeley,  Sir  George  Cranfield  (6.  1753, 
d.  1818),  a  distinguished  naval  officer.  He 
served  in  1778  Avith  Keppel,  and  at  the  relief 
of  Gibraltar  in  1781.  At  the  battle  of 
Ushant  he  played  a  very  gallant  part,  and 
was  thanked  by  Lord  Howe  and  Parliament. 
He  sat  in  Parliament  after  further  service 
for  thirty  years. 

Berkeley,  James,  Earl  of  (6. 1680,  d.  1736), 
a  gallant  naval   officer.     He  served  with 

distinction  against  the  French  under  Sir 
Cloudesley  Shovel,  and,  later,  imder  Byng. 
His  brilliant  services  were  rewarded  by  his 
being  made  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
and  a  K.G. 

Berkeley,  John,  Lord  Berkeley  of  Stratton 
{d.  1696),  a  British  admiral  who  com- 
manded in  the  unsuccessful  attack  on  Brest 
of  1694,  and  who  afterwards  served  with 
Sir  Cloudesley  Shovel. 

Berkeley,  Miles  Joseph  (6.  1803,  d.  1889), 
an  EngKsh  clergyman  and  naturalist,  and 
the  author  of  several  works  on  natural 
history,  including  Outlines  of  British  Fung" 

Berkeley,  Sir  Wnham  (6.  1639,  d.  1666),  a 
British  admiral,  third  son  of  Lord  Fitz- 
harding.  When  only  tweuty-six  he  was 
made  rear-admiral  of  the  fleet,  under  the 
Duke  of  York,  which  defeated  the  Dutch. 
In  1666  he  was  in  the  forefront  of  the  great 
engagement  with  Van  Tromp,  and  was  there 

Berkh,  Vasili  Nicolaevich  (6.  1781,  d. 
1834),  Russian  man  of  letters,  who,  after 
serving  in  the  navy,  devoted  himself  to 
historical  and  narrative  writing,  and  left 
several  important  works. 

Berkley,  Jan  Lefrancq  van  (6.  1720,  d, 

1812),  a  Dutch  professor,  distinguished  as  a 

!  man  of  science,  a  historian,  a  linguist,  and 

j  a  poet.    He  wrote  the  History,  Geographical^ 

Fhysical^  Natural,  and  Civil,  of  Holland. 

Berland,  Pierre  {b.  1375,  d.  1457),  a  pious 
and  famous  archbishop  of  Bordeaux.  He 
founded  the  university  there,  and  did 
much  by  his  munificence  to  beautify  the 

Berlichingen,  Goetz  von  {d.  1562),  a 
German  freebooter,  known  as  "the  Iron- 
hand,"  whose  memory  is  perpetuated  in 
Goethe's  drama. 

Berlier,  Theophile  (6.  1761,  d.  1840),  a 
French  lawyer  who  played  a  not  unim- 
portant part  in  the  great  revolution.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Committee  of  PubHc 
Safety,  and  under  the  Empire  was  made  a 
comicillor  of  state  and  a  count.  He  was 
banished  on  the  restoration. 

Berlinghieri,  Yacca  (6.  1772,  d.  1826),  an 
Italian  surgeon  of  great  eminence.  He 
studied  in  Paris  and  England,  and  after 
acquu'ing  a  reputation  in  France  as  an 
operator  and  lecturer,  he  returned  to  Pisa, 
his  native  town,  and  filled  a  chair  at  the 
university.     He  wrote  some  valuable  works. 

Berlioz,  Hector  (6.  1803,  d.  1869), 
French  musical  composer.  Rejecting  the 
profession  of  medicine,  he  entered  the 
Paris  Conservatoire,  where  his  genius  was 




but  little  recognised.  He  was  repeatedly- 
unsuccessful  in  examination,  but  latterly 
took  prizes  for  composition.  Wiiile  still  a 
student  he  produced  Les  Francs  Jtiges, 
and  La  Symphonif,  Fantastique.  After 
studying  in  Eome,  he  earned  a  living  in 
Paris  as  musical  critic  to  the  Journal  des 
Dehats.  He  introduced  his  compositions  to 
the  public  in  a  series  of  concerts,  but  they 
were  little  appreciated,  though  Paganini  was 
so  affected  by  the  Si/inp/wnie  Fantastique 
that  he  sent  Berlioz  a  di-af  t  for  20,000  francs. 
A  maiTiage  with  a  Miss  Smithson,  an  Eng- 
lish actress,  caused  Berlioz  much  unhappi- 
ness,  and  greatly  straitened  his  resources. 
A  tour  in  Germany  and  Russia  secured  his 
reputation,  his  compositions  being  enthu- 
siastically received ;  and  in  1852  he  came  to 
London,  where  he  met  with  the  greatest 
success.    BerHoz  wrote  his  own  Memoirs. 

Bermudez,  J6ao  (d.  1575),  a  Portuguese 
physician  who  went  to  Abyssinia  in  1520, 
and  was  appointed  patriarch  by  the  king. 
On  revisiting  Europe  the  title  was  con- 
firmed by  the  Pope  ;  and  he  went  back  to 
Abyssinia  for  fifteen  years.  He  left  an 
account  of  his  thirty  years'  residence  in  the 

Bernaldez,  Andi-es  (6.  1513),  Spanish 
historian,  known  as  the  "Cure  de  los 
Palacios,"  He  was  the  friend  of  Colrmibus, 
and  author  of  the  Historia  de  los  Reyes 
Catolicos,  a  work  of  great  value. 

Bernard,  King  of  Italy  (d.  818),  the 
grandson  of  Charlemagne  and  son  of  Pepin, 
whom  he  succeeded  in  812.  When  Louis  le 
Debonnaire  succeeded  Charlemagne,  Ber- 
nard rebelled,  but  was  defeated,  and  had  his 
eyes  put  out. 

Bernard,  Andrew,  a  French  Augustiuian 
friar  who  was  poet  laureate  to  Henry  VII. 
and  Henry  VIII.  of  England,  and  who 
wrote  a  record  of  the  reign  of  the  former 

Bernard,  Claude  (6.  1813,  d.  1878),  a 
French  pliysiologist  of  distinction.  He  held 
several  of  the  highest  professional  appoint- 
ments in  Paris,  and  wrote  several  medical 
treatises  of  great  value.  The  principal  are 
Reeherches  sur  les  Usages  du  Pancreas  and 
De  la  Physiologie  Generale. 

Bernard,  Edward  (6.  1638,  d.  1697),  a 
professor  of  astronomy  at  Oxford,  distin- 
guished also  as  a  linguist  and  as  a  litterateur. 
His  works  were  numerous. 

Bernard,  Pierre  Joseph  (&.  1710,  ^.  1775), 
a  French  poet,  known  as  "Le  Gentil  Ber- 
nard." He  served  in  the  Italian  wars,  and 
afterwards  became  attached  to  the  Marshal 
de  Coigny. 

Bernard,  Pons  Joseph  (6.  1748,  ^.1816), 

a  French  mathematician  of  eminence  and 
director  of  the  Marseilles  observatory.  He 
left  on  record  the  results  of  much  valuable 

Bernard,  St.  (6.  1091,  d.  1153),  of  noble 
Burgundian  bu'th,  was  educated  at  Paris 
university.  He  entered  the  Cistercian 
monastery  at  Citeaux,  and  there  acquired  a 
high  reputation  as  a  preacher.  At  the  head 
of  a  band  of  monks  he  was  sent  to  found  a 
new  monastery,  which  he  established  at 
Clair va ox,  and  from  which  his  fame  and 
influence  spread  far  and  wide.  Kings, 
popes,  and  nobles,  all  appealed  to  him  for 
advice  on  the  weightiest  matters,  and 
accepted  his  decisions.  He  procured  the 
condemnation  of  several  heterodox  writers 
including  Abelard  and  Arnold  of  Brescia. 
His  great  work  was  the  preaching  of  a 
new  crusade  in  France  and  Germany.  He 
excited  the  greatest  enthusiasm,  and 
prophesied  the  triumph  of  the  expedition. 
But  it  failed  notably,  and  Bernard  died 
soon  afterwards.  He  was  canonised  in  1 1 74, 
and  bears  the  title  of  "The  Last  of  the 

Bernard,  Simon  (h.  1779,  d.  1839),  a 
French  general,  aide-de-camp  to  Napoleon, 
and  head  of  the,  topograj)hical  department. 
On  the  restoration  he  entered  the  United 
States  service,  and  undertook  important 
engineering  works.  He  returned  to  France 
in  1830,  and  was  made  aide-de-camp  to  the 
king,  and  in  1836  minister  of  war. 

Bernard,  Sir  Thomas  (6.  1750,  d.  1818), 
scholar  and  philanthropist.  He  devoted  his 
fortune  to  work  among  the  poor  and  to  the 
advancement  of  learning.  He  was  largely 
instrumental  in  founding  the  Foundling 
Hospital,  and  the  Royal  and  British  Insti- 

Bernard  de  Meuthon,  Saint  (&.  923,  d. 
1008),  a  noble  Savoyard,  and  Archdeacon  of 
Aosta.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  hospices 
of  the  Great  and  the  Little  St.  Bernard. 

Bemardez,  Diego  (&.  1540,  d.  1596),  one 
of  the  best  of  Portuguese  poets,  called  the 
"prince  of  pastoral  poetry."  He  accom- 
panied an  expedition  to  Africa,  and  was 
made  prisoner  at  the  battle  of  Al-ca(^ar- 

Bernardi,  John  {b.  1657,  d.  1736),  an 
Englishman  of  Italian  extraction,  who  de- 
voted himself  to  the  service  of  James  II. 
He  was  imprisoned  for  supposed  complicity 
in  the  plots  against  William,  and  he  died 
in  prison. 

Bernardin,  St.  (6.  1380,  d.  1444),  a 
Franciscan  monk  of  Siena,  and  a  famous 
preacher.  His  unselfish  devotion  during  the 
plague  of  1400  gave  him  great  influence,  and 
he  became  vicar-general  of  his  order. 




Bernasconi,  Auclrea  {b.  1712,  d.  1784), 
musical  composer  of  Freuch  descent,  though 
born  in  Italy.  His  ojieras,  Alessandro  Severo 
and  Sallustia,  made  him  known  through 
Italy  and  Grermany,  and  he  was  appointed 
kapellmeister  at  Munich. 

Berneck,  Karl  Gustav  von  (6.  1803, 
d.  1871),  a  Prussian  novelist,  and  author  of 
several  works  on  military  science.  He  served 
in  the  Prussian  cavalry,  and  then  became 
professor  of  history  at  Fraukfort-on-Oder. 
He  was  later  appointed  to  military  chairs 
in  Berlin. 

Bemer,  Frederick  Wilhelm  (6.  1780,  d. 
1827),  German  musician,  appeared  in  public 
as  an  organist  at  nine  years  of  age,  and  was  an 
accomplished  pianist.  He  organised  at  Berlin 
a  musical  school,  after  the  model  of  Zellar's. 

Bemers,  John  Bom-chier,  Lord  (6.  1470, 
d.  1532),  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  to 
Heniy  VIII.,  and  a  writer  of  much  industry 
and  talent.  His  chief  work  was  the  trans- 
lation of  Froissart's  Chronicles. 

Bemers,  Juliana  (6.  1388,  d.  1485), 
Prioress  of  Sopewell  Nunnery,  near  St. 
Albans.  She  was  celebrated  for  her  b?auty 
and  learning,  and  wrote  mauy  works  on 
fishing,  hunting,  natm-al  history,  and 

Bernhard,  Christoph  (6.  1612,  d.  1692), 
a  Gennan  musician,  was  sent  by  the 
Elector  of  Saxony  to  study  at  Rome,  and 
he  gained  a  great  reputation  by  his  com- 
positions. For  ten  years  he  was  musical 
director  at  Hamburg,  and  was  then  ap- 
pointed kapellmeister  at  Dresden. 

Bernhard,  Duke  of  Saxe-Weimar  (&.  1604, 
d.  1639),  a  famous  general.  He  fought 
against  Tilly  in  the  Thirty  Years'  war, 
and  was  highly  esteemed  by  Gustavus 
Adolphus,  with  whom  he  served.  In  1633 
he  was  made  Duke  of  Franconia,  but  lost 
the  duchy  in  consequence  of  the  reverses 
inflicted  on  him  by  Wallenstein. 

Bernhardt,  Sarah  (6.  1844),  French 
actress,  is  the  daughter  of  a  French  lawyer 
and  a  Dutch  Jewess ;  she  entered  the  Paris 
Conservatoire,  where  her  histrionic  genius 
soon  displayed  itself.  Her  first  appear- 
ance at  the  Theatre  Franc,- aise  in  Racine's 
Iphigenie  was  a  failure,  and  she  re- 
tired from  the  stage;  but  she  again  ap- 
peared in  1868,  and  in  the  following  year 
established  her  reputation  by  her  rendering 
of  the  Queen  of  Spain  in  Riiy  Bias.  She 
served  as  a  hospital  nurse  during  the  siege 
of  Paris,  but  after  the  war  she  returned  to 
tlie  stage,  earning  ever-increasing  fame. 
Her  first  visit  to  England  was  in  1879,  and 
in  1881  she  visited  the  States.  Madame 
Bernhardt  is  also  an  accompUshed  sculptor 
and  painter. 

Bemi,  Francesco  (6.  1400,  d.  1536),  an 
Italian  poet.  He  was  first  in  the  household 
of  Cardinal  Bibbiena,  and  then  secretary  to 
Gilberti,  Bishop  of  Verona.  His  satiric 
verses  and  extravaganzas  at  this  time  were 
highly  appreciated,  and  have  an  enduring 
reputation.  Weary  of  the  court  life,  he 
retired  to  Florence  soon  after  the  sack  of 
Rome  in  1527,  and  his  premature  death  is 
commonly  supposed  to  have  been  the  result 
of  poison. 

Bernier,  Etienne  Alexandre  (6.  1764,  d. 
1806),  known  to  his  contemporaries  as 
' '  L' Abbe  Bernier. ' '  After  the  revolution  he 
refused  to  take  the  oath  to  the  civil  con- 
stitution, and  joined  the  Vendean  anny, 
but  when  the  cause  was  hopeless  he  took 
a  leading  part  in  pacifpng  the  district.  As 
one  of  the  plenipotentiaries  who  negotiated 
the  concordat  he  was  made  Archbishop  of 

Bernier,  Franqois  (6.  1625,  d.  1688), 
French  traveller  and  writer,  ha\'ing  taken 
a  medical  degree,  set  out  to  travel  in  the 
East,  and  ultimately  reached  Delhi,  Avhere 
he  became  physician  to  the  Emperor  Shah 
Jehan.  Durmg  his  twelve  years'  stay  he 
made  the  most  of  his  exceptional  ojjpor- 
tunities  for  observing  the  life  and  customs 
of  the  country,  and  his  accounts  written 
home  possess  "the  highest  interest.  When 
he-returned  to  France  he  devoted  himself  to 
writing  philosophical  works  which  have  no 
enduring  value. 

Bernini,  Giovanni  Lorenzo  (6.  1598,  d. 
1680),  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  Italian 
sculptors.  His  genius  asserted  itself  very 
early ;  Gregory  XV.  made  him  a  knight, 
and  Cardinal  Barberini,  as  Urban  VIII., 
bestowed  the  highest  honour  and  fa\nour 
upon  him.  His  works  in  Rome  were  mani- 
fold, and  his  fame  spread  through  Europe, 
Charles  I.,  Richelieu  and  Louis  XIV.  having 
their  busts  executed  by  hini.  When  sixty- 
eight  years  old  he  was  invited  to  Paris  by 
Louis  XIV.  to  superintend  the  design  of  the 
Louvre,  and  until  his  death  in  his_  eighty- 
second  year  he  contiuued  the  pursuit  of  his 
art  at  Rome. 

Bernis,  Franc^ois  Joachim  de  Pierres  de  (6. 
1715,  d.  1794),  cardinal,  statesman,  and 
writer,  first  obtained  recognition  in  Paris 
by  his  erotic  verses,  and  Avas  taken  into 
favour  by  Mme,  de  Pompadour.  The  success- 
ful conduct  of  a  mission  to  Venice  procured 
for  him  in  1756  the  office  of  minister  of 
foreign  affairs,  and  in  17-^8  he  was  made  a 
cardinal.  He  lost  the  royal  favour  durmg 
the  Seven  Years'  .war,  and  retired  until 
1769,  when  he  was  sent  on  a  mission  to 
Rome.  The  revolution  deprived  him  of  all 
his  honours  and  influence,  and  he  died  in 




Bemouilli,  Jacques  (b.  1654,  d.  1705),  dis- 
tinguished inathematician  of  Basle,  was 
deslined  for  the  Church,  but  though  ordained, 
turned  to  the  study  of  science  and  attracted 
attention  by  an  essay  on  the  motion  of  comets. 
Later  he  became  professor  of  mathematics 
at  Basle,  and  initiated  several  important 
methods  in  science. 

Bemouilli,  Jean  (6.  1667,  d.  1748),  brother 
of  the  preceding,  mathematician  and  physi- 
cist. Tor  many  years  he  corresponded  with 
Leibnitz  on  scientific  questions,  and  pub- 
lished several  treatises  on  physical  and  phy- 
siological subjects  which  attracted  much 
attention.  In  1705  he  succeeded  his  brother 
at  Basle  university. 

BernouiUi,  Daniel  (6.  1700,  d.  1782), 
second  son  of  the  preceding,  physician  and 
mathematician.  In  1725  Peter  the  Great  ap- 
pointed him,  together  with  his  elder  brother 
Nicolas,  who  was  also  a  physician  and  mathe- 
matician, to  the  chair  of  mathematics  at  St. 
Petersburg.  He  remained  in  Russia  till 
1 733,  and  composed  there  his  treatise  on  Hy- 
drodynamics. Returning  to  Basle  he  occupied 
chairs  in  the  university,  and  carried  on  much 
original  work,  ten  of  his  memoirs  written 
for  the  French  Academy  of  Sciences  being 
crowned.  Jean,  his  son,  and  Jean  and  Nico- 
las, his  grandsons,  were  also  distinguished 

Bernstorff,  Albrecht,  Count  (6.  1809, 't^. 
1873),  Prussian  diplomatist,  was  elected  in 
1851  to  the  first  Prussian  Chamber,  and  in 
1854  was  sent  on  a  special  mission  to  London. 
From  1861  to  1862  he  was  Prussian  foreign 
minister,  after  which  he  again  became  am- 
bassador to  London,  a  position  which  he 
retained  to  the  last. 

Bernstorff,  Andreas  Peder,  Count  von  (h. 
1735,  d.  1797),  Danish  statesman,  became 
minister  of  state  in  1769,  and  took  an 
important  part  in  foreign  aifairs,  besides 
promoting  man}'  internal  reforms,  such  as  a 
new  financial  system  and  the  abolition  of 
serfdom  in  Schleswig-Holstein. 

Bernstorff,  Christian,  Count  von  (b.  1769, 
d.  1835),  son  of  the  preceding,  whom  he 
succeeded  as  foreign  minister,  was  later 
ambassador  at  Paris,  and  rej^resented  Den- 
mark at  the  Vienna  congress  of  1815.  In 
1818  he  went  to  Prussia  and  became  foreign 
minister  there. 

Bernstorff,  Johann  Hartrig  Ernst  (h.  1712, 
d.  1772),  Danish  statesman,  was  foreign 
minister  during  the  Seven  Years'  war,  and 
was  ennobled  by  Charles  VII.  He  did  much 
to  promote  commerce  and  industry,  and 
spent  large  sums  on  philanthropic  objects. 

Berquin,  Louis  de  {h.  1489,  d.  1529),  a 
French  martyr  for  the  reformed  faith.  He 
was  a  friend  of  Erasmus,  and  was  twice 

imprisoned  for  heretical  doctrines.     Finally 
his  books  were  burnt  and  he  died  at  the  stake. 

Berredo,  Bernardo  Pereira  de  (d.  1748), 
Portuguese  historian,  Avho  served  in  the 
army,  and  afterwards  went  to  America. 
His  chief  work  is  Annaes  Historicos  de 

Berriman,  William  (&.  1688,  d.  1750), 
English  clergyman,  an  eminent  Orientalist, 
and  the  author  of  many  theological  works. 
He  is  remembered  for  his  able  contributions 
to  the  Trinitarian  controversy. 

Berroyer,  Claude  (6.  1665,  d.  1735), 
barrister  of  Paris,  and  the  author  of  several 
authoritative  legal  works. 

Berrugette,  Alonso  (6.  1480,  d.  1545), 
Spanish  painter  and  a  pupil  of  Michael 
Angelo.  He  was  court  painter  to  ChaAesV., 
and  was  also  an  able  sculptor  and  architect. 

Berry,  Caroline  Ferdinande  Louise, 
Duchesse  de  (6.  1798,  d.  1870),  daughter  of 
Ferdinand  I.,  King  of  Sicily,  and  in  1816 
married  to  the  Due  de  Berry.  The  Legiti- 
mists supported  the  claims  of  her  son  to  the 
throne,  and  a  rising  took  place  in  Brittany 
in  his  favour.  She  was  taken  prisoner,  and 
then  it  was  discovered  she  had  been  privately 
married  before  she  became  Duchesse  de 
Berry,  and  her  son  was  removed  from  her 

Berry,  Charles,  Due  de  (6.  1446,  d.  1472), 
second  son  of  Charles  VII.,  who  intended 
him  to  succeed  to  the  throne.  On  Charles' 
death  in  1461,  however,  Louis  XI.  succeeded 
and  created  his  brother  Due  de  Berry. 
Berry  took  up  arms  against  the  king,  was 
defeated  and  made  Duke  of  Guyenne,  whither 
he  was  banished,  and  Avhere  he  died. 

Berry,  Charles  Ferdinand  d'Artois,  Due  de 
{h.  1778,  d.  1820),  son  of  Charles  X.  He 
served  in  the  army  under  the  Prince  de 
Condd.  He  was  assassinated  by  an  Orleanist 
partisan  in  Paris. 

Berry,  Jean  de  France,  Due  de  (6.  1340, 
d.  1416),  third  son  of  Jean  le  Bon,  with  whom 
he  was  taken  prisoner  at  Poictiers,  and  sent 
to  England  as  a  hostage.  He  was  appointed 
a  co-guardian  of  Charles  VI.,  but  was  later 
dismissed  from  the  governorship  of  Lan- 
guedoc  on  account  of  his  horrible  cruelties. 
He  was  afterwards  appointed  governor  of 
Paris,  but  he  intrigued  against  the  king, 
and  was  besieged  in  Bourges.  After  his 
capitulation  he  went  into  retirement. 

Berry,  Marie  Louise  Elizabeth,  Duchesse 
d'Orleans  {h.  1695,  d.  1719),  daughter  of 
Philip  of  Orleans  and  wife  of  the  Due  de 
Berry,  grandson  of  Louis  XIV.  Her  ambi- 
tion and  viciousness  were  the  only  qualities 
which  distinouished  her  career. 




Berry,  Sir  Edward  (6. 1776,  d.  1831),  Eug- 
lish  admiral,  fought  under  Howe  at  Ushaut, 
difttiiiguislied  hiiuseK  at  St.  Vincent,  com- 
manded the  Vanguard  at  the  Nile,  and  the 
Agamemnon  at  Trafalgar. 

Berry,  Sii-  John  (6.  1635,  d.  1691),  British 
admiral,  after  serving  in  the  merchant  ser- 
vice, entered  the  navy  as  a  boatswain, 
and  soon  rose  to  the  rani  of  commodore  in 
the  West  Indies,  where  he  gained  a  victory 
with  only  nine  ships  over  a  Erench  and 
Dutch  fleet  of  twenty-two  ships.  In  1672 
he  distinguished  liimself  imder  the  Duke  of 
York  against  the  Dutch,  and  was  second  in 
command  in  Lord  Dartmouth's  expedition 
against  Tangiers. 

Berry,  Mary  (6.  1762,  d.  1852),  a  Hterary 
woman  of  some  celebrity.  Together  with  her 
father  and  sister,  she  was  appointed  literary 
executor  of  Horace  Walpole,  whom  she 
defended  from  Macaulay's  criticisms.  She 
also  wrote  France  and  England. 

Berryer,  Pierre  Antoine  (6. 1790,  d.  1868), 
French  barrister  and  a  politician,  was  one  of 
the  defenders  of  Xey,  and  also  defended  De- 
belle  and  Cambronne.  He  was  an  adherent  of 
the  BoiH'bous  in  the  early  years,  and  entered 
the  legislature  in  1830,  declining  the  office 
offered  to  him.  He  was  tried,  but  acquitted, 
for  participation  in  the  rising  in  favour  of 
the  Duchesse  de  Berry's  son.  He  was 
actively  engaged  in  politics  till  1848,  but 
after  the  couj)  d''efat  he  turned  his  attention 
wholly  to  the  law,  being  regarded  as  the 
first  advocate  in  France. 

Bert,  Paul  (6.  1833,  d.  1886),  French 
statesman  and  physiologist,  qualified  both 
as  an  avocat  and  a  doctor,  and  for  some 
years  held  professional  appointments  at  Bor- 
deaux and  Paris.  In  1874  he  was  returned 
to  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  and  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  labours  in  connection 
with  public  education.  He  was  minister  of 
pubhc  instruction  and  worship  under  Gam- 
betta,  and  in  1886  was  appointed  governor  of 
Tonquin,  but  died  very  shortly  after. 

Berthaut,  Jean  Auguste  (&.  1817,  d.  1881), 
French  general,  who  commanded  the  Garde 
Mobile  of  the  Seine  during  the  Franco - 
German  war,  and  served  with  distinction 
during  the  siege  of  Paris.  In  1876  he  was 
miaister  of  war,  and  in  1877  repressed  the 
discontent  with  the  republic  which  was  dis- 
played among  the  troops. 

BertMer,  Louis  Alexandre,  Prince  of 
Wagram  (6.  1753,  d.  1815),  French  general 
who  served  imder  Lafayette  in  the  United 
States,  and  was  chief  of  the  staff  in  the  1796 
Italian  campaign.  He  won  the  confidence 
of  Napoleon,  and  was  appointed  minister  of 
war,  and  later  marshal  of  the  empire,  while 
the  daughter  of  the  King  of  Bavaria  was 

given  him  in  marriage.  He  served  in  t*he 
Austrian  and  Eussian  campaigns  as  chief  of 
the  staff,  and  on  the  banishment  of  Napo- 
leon joiaed  Louis  XVIII,  During  the 
Hundred  Days  he  retired  to  Bamberg, 
where  he  was  one  morning  found  dead  in 
the  streets  ruider  suspicious  circumstances. 

BertMer,  Napokon  Louis  Joseph  Alex- 
andre Charles,  Prince  of  Wagram  {h. 
1810),  son  of  the  preceding,  an  assiduous 
agriculturist,  entered  pubhc  life  at  the 
revolution  of  1830  on  the  popular  side,  and 
later  became  the  devoted  adherent  of  Louis 

Berthod,  Anselm  (6. 1733,  d.  1788),  French 
Benedictine  monk  and  historical  writer,  was 
sent  through  Europe  by  Bertin  to  collect 
MSS.  bearing  on  French  history,  and  he 
undertook  the  continuation  of  Acta  iSanc- 

Berthold  {d.  1272),  German  evangelist, 
who  travelled  through  Austria  and  Hungary 
preaching  the  Gospel,  and  who  was  widely 
celebrated  for  his  eloquence. 

EerthoUet,  Claude  Louis  (6. 1748,  d.  1822), 
French  chemist ;  some  essays  and  his  discus- 
sions with  Lavoisier  brought  him  into  notice, 
and  after  the  revolution  he  devised  a  process 
for  the  production  of  saltpetre  which  was 
of  great  value  to  the  republic.  He  received 
some  official  appointments,  and  was  sent  to 
Egypt  with .  the  scientific  expedition.  On 
returning,  he  devoted  himself  to  chemical  re- 
search, and  made  several  valuable  discoveries, 
lea\ing  numerous  works  of  importance. 

Berthoud,  Ferdinand  (6.  1725,  d.  1807), 
Swiss  horologer  of  note,  who  came  to  Paris 
and  there  invented  the  first  marine  chrono- 
meter for  taking  the  longitude  at  sea. 
He  was  horologer  mechanicien  to  the  navy, 
and  left  some  works. 

Berthoud,  Samuel  Henri  (&.  1804),  French 
novelist,  founded  the  Gazette  de  Camhrai, 
and  was  afterwards  connected  with  several 
Paris  periodicals,  in  which  many  of  his 
works  appeared. 

Bertie,  Eobert,  Earl  of  Lindsay  (6.  1582, 
d.  1642),  the  son  of  Peregrine,  Lord  Wil- 
loughby  d'Eresby,  was  a  distinguished 
soldier,  and  was  made  an  admu-al  and  earl 
in  1626.  He  fought  as  a  Eoyalist  in  the 
Civil  war  and  was  killed  at  Edge  Hill. 

Bertin,  Edouard  Francois  (6.  1797,  d. 
1871) ,  French  Litterateur  and  landscape  pain- 
ter, and  inspector  of  fine  arts  under  Louis 
Philippe.  His  father  founded  the  Journal 
des  Debats,  to  the  management  of  which  he 
succeeded  in  1854. 

Bertin  de  Veanx,  Louis  Francois  (6.  1771, 
d.    1842),   father  of   the    preceding  and  a 




principal  writer  on  the  Journal  cles  Bchats, 
which  he  founded.  He  was  at  one  time  a 
j  udge,  vice-president  of  the  Tribunal  of  Cora- 
merce,  and  secretar}'- general  to  the  ministry 
of  police.  Later  he  entered  the  Chamber  of 
Deputies;  in  1830  he  was  sent  on  missions 
to  Holland  and  England,  and  in  1832  he  was 
made  a  peer. 

Bertin,  Jean  Francois  (6.  1766,  d.  1841), 
brother  of  the  preceding.  An  active  jour- 
tialist  and  a  writer  for  the  Dlbats.  He  was 
transported  to  Elba  for  political  reasons,  but 

Bertin,  Nicolas  (6.  1667,  d.  1736),  a  French 
painter  of  note.  He  was  admitted  to  the 
Academy  in  1703,  for  his  Hercules  and 
Prometheus,  and  was  invited  to  settle  in 
Rome,  Mayence,  and  Munich. 

Bertini,  Henri  Jerome  (6.  1798,  d.  1876),  a 
French  pianist,  who  appeared  in  public  with 
success  when  only  twelve  years  old.  He 
settled  in  France,  after  visiting  Great  Britain 
and  Holland. 

Bertola,  de'Giorgi  Aurelia  (&.  1753,  d. 
1798),  Italian  poet,  entered  a  monastery 
in  early  life,  but  ran  away  to  Hungary, 
where  he  served  in  the  Austrian  army. 
He  returned  to  Italy  after  some  years,  and 
his  literary  reputation  enabled  him  to  obtain 
release  from  his  religious  vows.  After  occu- 
pying chairs  in  the  universities  of  Siena, 
Naples,  and  Pavia,  he  went  to  Germany  and 
Switzerland,  and  became  the  friend  of 
Gesner,  whose  poems  he  translated. 

Berton,  Henri  Montan  (6,  1766,  d.  1844), 
French  composer,  produced  his  first  opera, 
Frome^ses  de  Mariage,  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
and  subsequently  produced  more  than  forty 
others.  In  1806  he  was  appointed  director  of 
the  Italian  Opera,  and  he  held  posts  in  the 
Conservatoire  and  Academy  of  Music. 

Bertoni,  Ferdinando  Giuseppe  (6.  1727, 
d.  1801),  Italian  composer  and  maestro  di 
capella  of  San  Marco  at  Venice.  He  pro- 
duced many  operas,  some  oratorios,  and 
other  church  music.  He  twice  visited  Lon- 
don, and  on  the  first  occasion  produced  with 
great  success  his  opera  Orpheo. 

Bertram,  Bonaventure  Corneille  (6.  1531, 
d.  1594),  French  Orientalist,  who  held  the 
chair  of  Hebrew  at  Lausanne,  and  who  was 
the  first  Protestant  to  translate  the  Bible 
from  the  Hebrew. 

Bertrand,  Henri  Gratian,  Count  (6.  1773, 
d.  1844),  French  general  and  the  personal 
friend  of  Napoleon.  He  served  in  the  gi-eat 
campaigns  with  distinction  and  accompanied 
Napoleon  in  exile,  to  Elba  and  St.  Helena. 
He  was  restored  to  rank  by  Louis  XVIII., 
and  in  1830  entered  the  Chamber  of 

Bertrand,  Joseph  Louis  Francois  (Jb.  1822), 
a  French  mathematician  of  eminence,  w^ho 
"wi'ote  several  valuable  works,  and  held 
chairs  in  the  CoUege  of  France  and  the 
Lycee  Napoleon. 

Bertrand  de  Moleville,  Antoine  Franqois, 
Marquis  de  Qj.  1744,  d.  1818),  minister  of 
marine  to  Louis  XVI.  of  France.  Impeach- 
ment by  the  Constituent  Assembly  caused 
him  to  tiy  to  England,  where  he  resided  for 
many  years,  writing,  among  other  works,  a 
History  of  England. 

BemUe,  Pierre  de  (6.  1574,  d.  1629),  a 
French  cardinal,  founded  the  Order  of  the 
Carmelites  in  France,  and  was  employed  on 
several  important  missions  by  Louis  XIIL 

Berwick,  James  Fitzjames  {h.  1670,  d. 
1734),  natural  son  of  James  II.,  served 
with  the  French  against  the  Turks  in  Hun- 
gary, and  after  the  landing  of  William  of 
Orange,  was  James's  commander-in-chief  in 
Ireland.  He  then  joined  the  French  army, 
and  commanded  in  the  Xow  Coimtries  and  in 

BerzeUus,  Johann  Jakob  [h.  1779,  d.  1848), 
Swedish  chemist,  was  professor  for  many 
years  at  Stockholm  university,  and  acquired 
a  great  reputation  by  his  memoirs  and  his 
invaluable  work  in  chemical  analysis  and 

Besant,  Waiter  (6. 1838),  English  novelist; 
his  first  work,  Studies  in  Enrhj  French 
Foetrg,  was  published  in  1838,  and  in  1871 
he  began  to  write  fiction  in  collaboration 
with  James  Rice,  Ready-Money  Mortiboy 
and  The  Golden  Butterfly  gained  for  the 
authors  a  wide  reputntion.  Since  the  death 
of  Rice  in  1882,  Besant  has  written  alone,  his 
best-known  work  being  All  Sorts  and  Condi- 
tions of  Men,  which  prompted  the  establish- 
ment of  the  People's  Palace  in  Mile 

Beschi,  Constantine  Giuseppe  {(I.  1742), 
Italian  Jesuit,  who  went  to  India  as  a 
missionary,  and  acquired  the  various  native 
languages,  for  which  he  compiled  grammars 
and  dictionaries,  besides  writing  works  for 
the  benefit  of  his  converts. 

Bessaraba,  Constantine  II.  {d.  1714), 
Vaivode  of  Wallachia.  His  life  was 
passed  in  treacherous  intrigue  with  different 
powers,  Russia,  Turkey,  and  Austria,  and 
he  was  finally  put  to  death  at  Constanti- 

Bessaraba,  Michel  II.  (d.  1601),  Vaivode 
of  Wallachia.  In  alliance  with  Sigismvmd 
of  Transylvania  and  Rodolph  I.  of  Germany 
he  drove  the  Turks  from  Wallachia,  and  on 
the  death  of  Sigismund  annexed  Transyl- 
vania. He  was,  however,  soon  driven  out, 
and  shortly  after  poisoned  at  Vienna. 




Bessaraba,  :Mirce  I.  {d.  U18),  Vaivode 
of  Wallachia,  iu  1393  was  compellecl  to  be- 
come a  tributary  to  Sultan  Bajazet  I.,  but 
joiued  the  Christiau  alliance  in  1396,  which 
was  defeated  at  Nicopolis.  He  repelled  the 
Turkish  iuvasion,  however,  and  retained 
the  independence  of  Wallachia  for  eighteen 

Bessaraba,  Rodolph,  "The  Black"  {d. 
1265),  founder  of  the  principaUty  of  Wal- 
lachia. He  built  the  towns  of  Argissa  and 

Bessarion,  John  (6.  1395,  d.  1472),  monk 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Basil,  in  the  Pelopon- 
nesus. John  Palaeologus  made  him  bishop 
of  Nicea  and  sent  him  to  the  Councils  of 
Ferrara  and  Florence,  summoned  to  bring 
about  the  imion  of  the  Greek  and  Latin 
churches.  He  favoured  Rome,  for  which 
he  received  a  cardinal's  hat,  but  he  had  to 
leave  Constantinople.  His  house  at  Rome 
was  a  great  centre  of  learning  ;  he  was  sent 
on  many  papal  missions. 

Bessborough,  John  William  Ponsonby, 
fourth  Earl  of  (&.  1781,  d.  1847),  entered 
Parhament  as  Lord  Duncannon,  in  1805,  in 
the  Whig  interest.  He  was  made  Home 
Secretary  in  1834,  and  Lord  Privy  Seal  in 
1835.  Li  1846  he  became  Lord-Lieutenant 
of  Ii-eland  under  Lord  John  Russell,  and 
during  his  viceroyalty  the  great  famine  oc- 
curred. His  son^c^.  1880)  presided  over  the 
Irish  Land  Commission  which  bears  his 

Bessel,  Friedi-ich  Wilhelm  (&.  1784,  d. 
1846),  German  astronomer,  entered  a  mer- 
chant's office,  and  while  there  devoted  his 
leisure  to  the  study *of  astronomy,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  obtaining  an  appointment  in  the 
LiHenthal  observatory.  In  1810  an  obser- 
vatory was  constructed  at  Konigsberg  under 
Bessel's  direction,  and  here  he  spent  the  rest 
of  his  Uf  e  in  research  and  observations  which 
have  made  his  name  famous. 

Bessemer,  Sir  Henry  {b.  1813),  a  distin- 
guished inventor.  He  early  displayed  his 
mechanical  genius  in  several  useful  in- 
ventions, and  the  great  discovery  with  which 
his  name  is  associated — the  Bessemer  steel 
process — was  brought  before  the  world  in 

Bessieres,  Jean  Baptiste  (&.  1768,  d.  1813), 
French  general,  and  Duke  of  Istria,  who 
rose  from  the  rank  of  common  soldier.  He 
gained  the  special  regard  of  Bona- 
parte, and  served  with  distinction  in  many 
of  his  campaigns.  He  was  mainly  instru- 
mental in  gaining  the  victory  at  Marengo  ; 
succeeded  Bernadotte  in  the  command  of 
the  army  of  the  north ;  and  was  killed  the 
day  before  Liitzen. 

Best,  William  Thomas  (&.  1826),  organist, 

for  many  years  held  that  position  at  St. 
George's  Hall,  Liverpool,  and  at  the  London 
Albert  Hall.  He  introduced  into  England 
tlie  use  of  the  separate  pedal  board  on 
Bach's  system. 

Bestujeff-Rmnin,  Alexis  Petrovich  (6. 
1692,  d.  176()),  Russian  statesman,  was 
first  a  page  to  George  I.  of  England,  and 
in  1741  became  chancellor  to  the  Empress 
Elizabeth.  His  diplomatic  machinations 
against  Prussia  at  length  brought  about  his 
banishment,  but  he  was  restored  in  1762  by 
Catherine  II. 

BetMen-Gabor  (6.  1580,  d.  1629),  Prince 
of  Transylvania  and  King  of  Hungary,  rose 
to  the  f  oi-mer  rank  with  the  aid  of  the  Turks 
in  a  period  of  disturbance,  and  taking  the 
lead  of  the  Hungarian  Protestants  against 
the  Emperor  Ferdinand  II. ,  was  proclaimed 
King  of  Hungary  in  1618.  During  the 
Thirty  Years'  war  he  was  compelled  to 
resign  the  title. 

Betterton,  Thomas  (6.  1635,  d.  1710), 
English  actor,  the  son  of  a  cook  of  Charles 
I.  All  contemporary  critics  speak  of  him 
with  the  highest  praise,  and  he  was  always 
popular  during  his  career  of  fifty  years  or 
more  on  the  stage.  His  wife,  a  Miss  Saunder- 
son,  was  the  great  Lady  Macbeth  of  her 

Bettina,  the  assumed  name  of  Anna 
Elizabeth  von  Aniim  (6.  1785,  d.  1859),  a 
writer  of  the  Romantic  school,  best  known 
for  her  friendship  with  Goethe.  She  visited 
him  in  Weimar  in  1807,  and  this  led  to  a 
prolific  corresj)ondence  extending  over  foiu' 
years,  which  she  pubUshed  as  Brieficechsel 
iiiit  einem  Kinde.  She  was  the  friend  of 
many  other  illustrious  men  of  the  day, 
and  in  1811  married  Ludwig  Joachim  von 
Arnim,  a  distinguished  poet  and  novelist. 
After  her  husband's  death  she  lived  in 
Berlin,  where  her  house  became  the  centre 
of  Liberal  movements,  and  where  she  wrote 
a  number  of  social  and  pohtical  essays. 

Bettinelli,  Saverio  (6.  1718,  d.  1808), 
Italian  Jesuit,  and  a  writer  and  poet  of 
distraction,  was  professor  of  literature  at 
Brescia,  and  afterwards  at  Parma.  His 
greatest  works  were  a  history  of  the  period 
between  the  10th  and  14th  centm-ies,  a 
poem,  II  Farnaso  VenetOy  and  Lettere  di 

Beule,  Charles  Ernest  (&.  1826,  d.  1874),  a 
French  archaeologist.  An  important  series 
of  excavations  on  the  Acropohs  secured  for 
him  the  chair  of  archaeology  in  the  Biblio- 
theque  Imperiale,  in  which  position  he 
du-ected  other  excavations  at  Carthage.  In 
1871  he  was  elected  to  the  National  Assembly, 
and  in  1873  was  made  minister  of  the  inte- 
rior.    His  position  soon  became  so  di^ciilt 




that  he  resigned,   and  shortly  after  com- 
mitted suicide. 

Beumonvllle,  Pierre  Eiel  de  (b.  1752,  d. 
1821),  French  general,  in  1793  was  sent  to 
arrest  Dumouriez,  but  was  delivered  by  him 
to  the  Austrians,  and  remained  a  prisoner 
for  two  years.  Under  the  empire  he  was 
ambassador  at  Berlin  and  Madiid,  and  on 
the  restoration  was  ennobled,  and  made  a 
marshal  of  France. 

Beust,  Friedrich  Ferdinand,  Count  von 
(h.  1809,  d.  1886),  Gei-man  statesman  and 
diplomatist,  in  1849  became  minister  of 
foreign  affairs  to  the  King  of  Saxony,  and 
later,  prime  minister.  His  policy  at  home 
was  severely  anti-democratic,  and  in  foreign 
matters  he  strongly  resisted  the  dominance 
of  Prussia  and  Austria.  After  Sadowa  he 
had  to  resign,  but  was  at  once  appointed 
foreign  minister  to  the  Austrian  Emperor. 
In  this  position  he  carried  many  Liberal  re- 
forms, and  entirely  reorganised  the  affairs 
of  the  empire.  In  1871  he  was  sent  as  am- 
bassador to  London,  and  later  to  Paris. 

Beveridge,  WiUiam  (&.  1638,  d.  1708), 
English  bishop  and  distinguished  Oriental- 
ist. In  his  twentieth  year  he  wrote  a  treatise. 
on  the  Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  Syriac,  Arabic, 
and  Samaritan  languages.  In  1704  he  was 
created  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  and  continued 
his  literary  labours  to  the  end. 

Bevern,  August  "Wilhelm,  Dxrke  of  Bruns- 
wick-Luneberg  (6.  1715,  d.  1782),  Prussian 
general,  who  served  with  distinction  during 
the  Seven  Years'  war,  and  in  1762  defeated 
the  Austrians  at  Reichenbach. 

Beverninck,  Jerome  van  (6. 1614,  d.  1690), 
Dutch  statesman,  known  as  "the  Pacifi- 
cator," on  account  of  his  successful  negotia- 
tion of  many  treaties.  He  was  also  an 
eminent  botamst. 

Bewick,  Thomas  (6.  1753,  d.  1828),  Eng- 
lish engraver,  entered  into  partnership  with 
a  Newcastle  wood  engraver,  Ralj)h  Beilby, 
with  whom  he  published  his  Mt  story  of 
Quadrupeds,  which  proved  an  immense  suc- 
cess. After  some  more  fine  work,  he  pro- 
duced The  History  of  British  Birds,  and 
later,  ^sop*s  Fables,  the  two  best  examples 
of  his  art. 

Beyle,  Marie  Henri  (6.  1783,  d.  1842), 
French  writer,  who  only  devoted  himself  to 
literature  after  he  had  tried  four  or  five 
other  professions.  He  wrote,  besides  much 
excellent  biography,  two  romances,  and  a 
History  of  Fainting  in  Italy. 

Beza,  Theodore  (6. 1519,  d.  1605),  Calvinist 
divine,  was  born  in  Burgundy,  and  entering 
the  church  secured  rich  benefices  in  Paris, 
where,  for  some  time,  he  led  a  wild  hfe.  In 
1548  he  went  to  Geneva,  where  he  made  a  | 

public  confession  of  the  ref onned  faith,  and 
obtained  a  Greek  professorship  at  Lausanne. 
Besides  much  polemical  writing  at  this  time, 
he  translated  the  Psalms  into  French  verse, 
and  the  New  Testament  into  Latin.  In 
1559  he  went  to  Geneva,  and  became  Calvin's 
right-hand  man.  He  remained  in  France 
with  Conde  and  Coligny  during  the  civil 
war.  After  Calvin's  death  he  became  the 
foremost  figure  among  the  Calvinists  of  the 

Bhdslay,  Rhagojee  I.  {d.  1753),  Mahratta 
general,  who  was  granted  the  province  of 
Berar  from  the  Peshwah  Bajee  Rao  II.  The 
greater  part  of  his  life  was  occupied  in  war. 

Bhdslay,  Janoojee  {d.  1773),  succeeded 
the  preceding  as  Rajah  of  Berar  in  1753. 
He  concluded  an  alliance  with  Nizam  Ali  for 
the  purpose  of  obtaining  the  chief  power  in 
the  Mahratta  state ;  but  Nizam  Ali  joined 
the  Peshwah  at  the  critical  hour,  and 
Janoojee  had  to  agree  to  most  disastrous 
terms  of  peace. 

Bhoslay,  Raghoojee  {d.  1816),  Rajah  of 
Berar  and  commander  of  the  Mahratta 
ai-mies.  He  asserted,  his  independence  of 
the  Mahratta- Peshwah,  and  in  1803  entered 
into  alHance  with.  Doulat  Rao  Sindia 
against  the  English.  Their  large  and  splen- 
didly appointed  army  was  utterly  defeated 
at  Assaye  by  "Wellesley,  and  later  actions 
compelled  Raghoojee  to  effect  a  peace  by 
the  relinquishment  of  the  greater  part  of 
his  dominions. 

Bhoslay,  Moodajee  {d.  1840),  generally 
known  as  Appa  Sahib,  Rajah  of  Berar, 
succeeded  to  the  throne  by  the  murder  of 
the  Rajah  Pursajee,  and  joined  ^-he  Mah- 
ratta confederacy  against  the  English.  He 
was  defeated  and  deposed,  but  was  rein- 
stated after  a  time,  only  again  to  stir  up 
revolt  against  the  British.  He  escaped 
from,  the  imprisonment  which  he  brought 
upon  himself,  and  afterwards  led  a  wan- 
dering fife  in  Central  India. 

Bhdslay,  Sivajee,  Rajah  of  Mahrattas  (6. 
1627,  d.  1680).  His  father  was  high  in  the 
service  of  the  Beejapoor  sovereign.  In- 
stigated by  his  mother,  he,  with  tkree  other 
men,  Yessjee  Kunk,  Yannajee  Maloosray, 
and  Bajee  Phasalkur,  raised  a  force  in  the 
hills,  and  conducted  such  successful  raids 
that  the  Emperor  Shah  Jehan  took  him  into 
his  service.  He  greath'  enlarged  his  do- 
minions during  the  struggle  between  the 
Mogul  empire  and  the  Beejapoor  states, 
taking  part  now  with  one  side,  now  with  the 
other ;  and  finally  by  stratagem  he  destroyed 
a  powerful  aniiy  sent  against  him  from 
Beejapoor.  After  some  years  of  successful 
predatory  warfare,  he  was  proclaimed 
Maharajah  of  the  Mahrattas  with  widely 
extended  dominions. 




Bhow,  Purishram  Eao  Putwurdhem, 
Mahratta  general.  In  1790  he  commanded 
the  Mahratta  forces  acting  with  the  British 
against  Tippoo  Sultan,  and  his  victorious 
campaign  in  northern  Mysore  helped  to 
bring  the  Sultan  to  a  speedy  submission. 
In  1795  he  utterly  defeated  the  Nizam,  and 
in  the  following  year  perfoimed  the  re- 
markable feat  of  marching  a  large  body  of 
cavalry  200  mUes  in  forty- eight  hours.  In 
a  campaign  against  the  Kajah  of  Kolapoor 
he  was  taken  prisoner  and  cut  to  pieces. 

BiancW,  Francesco,  (6.  1752,  d.  1810), 
ItaHan  composer  of  note;  in  1775  he  pro- 
duced at  Paris  his  first  opera.  La  Reduction 
lie  Far  is,  with  much  success,  and  in  1784 
received  an  appointment  at  Milan  cathedral, 
where  he  remained  for  nine  years  producing 
operas  and  oratorios.  In  1793  he  settled 
in  London  and  married  Miss  Jackson,  a 
popular  vocalist. 

Bianchi,  Vincent  Friedrich,  Baron  de, 
Duke  of  Casalanza  (6.  1768,  d.  1855), 
Austrian  general,  served  against  the  Turks 
and  through  the  Frpnch  wars,  in  which  he 
distinguished  himself.  In  1 8 1 5  he  assisted  in 
the  defeat  of  Murat  at  Tollentino,  and  at 
the  convention  of  Casalanza  secured  the 
throne  of  Naples  for  Ferdinand  IV.  In 
1817  he  commanded  the  Austrian  forces  in 

Bianconi,  Carlo  (h.  1788,  d.  1875),  the 
originator  of  the  Bianconi  cars  in  Ireland. 
His  parents  sent  him  as  a  boy  to  be  appren- 
ticed in  London ;  but  Bianconi  went  to 
Dublin,  where  he  acquired  the  nucleus  of 
his  fortune  as  an  itinerant  fruit- seller. 
After  some  years  he  initiated  his  plan  for 
very  cheap  car  conveyance  between  the 
rural  districts  and  the  principal  market 
towns,  and  with  such  success  that  his 
system  was  rapidly  adopted  all  over  Ireland. 

Bianconi,  Giovanni  Lodovico  (6.  1717, 
d.  1781),  Italian  physician  and  man  of 
letters,  in  1750  became  chief  physician  to 
the  Elector  of  Saxony,  whom  he  followed 
into  exUe.  In  1764  he  was  appointed  re- 
sident minister  at  the  Papal  court,  where 
he  devoted  himself  to  the  literary  pursuits 
which  established  his  reputation  through 

Bichat,  Marie  Franc^ois  Xavier  (6.  1771, 
d.  1802),  physiologist  and  anatomist,  was 
adopted  by  Dessault,  whose  ^^^  orks  he  edited, 
and  after  his  death  devoted  himself  to 
research  in  anatomy  and  surgery  with  such 
incessant  industry  as  to  undennine  his  con- 
stitution. He  left  numerous  works  of  the 
highest  value. 

Bickerstaff,  Isaac  (^.  1735,  d.  1787),  an 
Irish  dramatist,  the  author  of  several  suc- 
cessful comedies  and  operas. 

Bickerstetli,  Edward  Henry  {b.  1825), 
Bishop  of  Exeter;  in  1866  he  published 
his  religious  poem  Yesterday,  To-day,  and 
For  Ever,  which  had  a  mde  vogue,  and  in 
1870  The  Hymnal  (Jompanion  to  the  Booh  of 
Common  Prayer.  Several  other  works  of  a 
similar  character  have  since  appeared.  He 
was  ordained  to  the  see  of  Exeter  in  1885. 

Bidder,  George  Parkes  (6.  1800,  d.  1878), 
engineer.  In  youth  his  grasp  of  figures 
earned  him  the  title  of  the  "  Calculating 
Boy."  Afterwards  he  assisted  George 
Stephenson ;  was  one  of  the  engineers  of 
the  Blackwall  Eailway,  and  a  promoter  of 
the  Telegraph  Company. 

Biddle,  James  {h.  1783,  d.  1848),  officer  of 
the  U.S.  navy,  dming  the  war  with  Tripoli, 
1800,  was  taken  prisoner.  He  served  with 
great  distinction  in  the  war  with  England, 
capturing  tAvo  English  men-of-war. 

Biddle,  John  (6.  1615,  d.  1662),  religious 
controversialist,  known  as  * '  the  father  of 
the  English  Unitarians,"  was  sent  to  prison 
for  heresy,  and  his  book  was  ordered  by 
the  House  of  Commons  to  be  burnt.  In 
1648,  for  the  publication  of  liis  Confession  of 
Faith,  he  was  condemned  to  death,  but  the 
sentence  was  commuted ;  and  he  was 
released  in  1651,  only  to  be  again  im- 
prisoned by  order  of  the  House  of  Commons. 
Cromwell  subsequently  banished  him  to  the 
Scilly  Isles,  but  in  1662  he  returned  to 
London,  and  was  again  sent  to  prison, 
where  he  died. 

BieM,  Charlotte  Dorothea  [b.  1731,  d. 
1788),  Danish  woman  of  letters,  known  as  a 
translator,  a  writer  of  tales  and  poetry,  and 
the  author  of  some  successful  comedies. 

Biez,  Oudard  du  [d.  1553),  French  general, 
made  a  marshal  of  France  by  Francis  I., 
and  appointed  to  succeed  to  the  Chevalier 
Bayard's  command.  He  failed  to  drive  the 
English  from  Boulogne,  and  after  the  death 
of  Francis  I.  was  imprisoned  by  the  Guises. 

Bignon,  Louis  Pierre  Edouard  {b.  1771,  d. 
1841),  French  diplomatist  and  statesman, 
was  employed  on  many  important  missions 
under  the  empire.  For  four  years  he 
directed  the  administration  at  Warsaw,  and 
he  was  an  under-secretary  for  foreign 
affairs  during  the  Hundred  Days.  After 
the  1830  revolution  he  became  foreign 
minister,  and  was  created  a  peer,  and 
Napoleon  charged  him  with  the  compilation 
of  a  diplomatic  history  of  France  from  1799 
to  1815,  a  task  which  he  completed  in  four- 
teen volumes. 

Bilderdyck,  Willem  [b.  1756,  d.  1831), 
Dutch  poet,  a  lawyer  by  profession,  emi- 
grated first  to  Germany  and  then  to  London, 
where  he  lived  by  teaching.  He  returned 
to  Holland  in   1806,  and  was   taken  into 




favour  by  Louis  Napoleon,  then  King  of 
the  Netherlands.  He  afterwards  settled  in 
Leyden.  The  greatest  of  his  numerous 
poems  is  Ms  Destruction  of  the  First  World. 

Bilfinger,  Georg  Bemhard  (6.  1693,  d, 
1750),  G-ermau  savant,  in  1724  vyent  to 
Russia  at  the  request  of  Peter  the  Great, 
to  occupy  a  professorial  chair,  where  he 
wrote  his  Essay  on  the  Cause  of  the  Weight 
of  Bodies,  to  which  the  Paris  Academy  of 
Sciences  awarded  the  first  prize.  He  was 
afterwards  curator  of  the  university  of 
Tubingen,  and  left  several  works. 

Billaud- Varenne,  Jacques  Nicolas  {b.  1756, 
d.  1819),  French  revolutiouaiy  of  the  most 
extreme  type,  was  prominent  from  the  first 
in  the  revolutionary  councils  for  the  fero- 
city of  his  designs;  later  he  denounced 
Robespierre.  In  1795  he  was  banished  to 
Cayenne,  and  never  returned  to  France, 
though  pardoned. 

BiUe,  Steen  Andersen  {b.  1751,  d.  1833), 
Danish  admiral,  conducted  in  1796  the  suc- 
cessful blockade  of  Tripoli;  fought  in  the 
battle  of  Copenhagen ;  and  was  appointed 
commissioner  for  the  transfer  of  the  Nor- 
wegian fortresses  from  Denmark  to  Sweden. 

Bille,  Steen  Andersen  (b.  1797),  Danish 
admiral,  sou  of  the  preceding,  served 
with  distinction  in  the  French  navy,  and 
in  181:5  commanded  a  Danish  scientific 
expedition,  which  sailed  round  the  world. 
He  commanded  the  Danish  navy  in  the 
war  against  Germany,  and  in  1852  became 
minister  of  marine. 

Bineau,  Jean  Martial  (p.  1805,  d.  1855), 
French  engineer  and  politician,  inspector- 
general  of  the  corps  of  engineers  and  mines, 
entered  the  legislature  in  1841,  and  busied 
himself  with  extending  internal  communica- 
tion. From  1849  to  1851  he  was  minister 
of  public  works,  and  in  1852  became  minister 
of  finance. 

Binet,  Jacques  Philippe  Marie  (p.  1786, 
d.  1856),  French  mathematician,  was  for 
some  time  professor  of  astronomy  in  the 
College  of  France,  and  left  behind  him 
many  papers  of  great  value. 

Bingham,  Joseph  (6.  1688,  d.  1723),  Eng- 
lish clergyman,  remembered  as  the  author  of 
Origines  Ecclesiasticce,  a  work  of  the  greatest 
erudition.  He  was  compelled  to  resign  an 
Oxford  fellowship  for  his  part  in  the  Trini- 
tarian controversy. 

Bini,  Carlo  (6.  1806,  d.  1842),  Italian  pat- 
riot and  writer,  whose  life  was  devoted  to 
the  national  cause,  most  of  his  writings 
being  directed  to  further  it.  He  was  the 
intimate  friend  of  Mazzini,  by  whom  his 
works  were  edited. 

Biondi,  Giovanni  Francesco  (6.  1572,  d. 

1644),  Italian  writer,  came  to  England  from 
Venice  at  the  invitation  of  Sir  Henry  Wot- 
tou,  and  was  taken  into  liigh  favour  by 
James  I.,  who  employed  him  on  several 
foreign  missions.  He  wi'ote  a  history  of  the 
Wars  of  the  Roses. 

Biondi,  Luigi  (6.  1776,  d.  1839),  Italian 
man  of  letters,  was  an  industrious  writer  of 
prose  and  verse  of  a  high  quality.  He  was 
president  of  the  Arcliaeological  Academy 
at  Rome,  and  supervisor,  for  the  King  of 
Sardinia,  of  th^  study  of  tine  arts  in  Rome. 

Biot,  Jean  Baptiste  (6.  1774,  d.  1862), 
French  man  of  science,  was  professor  of 
mathematics  at  the  College  of  Beauvais,  and 
later  professor  of  physics  at  the  College  of 
France.  In  1803  he  was  elected  a  member  of 
the  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  soon  after  be- 
came intimate  with  Arago  and  Gaj'^-Lussac, 
with  one  or  other  of  whom  many  of  his  later 
researches  were  conducted.  He  was  em- 
ployed in  Spain  in  measuring  the  arc  of  the 
meridian,  and  in  1817  visited  Great  Britain 
with  the  object  of  further  prosecuting  his 
sidereal  measurements.  A  life  of  industrious 
research  in  many  branches  of  science,  and 
especially  in  optics  and  in  the  polarisation 
of  light,  obtained,  for  him  fellowship  in 
nearly  all  the  great  scientific  bodies  of 
Eiu'ope,  including  the  London  Royal  Society 
and  the  French  Academy,  and  Academy  of 
Inscriptions  and  Belles-Lettres.  In  1814 
Napoleon  I.  bestowed  on  him  the  Legion  of 
Honour,  and  in  1840  he  received  the  Rum- 
ford  medal  of  the  Royal  Society. 

Birch,  Charles  Bell  (&.  1835),  English 
sculptor  and  Royal  Academician,  received 
his  training  at  the  Berlin  Academy,  in  1864 
won  the  £600  prize  given  by  the  Art  Union 
of  London  :  iu  1879  he  was  elected  an  asso- 
ciate of  the  Royal  Academy,  and  in  1881  a 
member.  Among  his  best-known  works 
are  Marguerite  uith  the  Jewel  Casket,  The 
JFounded  Trumpeter,  Ladg  Godiva,  and  the 
statue  of  Lord  Beaconsfield  at  Livei-pool. 

Birch,  Samuel  {h.  1813,  ^.1885),  eminent 
antiquarian  and  Egj'ptologist,  in  1836  he 
entered  the  Department  of  Antiquities  at 
the  British  Museum,  and  in  1861  was  ap- 
pointed keeper  of  Oriental  Antftjurlties,  a 
post  which  he  held  till  his  death,  lie  left 
numerous  works  of  archaeological  interest, 
and  was  a  great  authority  on  hieroglyphics 
and  Biblical  archaeology. 

Birch,  Thomas  (6.  1705,  d.  1766),  Enghsh 
clergyman  and  man  of  letters,  of  Quaker 
parentage,  was  ordained  in  the  Church  of 
England  in  1730,  devoting  much  of  his  after 
life  to  literary  work  and  antiquarian  re- 
search. He  was  secretary  of  the  Royal 
Society  and  a  trustee  of  the  British  Museum, 
and  he  wrote  The  History  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  London. 




Bird,  Edward  (b.  1772,  d.  1819),  English 

Saiuter,  rose  to  the  diguity  of  Eoyal  Aca- 
emician  from  the  position  of  a  Birminghana 
designer.  His  first  notable  picture  was 
Good  JVews,  and  his  Chei-y  Chase  and  Death 
of  Eli  were  pui-chased  by  the  Marquis  of 
Stafford.  Later  he  w^as  appointed  painter 
to  the  Princess  Charlotte. 

Birdwood,  Sir  George  Christopher  Moles- 
worth  (J).  1832),  distinguished  Ci^^l  servant 
and  authority  on  Indian  questions,  took  his 
medical  degree  at  Edinburgh  and  entered 
the  Indian  Medical  Service  in  1854.  He 
served  in  the  Persian  war,  and  in  1857 
accepted  a  chair  at  the  Grant  medical  col- 
lege and  the  cm-atorship  of  the  Bombay 
museum.  In  18(37  he  was  sent  as  special 
commissioner  from  Bombay  to  the  Paris 
Exhibition,  and  in  1868  he  retm-ned  to  Eng- 
land, entering  the  India  Office.  For  some 
time  he  edited  the  BoDihay  Saturday  lie  view, 
and  he  has  published  a  Catalogue  of  the 
Economic  Eroducta  of  Uojitbai/,  among  other 
botanical  works. 

Birger  de  Bielbo  (6.  1210,  d.  1266), 
Swedish  noble,  married  the  sister  of  King 
Eric,  and  was  the  father  of  King  Waldemar, 
during  whose  minority  he  acted  as  regent. 
He  subdued  Finland,  founded  Stockhohn, 
and  built  the  cathedral  of  Upsal. 

Birkbeck,  George  {b.  1776,  d.  1841),  the 
founder  of  mechanics'  institutes,  was  born 
in  Yorkshire,  and  took  his  degree  as  a  doc- 
tor. In  1799  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
natural  philosophy  at  the  Glasgow  Ander- 
sonian  Institution.  His  lectures  to  working 
men  in  Glasgow  proved  so  successful,  that 
on  coming  to  London  he  detennined  to  found 
a  mechanics'  institute.  After  much  trouble 
and  labour  he  succeeded  in  establishing  the 
now  famous  JBirkbeck  Institute,  of  w^hich  he 
was  the  dii-ector  until  his  death. 

Birks,  Thomas  Rawson  (b.  1810,  d.  1883), 
theological  and  philosoi)hical  writer,  and  a 
Church  of  England  clergyman.  His  views 
were  Evangelical,  and  for  twenty  years  he 
acted  as  secretary  to  the  Evangelical  Alli- 
ance. In  1872  he  was  appointed  Knights- 
bridge  professor  of  moral  theology,  casuis- 
tical divinity  and  moral  philosophy  at  Cam- 
bridge, and  he  left  many  works,  such  as 
Modern  nationalism,  The  Difficulties  of  Be- 
lief, First  Principles  of  Modern  Science,  and 
Modern  Utilitarianism. 

Birney,  James  G.  (b.  1792,  d.  1857), 
American  anti-slavery  advocate,  so  early  as 
1834  agitated  public  opinion  on  the  slavery 
question,  liberating  his  own  slaves,  and 
founding  a  newspaper  in  the  aboUtion  in- 
terest. In  1836  he  became  secretary  to  the 
Anti-Slavery  Society,  and  in  1840  was 
nominated  for  the  office  of  president  by  the 
Repubhcan  party. 

Biron,  Aimand  de  Gontaut,  Baron  de 
(b.  1524,  d.  1592),  French  general,  served 
in  the  Catholic  army  during  the  wars  be- 
tween the  Huguenots  and  Catholics,  and 
in  1569  was  appointed  grand-master  of 
artillery.  In  1577  he  was  created  a  marshal 
of  France,  and  reduced  Guienne  and  Lan- 
guedoc  to  submission.  In  1580  he  under- 
took, with  the  Due  D'Epernon,  the  cam- 
paign in  Flanders,  and  in  1586  he  was 
w'ounded  at  the  siege  of  Marans.  He  went 
over  to  Henry  of  Navarre  immediately  after 
the  assassination  of  Henry  III.,  his  Protes- 
tant sympathies  haviug  been  long  suspected. 
He  distinguished  himself  at  Arques  and 
Ivry,  and  was  killed  at  the  siege  of  Eper- 

Biron,  Annand  Louis  de  Gontaut,  Due  de 
{b.  1747,  d.  1794),  son  of  Charles,  Due  de 
Gontaut,  and  better  known  as  Due  de  Lau- 
zun,  which  title  was  conferred  on  him  in  his 
twenty-fii'st  year.  In  1768  he  served  wdth 
distinction  in  the  conquest  of  Corsica;  in 
1779  he  drove  the  English  from  Senegal, 
and  later  played  a  prominent  part  in 
America  under  Ilochambeau.  His  interest 
at  Com-t  having  been  lost,  he  joined  the 
revolution  when  it  broke  out,  sat  in  the 
States  General,  and  was  employed  on  im- 
portant missions.  He  successively  com- 
manded the  armies  of  the  North,  the  Rhine, 
and  the  Alps,  and  from  the  latter  command 
he  was  suddenly  transferred  to  La  Vendee. 
Here  he  fell  into  disfavour  wdth  the  central 
authorities,  and  after  some  months'  impri- 
sonment was  guillotined. 

Biron,  Charles  de  Gontaut,  Due  de  (b. 
1562,  d.  1602),  the  son  of  Armand  de  Gon- 
taut, under  whom  he  served  in  the  wars  of 
Henry  IV.,  was  a  great  favourite  of  the 
king,  who  made  him  admii-al  of  France  in 
1592,  marshal  in  1594,  and  duke  in  1598. 
He  entered,  however,  into  a  treaty  with 
Spain  and  Savoy  for  Henry's  overthrow, 
and,  the  design  having  been  betrayed,  he 
was  beheaded. 

Bisaccioni,  Maiolino  (6.  1582,  d.  1663), 
Italian  soldier,  diplomatist,  and  writer. 
After  taking  a  degree  as  doctor  of  laws,  he 
distinguished  himself  in  the  Venetian  service 
before  he  was  seventeen,  and  later  in  the 
Pontificial  army  in  Hungary.  In  1640  he 
had  to  leave  the  latter  service  on  account  of 
a  duel  with  his  general,  and  for  a  similar 
reason  he  withdrew  from  the  Prince  of 
Correggio's  forces,  which  he  next  joined. 
In  the  army  of  Moldavia  he  rose  to  high 
rank,  and  took  part,  with  six  others,  in  the 
defence  of  the  bridge  of  Vienna  against  a 
large  force  of  the  enemy.  Pope  Gregory 
XV.  employed  him  later  as  ambassador  to 
several  courts.  He  left  numerous  works  iu 
several  fields  of  literature. 

Bischof,  Karl  Gustav  (6.  1792,  d.  1870), 




a  German  geologist  and  chemist  of  high 
reputation,  Avas  '"known  for  much  valu- 
able research  in  physical  science,  and  for  his 
Treatise  on  Chemical  and  Physical  Geology. 
He  occupied  for  some  years  a  chair  at  the 
Bonn  university. 

BischoflF,  Theodor  Ludwig  Wilhelm  von 
{h.  1807),  German  anatomist  and  physio- 
logist, born  in  Hanover,  graduated  at  Bonn 
in  1832,  where  later  he  became  professor  of 
pathological  anatomy  and  physiology.  In 
184-i  he  became  connected  with  Giessen  uni- 
versity, where  he  founded  a  physiological 
institution  and  an  anatomical  museum.  In 
1850,  at  a  famous  trial,  he  demonstrated  the 
L]  Vjossibility  of  spontaneous  combustion  ; 
anii  in  1855  became  professor  of  anatomy 
at  Munich.  He  has  left  many  records  of 
his  valuable  researches  in  embryology. 

Bisette,  Cyi-il  Charles  Auguste  (6.  1795, 
d.  1858),  a  mulatto,  bom  in  the  island  of 
Martinique,  for  some  years  championed 
tjie  cause  of  his  fellows  before  the  French 
Government.  He  established  successively 
the  Revue  des  Colonies  and  the  Reviie  Aboli- 
tionist e,  and  in  18-19  was  elected  to  the 
Legislative  Assembly.  He  retired  after  the 
coup  d^etat. 

Bishop,  Sir  Heniy  Eowley  (6.  1786,  d. 
1855),  English  composer,  early  devoted 
himself  to  the  composition  of  dramatic 
music ;  and  in  1809  produced  his  Circas- 
sian Bride,  which  was  a  great  success.  In 
1810  he  became  connected  with  Covent 
Garden  theatre,  and  produced  many  operas 
during  this  time,  including  The  Lady  of  the 
Lake,  Guy  Mannering,  and  The  Slave.  In 
1825  Bishop  broke  iiis  connection  with 
Covent  Garden  to  go  to  Drury  Lane,  and  he 
was  succeeded  at  the  former  theatre  by 
Weber.  It  was  in  rivalry  with  Weber's 
Oheron  that  Bishop  produced  the  unsuccess- 
ful Aladdin.  In  1840  his  last  dramatic 
piece,  The  Fortunate  Lsles,  was  produced  at 
Covent  Garden  in  honour  of  the  Queen's 
wedding ;  in  1842  he  was  knighted ;  and  in 
1848  he  became  professor  of  music  at  Oxford. 
An  extravagant  habit  of  life  kept  Bishop  at 
his  most  prosperous  times  in  pecuniary  diffi- 
culties, and  more  than  one  subscription  was 
raised  for  his  benefit.  The  ballads  and  glees 
which  he  wrote  are  the  compositions  on 
which  his  popularity  rests,  and  which  have 
made  his  name  famous. 

Bismarck,  Otto  Edward  Leopold,  Prince 
von  (&.  1815),  German  statesman,  and  first 
chancellor  of  the  German  empire,  is  the 
son  of  Karl  Wilhelm  von  Bismarck,  a 
landed  proprietor  of  Pomerania,  on  whose 
Schonhausen  estate  Bismarck  was  born. 
After  a  school-life  spent  in  Berlin,  he 
went  to  Gottingen  university,  where 
he  was  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  bois- 
terousness  of  his   spirits   and  the  number 

of  duels  in  which  he  took  part.  In  1835  he 
entered  the  public  service  ;  but  in  1839  he 
took  over  the  management  of  the  paternal 
estates,  and  for  nine  years  lived  the  life  of  a 
country  gentleman.  In  1847  he  married 
Johanna  von  Puttkamer,  after  having  over- 
come, with  much  difficulty,  the  objections  of 
her  parents  to  the  person  known  as  ' '  mad 
Bismarck."  In  the  same  year  Bismarck 
was  elected  to  the  Prussian  Landtag,  and 
the  BerHn  revolution  of  1848  gave  him  an 
opportunity  of  showing  his  ability  as  a 
staunch  supporter  of  the  prerogatives  of  the 
Crown.  His  views  w^ere  bitterly  hostile  to 
Austria,  and  be  declared  his  hope  of  a 
United  Gemiany  under  Prussian  leadership. 
In  1851  he  became  leader  of  the  Conserva- 
tives, and  was  appointed  Prussian  minister 
plenipotentiary  to  the  Frankfort  Diet. 
j  While  occupying  this  position  he  was  sent 
i  on  several  diplomatic  missions,  and  in  1859 
was  appointed  ambassador  at  St.  Peters - 
!  burg.  From  thence  he  was  transferred  to 
j  Paris,  and  in  1862  was  appointed  chief 
I  minister  to  the  Prussian  king.  He  was  at 
i  first  in  great  pubhc  disfavour  owing  to  his 
I  uncompromising  hostility  to  the  constitu- 
tional majority  of  the  Landtag.  In  1863 
the  Danish  war  broke  out,  and  Schles- 
wig-Holstein  was  secured  for  German}'. 
In  1866  an  attempt  on  his  life  was 
made.  Austria's  predominance  was  finally 
destroyed  by  the  war  which  broke  out  in 
1866,  and  in  the  same  year  one  of  the 
ambitions  of  Bismarck's  Hfe  was  an  accom- 
plished fact — the  establishment  of  a  North 
German  Confederation  with  Prussia  at  its 
head.  In  1867  Bismarck,  now  the  most 
popular  man  in  Germany,  became  chan- 
cellor of  the  Confederated  Gei-man  States, 
a  post  which  he  held  uninterruptedly  till 
1890.  When  the  inevitable  war  with 
France  came  in  1870,  Bismarck  secured  the 
1  neuti'ality  of  all  other  European  powers, 
j  and  alienated  sjnnpathy  from  France.  He 
attended  King  William  throughout  the  war 
to  the  occupation  of  Paris,  and  in  1871  read 
the  proclamation  of  King  William  on  his 
being  acclaimed  German  emperor.  He 
settled  the  terms  of  peace  with  France  ; 
and  was  then  created  a  prince  and  first 
chancellor  of  the  German  empire.  From 
that  time  Prince  Bismarck's  influence  was 
the  dominating  factor  in  European  diplo- 
macy until  his  retirement  in  1890.  In  1870 
he  came  into  diplomatic  collision  with  the 
Pope,  and  having  caused  the  expulsion  of 
the  Jesuits,  all  communication  with  the 
Papal  See  was  suspended  until  1880,  when 
the  disptite  was  adjusted.  During  this 
period  Bismarck's  life  wtis  attempted  for 
the  second  time.  His  policy  at  home  was 
one  of  consolidation  for  the  empire  and 
throne,  and  of  stern  repression  for  all 
Socialistic  tendencies.  In  1884  he  initiated 
a  colonial  poHcy  for  Germany,  by  wholesale 


(  139  ) 


acquisitions  in  Africa  and  the  Pacific.  Bis- 
marck's supremacy  in  Germany  and  Europe 
remained  imquestioned  till  the  death  of  the 
old  Emperor.  He  was  known  to  be  anti- 
pathetic to  the  Emperor  Frederick,  but  the 
untimely  death  of  that  sovereign,  followed 
by  the  accession  of  the  young  Emj)eror 
William,  seemed  to  give  Bismarck  a  new 
lease  of  power.  However,  differences  of 
policy  between  him  and  his  new  master 
were  speedily  developed,  and  culminated 
in  the  beginning  of  1890  hj  his  retirement. 
In  1891  he  again  entered  public  life  as  a 
member  of  the  Reichstag.  His  son,  Count 
Herbert  Bismarck,  was  for  some  years  at 
the  head  of  the  German  Foreign  Office.  He 
resigned  when  Prince  Bismarck  retired  from 
the  chancellorship. 

Bissen,  Wilhebn  (6.  1798,  d.  1868), 
Danish  sculptor  of  note,  who  studied  for 
some  years  under  Thorwaldsen.  In  18o0 
he  became  president  of  the  Copenhagen 
Academy  of  Fine  Ai'ts. 

Bixio,  Jacques  Alexandre  (b.  1808,  d. 
1865),  French  naturaUst  and  politician, 
by  profession  was  a  physician,  but  took 
a  deep,  interest  in  agricultiu'e  and  horti- 
culture. After  the  revolution  oft  18-1:8  he 
was  sent  on  a  mission  to  Turin ;  was  elected 
to  the  Constituent  Assembly;  and  for  a 
short  time  was  minister  of  agriculture  and 
commerce  in  Louis  Napoleon's  first  cabinet. 
On  the  coup  d'etat  he-  endured  a  brief  im- 

Bjerken,  Peder  von  [h.  1765,  d.  1818), 
SAvedish  surgeon  and  ocuUst,  served  as  sur- 
geon in  the  Finnish  army  during  the  war 
with  Eussia,  and  received  a  medal  for  his 
distinguished  services  at  that  time.  He 
was  appointed  surgeon-in-chief  in  1814, 
and  highly  decorated. 

Bjoemstjerna,  Magnus  {h.  1779,  d.  1847), 
Swedish  general  and  diplomatist,  served 
in  the  Finnish  war ;  in  1809  was  sent  on  a 
mission  to  France,  and  in  1812  arranged 
for  the  sale  of  Guadeloupe.  He  fought  in 
the  Danish  war,  and  assisted  at  the  negotia- 
tions which  brought  about  peace  with  the 
transference  of  Norway  to  Sweden.  In 
1826  he  was  appointed  minister  in  London. 
He  left  several  works  on  political  and  fiscal 

Bjbmson,  Bjomstjeme  {h.  1832),  the 
national  poet  of  Norway.  In  early  life  an 
historical  drama  of  his,  called  Valborff,  was 
accepted  by  the  Royal  theatre,  but  its 
author  withdrew  the  piece.  In  1856  the 
international  students'  reunion  at  Upsala 
stimulated  him  again  to  an  effort  to  produce 
a  national  poetry,  free  from  foreign  in- 
fluences. He  began  with  Synndve  Solbakken, 
a  story  of  peasant  hfe,  which  was  followed 

by  Arne  and  many  other  pieces.  In  1858  he 
became  director  of  the  theatre  at  Bergen, 
and  produced  quickly  two  dramas,  Mellein 
Slayoie  and  Halte  Hulda,  both  treating  of 
national  subjects.  Marie  Stuart  and  Sifjtivd 
Hlenhe  are  both  well-known  plays,  and  he 
has  written,  besides  his  dramas,  a  series  of 
Folk  Plays,  an  epic,  and  much  beautiful 
l3*ric  poetry.  He  receives  a  government 
pension,  but  hves  abroad. 

Black,  Adam  {!).  1784,  d.  1874),  the  well- 
known  publisher  of  Edinburgh,  made  a 
name  by  the  publication  of  the  Encyclopcedia 
Britannica.  He  also  took  over  the  Udin burg h 
Review  when  the  Constables  failed,  and 
purchased  the  copyright  of  the  Waverley 
novels.  He  took  a  prominent  part  in  muni- 
cipal affairs,  and  was  elected  lord  provost 
of  Edinburgh,  while  in  1856,  on  the  retire- 
ment of  Macaulay,  he  was  retui-ned  to  Par- 
hament  in  the  Liberal  interest.  He  retained 
his  seat  in  the  House  for  nearly  ten  years. 

Black,  Joseph  (6.  1728,  d.  1799),  distin- 
guished chemist,  a  favourite  pupil  of  Dr. 
Cullen,  first  turned  his  attention  to  the 
study  of  lime,  and  in  1754  he  published  a 
treatise,  Experiments  on  Magnesia,  Quick- 
lime, and  other  Alkaline  Substances, 
wliich  gained  him  a  high  reputation.  In 
1756  he  was  appointed  chemistry- lecturer  at 
Glasgow,  and  in  1763  he  announced  his 
discoveiy  of  latent  heat.  In  1766  he  became 
professor  of  chemistry  at  Edinburgh,  in 
which  post  he  remained  till  his  death.  He 
pubHshed  several  scientific  treatises. 

Black,  William  {h.  1841),  EngUsh  noveUst, 
spent  some  years  in  the  study  of  art,  but 
regarding  himself  as  a  failure  in  the  artis- 
tic profession,  he  turned  to  literature.  His 
first  novel,  Love  or  Marriage,  was  pub- 
lished in  1867,  being  followed  in  1868  by  In 
Silk  Attire,  and  in  1871  by  A  Daughter  of 
Hetk,  which  was  a  pronounced  success. 
The  Strange  Adventures  of  a  Fhaeton  and  A 
Princess  of  Thule  were  published  soon  after, 
and  his  reputation  as  one  of  the  best  novel- 
ists of  the  day  was  established.  For  four 
years  he  acted  as  assistant- editor  of  the 
Daily  JVeics,  but  has  long  abandoned 

Blackburne,  Francis  (b.  1782,  d.  1867), 
eminent  Irish  lawyer  and  judge,  took  a 
gold  medal  at  Trinity  College,  DubHn,  and 
the  medals  for  histijry  and  oratory  given  by 
the  Irish  Historical  Society.  Called  to  the 
bar  in  1805,  he  was  from  1823  to  1825  a 
judge  under  the  Insurrection  Act.  In  1830 
he  was  made  Attorney-general  for  Ireland ; 
in  1842  he  was  appointed  Master  of  the 
Rolls;  and  in  1846,  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Queen's  Bench.  Under  Lord  Derby  he  was 
twice  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland,  and  in 
1856  he  became  first  Lord  Justice  of  Appeal. 


(  lio) 


Blaclde,  John  Stuart  {b.  1809),  Scotch 
prolessor  aud  man  of  lettei-s,  was  called  to 
the  Scottish  bar  in  1834,  and  published  in  the 
same  year  a  metrical  translation  of  Goethe's 
Faust.  From  1841  to  18.52  he  was  professor 
of  humanity  at  Aberdeen ;  and  from  then 
till  1882  professor  of  Greek  at  Edmburgh. 
He  has  published  many  classical  works, 
including  a  metrical  translation  of  ^.schy- 
lus's  Songs  and  Legends  of  Ancient  Greece, 
aud  Homer  and  the  Iliad,  with  a  transla- 
tion in  verse  of  the  latter,  besides  several 
important  critical  essays  on  points  of  Greek 
antiquity  and  literature.  In  philosophy 
Professor  Blackie's  works  have  also  been 
numerous,  and  exceedingly  popular. 

Blackmore,  Sir  Richard  (6.  16o0,  d. 
1729),  English  physician  and  poet,  took  his 
medical  degree  in  Padua,  and  soon  obtained 
a  reputation  in  London.  In  1697  he  became 
one  of  William  III.'s  physicians,  and  re- 
ceived a  knighthood.  He  was  a  most  pro- 
lific writer  of  verse,  the  epic  being  his 
favourite  subject.  Prince  Arthur,  King 
Arthur^  Alfred,  and  Creation  aU  came  from 
his  pen,  besides  several  works  on  medical 

Blackmore,  Richard  Doddridge  [h.  1825), 
one  of  the  first  of  modem  novelists,  in 
1852  was  called  to  the  bar,  and  practised 
for  a  short  time.  In  1860  he  published  for 
the  first  time,  the  work  being  a  poem  en- 
titled The  Fate  of  Franklin.  Tliis  was 
followed  by  translations  of  the  first  two  of 
the  Georgics,  and  in  1864  bj''  his  first  novel, 
Clara  Vaughan.  His  great  work,  Lorna 
Boone,  appeared  in  1869,  and  has  been 
succeeded  by  several  others  of  less  popularity. 

Blackstone,  Sir  William  (6.  1723,  d. 
1780),  English  lawyer,  was  the  son  of  a 
City  merchant,  and  at  Oxford  was  a  dis- 
tinguished classical  scholar,  even  publishmg 
some  verse.  In  1746  he  was  called  to  the 
bar,  but  made  so  little  progress  that  he 
thought  of  retiring.  Some  lectures  on  law 
gained  him  a  reputation,  however,  and  in 
1758  he  became  the  first  Yinerian  professor 
of  common  law  at  Oxford.  Declining  the 
chief  justiceship  of  Common  Pleas  in 
Ireland,  he  entered  Parhament  in  1761,  in 
1763  was  appointed  Solicitor-general  to  the 
Queen,  and  in  1 765  published  the  first  volume 
of  his  famoiis  Commentaries  on  the  Laws  of 
England.  In  1770  he  was  made  a  Justice  of 
the  King's  Bench,  and  later  a  Justice  of 
Common  Pleas,  a  post  which  he  held  till  his 
death.  He  co-operated  with  Howard  in  the 
reform  of  prison  discipline  and  the  establish- 
ment of  penitentiaries. 

Blackwood,  Sir  Henry  (J,  1770,  d.  1834), 
an  Ii-ish  naval  officer,  entering  the  navy  in 
1781,  behaved  -with  great  gallantly  against 
the  French,   and   later  as   captain  of  the 

Euryalus  he  served  under  Nelson  at  the 
battle  of  Trafalgar,  In  1807  he  com- 
manded the  Ajax,  in  the  expedition  to  Con- 
stantinople, and  though  the  ship  was  burnt, 
Blackwood  saved  his  crew  under  the 
greatest  difficulties.  He  was  created  rear- 
ad  uiii-al  and  baronet. 

Blackwood,  John  {h.  1818,  d.  1879),  a 
member  of  the  weU-known  Edinburgh  firm 
of  publishers,  succeeded  his  brother  Alex- 
ander in  the  conduct  of  Blackwood'' s  Maga- 
zine, which  he  continued  to  direct  for  thirty- 
three  years.  He  it  was  who  first  discovered 
George  EUot  as  a  writer,  and  the  Scenes 
from  Clerical  Life  were  first  published  in  the 
pages  of  his  magazine. 

Blackwood,  AVilliam  {h.  1776,  d.  1834), 
the  founder  of  the  Edinburgh  firm  of  pub- 
lishers bearing  his  name,  began  Hfe  as  a 
bookseller,  and  his  antiquarian  knowledge 
enabled  him  to  publish  a  valuable  catalogue 
of  Scottish  historical  and  antiquarian  books. 
In  1816  he  turned  to  publishing,  and  started 
the  magazine  which  made  his  name  a 
familiar  word  in  Great  Britain. 

Blagden,  Sir  Charles  {b.  1748,  d.  1820), 
English  physician  and  chemist  of  high 
repute,  for  a  long  time  acted  as  secretary 
to  the  Royal  Society,  to  the  Transactions  of 
which  he  contributed  numerous  memoirs 
of  value. 

Blaine,  James  Gillespie  {b.  1830),  Ameri- 
can politician,  after  being  professor  of 
mathematics,  and  editor  of  newspapers, 
was  elected  to  Congress  by  the  RepubHcan 
party  in  Maine,  and  remained  a  repre- 
sentative till  1876,  when  he  became  a 
senator,  having  been  for  five  years  Speaker 
of  the  Lower  House.  In  1876  he  was  an 
unsuccessful  candidate  for  the  presidency, 
aud  again  in  1880  ;  but  in  1881  he  became 
secretaiy  of  state  to  President  Garfield. 
In  1884  he  was  nominated  by  the  Republi- 
can caucus  for  the  presidency,  but  the 
Democrats  carried  the  election  owing  to  the 
split  which  Mr,  Blaine's  candidature  caused. 
In  the  election  of  1888  Mr.  Blaine  refused 
to  be  nominated  :  but  on  Mr,  Harrison's 
election  he  again  became  secretaiy  of  state, 
and  his  term  of  office  was  noted  for  the 
diplomatic  troubles  with  England  and 

Blainville,  Henri  Marie  Ducrotay  de 
{b.  1777,  d.  1850),  French  naturalist  of  dis- 
tinction, first  studied  art  with  the  design 
of  becoming  a  painter,  but  was  attracted  to 
natural  history  by  hearing  Cuvier  lecture  at 
the  College  of  France.  He  took  a  medical 
degree  in  1808,  and  for  many  years  devoted 
himself  with  Oppel  to  the  study  of  reptiles. 
He  then  began  to  work  under  Cuvier,  and 
obtained  the  chair  of  anatomy  and  zoology 
in  the  Faculty  of  Sciences.     In  1832  he 




succeeded  Cuvier  iu  the  chaii-  of  compara- 
tive auatomy. 

Blair,  Hugh  {b.  1718,  d,  1800),  Scottish 
minister,  renowned  in  his  own  day  as  a 
preacher.  When  his  fame  as  a  pulpit 
orator  was  at  its  height,  he  began  to  lecture 
on  rhetoric  and  belles  lettres,  and  with  such 
remarkable  success  that  a  chair  was  created 
for  him  at  Edinbm-gh  imiversity.  George 
III.  granted  him  a  pension  of  £200. 

Blake,  Joachim  {b.  circa  1768,  d.  1827), 
Spanish  general,  who  played  a  very  pro- 
minent part  in  the  Peninsular  war,  served 
with  distinction  in  the  war  against  France 
of  1793,  and  in  1808  he  was  made  marechal 
de  camp.  When  the  king  abdicated,  the 
Junta  gave  Blake  command  of  the  levies 
which  were  being  raised.  He  was  forced 
into  an  engagement  by  then-  enthusiasm,  and 
so  lost  the  battle  of  Medina  del  Rio  Seco. 
Again  he  was  defeated  at  Espinosa,  but  his 
reputation  with  his  countrymen  remained 
unimpaired,  and  he  was  appointed  com- 
mander-in-chief in  Aragon,  Valencia,  and 
Catalonia.  He  was  defeated  in  Catalonia 
by  Suchet,  but  fought  a  long  and  obstinate 
campaign ;  and  together  'W'ith  Beresford 
won  the  battle  of  Albuera.  Marching  to 
Valencia,  he  was  defeated  and  forced  to 
capitulate,  and  for  some  years  remained 
a  prisoner  in  France. 

Blake,  Eobert  (6.  1598,  d.  1657),  British 
admiral,  took  part  in  the  Civil  war  on  the 
Parliamentary  side,  and  proved  a  good 
soldier;  but  he  had  had  no  naval  experi- 
ence when  in  1619  he  was  chosen  by  the 
Parliament  to  command  the  fleet  of  the 
Commonwealth  against  the  Eoyal  fleet 
under  Prince  Rupert.  However,  he  drove 
the  enemy  into  Kinsale  harbour,  and  then, 
when  they  put  to  sea,  followed  them  to 
the  Portuguese  coast,  where  he  destroyed 
all  the  vessels  but  two.  In  May  of  1612 
he  engaged  the  Dutch  fleet  under  Van 
Tromp,  and  dispersed  it,  and  soon  after  he 
blockaded  the  Dutch  admiral  in  the  Texel, 
besides  taking  twelve  ships  and  nearly  the 
whole  Dutch  fishing  fleet.  A  few  months 
later  Van  Tromp,  with  a  greatly  superior 
force,  drove  Blake  into  the  Thames ;  but 
next  year  Blake  met  his  old  enemy  again, 
and  after  a  three  days'  fight  completely 
defeated  him.  Again,  in  the  same  year,  he 
gained  a  victory  over  the  Dutch  oif  the 
Foreland.  In  1654  he  was  sent  to  the 
Mediterranean,  to  demand  reparation  for 
insults  to  the  Commonwealth,  and  satisfac- 
tion was  eagerly  accorded  him  on  aU  hands, 
though  he  had  to  bombard  Tunis.  In  1656 
he  blockaded  the  Spanish  fleet  in  Cadiz, 
and  next  year  he  accomplished  one  of  the 
most  bi-illiant  naval  exploits  on  record. 
While  the  Spanish  Plate  fleet  was  lying 
at  anchor  in  the  Bay  of  Santa  Cruz  under 

the  protection  of  powerful  batteries,  he  sailed 
straight  into  the  bay  and  destroyed  the 
fleet,  in  spite  of  the  heavy  fire  from  the 
forts.  On  his  way  home  to  England  he 
died  of  scurvy,  and  his  body  was  laid  in 
Westminster  Abbey.  After  the  Restoration 
it  was  transferred  to  St.  Margaret's  chm'ch. 

Blake,  Wilham  (6.  1757,  d.  1828),  poet, 
painter,  and  engraver,  was  the  son  of  a 
London  tradesman,  and  began  life  as  an 
engraver's  apprentice.  His  genius  dis- 
played itself  early  in  poems,  and  in  those 
visions  which  were  "with  him  throughout 
his  life,  and  from  which  he  drew  his  inspira- 
tion. In  1782  he  married  a  servant  girl, 
who  proved  to  be  a  most  devoted  and  sym- 
pathetic -wife  and  helpmeet  to  the 
eccentric  genius.  At  this  time  Blake  not 
only  wrote  poems  and  executed  designs, 
but  he  printed  the  books,  and  coloured 
the  designs  with  no  other  help  than  that 
of  his  wife.  In  this  manner  the  Songs  of 
Innocence  were  given  to  the  world.  The 
Book  of  Thel.,  The  Marriage  of  Heaven  and 
Hell,  and  the  Frorcrhs  of  Hell  followed, 
all  illustrated  with  Blake's  owm  designs. 
The  Gates  of  Paradise,  Songs  of  Experience, 
The  Song  of  Los,  and  other  poems  were 
produced,  while  the  indefatigable  Blake 
was  execuling  orders  for  engravings,  and  in 
1799  he  exhibited  The  Last  Supper  at  the 
Royal  Academy.  Blake  then  went  to  live 
for  four  years  at  Felpham  in  Sussex,  and 
after  his  return  produced  his  poems  Jeru- 
salem and  Milton.  He  was  engaged  upon 
designs  for  illustrating  Dante's  Divine 
Comedy  when  he  died.  In  1891  the  MS.  of 
an  unpublished  poem  by  Blake  was  found. 

Blakeney,  William,  Lord  (6.  1670,  d. 
1761),  distinguished  soldier,  of  Irish  descent, 
served  at  Carthagena  and  Boca-Chica,  and 
as  governor- general  of  Minorca  in  1756 
he  held  Fort  St.  Philip  for  twenty  days 
against  the  French  under  Marshal  Riche- 
heu.  For  this  action  he  was  raised  to  the 

Blakey,  Robert  (6.  1795,  d.  1878),  philo- 
sophical writer,  and  an  authority  on 
angling.  His  whole  life  was  spent  in  the 
study  of  philosophy,  logic  and  metaphy- 
,  sics  claiming  his  special  attention.  He 
wrote  a  History  of  Moral  Sciejice,  the 
History  of  the  Philosophy  of  the  Mind,  and 
a  History  of  Political  Literature,  besides 
several  books  on  angling.  In  1835  he 
accepted  the  chair  of  logic  and  metaphysics 
at  Belfast. 

Blanc,  Jean  Joseph  Louis  (6.  1811,  d. 
1882),  better  known  as  Louis  Blanc,  a 
French  revolutionist,  supported  himself  at 
fii'st  by  teaching,  but  in  1834  he  began 
to  write  for  the  National  newspaper,  a  d 
the  Mevue  Repii'dicaine.      Later  he  edited 




the  Sons  Gens,  and  founded  the  Revue  clu 
Frocf7-es,  Politique,  Social  et  Littcraire,  in 
which  his  articles  on  the  conditions  of 
labour  attracted  much  attention.  In  1841 
he  published  his  Hiatoire  de  Uix  Ana,  wliich 
was  a  vehement  attack  upon  the  Bourbon 
rule,  and  which  created  a  great  impression. 
After  the  1848  revolution  he  entered  the 
provisional  government,  and  became  presi- 
dent of  a  government  commission  for 
labourers.  His  influence  at  this  time  was 
i'.nmense,  and  a  procession  of  200,000 
workmen  waited  on  him  one  day  to  offer 
him  the  dictatorship.  The  estabUshment, 
failure,  and  abandonment  of  the  national 
workshops,  with  which  Blanc  was  con- 
nected, lost  him  his  popularity,  and  after 
the  Communist  insurrection  he  had  to  fly 
France.  He  lived  in  England  for  more 
than  twentj'^  years,  writing  his  histories  of 
the  great  Revolution,  and  the  1818  Revo- 
lution, and  a  series  of  letters  on  England  to 
the  French  press.  He  returned  to  Paris  in 
1870,  of  which  city  he  was  elected  a  deputy. 

Blanchard,  Fran9ois  (h.  1738,  d.  1809), 
French  aeronaut,  in  8-3  crossed  the 
Channel  from  Calais  to  Dover  in  a  balloon 
of  his  own  construction  pro\'ided  with 
wings  and  rudder,  and  received  in  recog- 
nition of  the  exploit  a  handsome  present 
and  pension  from  Louis  XVI,  He  made 
the  first  parachute  descent  in  London,  and 
soon  after  was  imprisoned  in  the  T\a-ol  for 
a  political  offence.  He  died  of  apoplexy 
while  making  his  sixty- sixth  balloon  ascent 
at  the  Hague. 

Blancliet,  Alexandre  Louis  Paul  {b.  1819, 
d.  18(37),  Fi'onch  physician,  devoted  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  to  the  study  of  the 
blind,  the  deaf,  and  the  dumb,  and  was 
appointed  by  the  French  government  in 
164G  surgeon-in-chief  to  the  institution 
for  deaf  mutes.  He  wrote  several  works 
on  his  special  study,  and  on  his  system 
for  the  education  of  deaf  mutes. 

Blandin,  Philippe  Francois  (6.  1798,  d. 
1849),  French  surgeon  and  anatomist,  was 
surgeon  at  the  Hotel  Dieu,  and  left  many 
professional  works  of  great  value,  a  Traite 
d'' Anatomie  Topographique  wa\.o\\^  others. 

Blandrata,  Giorgio  (6.  1520,  d.  1590), 
Italian  physician,  better  known,  however, 
as  the  founder  of  Unitarianism  in  Poland 
and  Transylvania.  His  heresies  compelled 
him  to  fly  to  Geneva,  but,  incurring  the 
enmity  of  Calvin,  he  fled  again  to  Poland. 
Later  he  became  attached  as  physician  to  the 
court  of  the  Prince  of  Transylvania,  and 
while  there  he  in\ated  the  younger  Socinus 
to  come  and  expound  his  views.  In  1590 
he  was  murdered  by  his  nephew. 

Blane,  Sir  Gilbert  (6.  1749,  d.  1834), 
medical  man  of  Scottish  birth,  served  as 

surgeon  in  the  royal  navy  for  many  years, 
rendering  very  valuable  services,  and  pub- 
li_hing  his  work  On  the  Diseases  of  Seamen. 
He  was  pensioned,  appointed  physician  at 
St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  physician  extra- 
ordinary to  George  IV.,  and  commissioner 
for  sick  and  woimded  seamen.  His  advice 
was  sought  for  by  several  foreign  govern- 
ments as  well  as  by  the  British  govern- 
ment, and  he  was  a  member  of  many  home 
and  foreign  learned  societies. 

Blang'ini,  Giuseppe  Marco  Maria  Felice 
(6.  1781,  d.  1841),  ItaHau  composer  and 
musician,  in  1799  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
created  no  little  stir  by  his  concerts,  at 
which  he  sang  his  own  compositions.  Later 
he  obtained  the  apjioiutment  of  kapell- 
meister to  the  King  of  Bavaria,  and  after- 
w^ards  to  the  King  of  AVestphalia.  In  1814 
he  returned  to  Paris,  w^here  he  was  granted 
an  official  post,  and  made  professor  of 
singing  in  the  Royal  School  of  Music. 

Blanqui,  Louis  Auguste  (6.  1805,  d.  1881), 
French  revolutionary,  student  of  law  and 
medicine  in  Paris,  became  connected  with 
the  secret  societies,  and  was  wounded  in 
the  outbreak  of  1827.  He  was  imprisoned 
in  1835,  and  again  in  1837,  for  complicity 
Avith  conspiracies,  and  after  the  futile  rising 
of  1839  he  was  condemned  to  imprisonment 
for  life.  The  1848  revolution  set  him  free 
again,  and  he  joined  the  Socialist  faction,  in 
which  he  soon  became  a  leader.  He  headed 
the  mob  which  burst  into  the  Legislative 
Chamber  to  demand  the  restoration  of 
Poland,  and  soon  after  was  sentenced  to  ten 
years'  imprisonment  for  his  commimistic 
leanings.  Released  in  1859,  he  was  again 
imprisoned  for  conspiracy  in  1861.  When 
the  Prussian  war  broke  out  he  founded  a 
communistic  paper  entitled  La  Patrie  en 
Danger,  and  took  part  in  the  conspiracy 
against  the  government  of  defence.  In 
1871  he  was  elected  a  member  for  the  Com- 
mime,  though  under  sentence  of  death.  He 
was  arrested,  and  early  ia  1872  tried  and 
condemned  to  imprisonment  for  hfe.  In 
1879  he  was  returned  as  a  deputy  for 
Bordeaux,  but  the  election  was  annulled, 
though  Blanqui  was  soon  after  liberated. 
He  continued  his  socialist  propaganda  until 
his  sudden  death  from  apoplexy. 

Blanqui,   Jerome  AdoliAe    (h.   17i 
1854),  a  French  economist.     He  suc( 


Say  at  the  Conservatoire  of  Arts  and  Trades 
in  Paris  in  1833.  He  wrote  a  History  of 
Political  Economy  in  Europe  from  the 
Ancients  to  the  Present  Time,  and  A  Sum- 
mary of  the  History  of  Cominerce  and 

Blavatsky,  Helene  P.  {b.  1831,  d.  1891), 
founder  of  the  Theosophical  Society,  be- 
longed   to    a    noble    Mecklenburg    family 




settled  in  Russia,  and  at  the  age  of  seven- 
teen married  General  Nicole  Blavatsky, 
from  whom  she  separated  in  a  few  months. 
After  travelling  over  Europe  and  the  East, 
she  went  to  Canada  in  1851,  and  from  thence 
to  New  Orleans  and  Mexico.  Later  she 
made  two  several  attempts  to  penetrate 
Thibet  from  India,  and  then  settled  for  a 
time  in  Russia.  She  met  with  a  serious 
accident  in  the  Caucasus,  and  while  recover- 
ing from  it  she  first  turned  her  attention  to 
spiritualism.  Afterwards,  while  in  India, 
she  was  initiated  into  the  arcana  of 
Buddhism,  and  in  1875  she  founded  the 
Theosophical  Society  in  the  United  States. 
In  1877  she  pubhshed  her  principal  book, 
Isis  Unveiled.  A  very  large  part  of  her  life 
was  spent  in  India,  and  she  was  able  to 
speak  nearly  forty  Em-opean  and  Asiatic 
languages  and  dialects. 

Blaze-Castil,  Eranc^ois  Henri  Joseph  {h. 
178'±,  d.  1857),  French  musician,  critic  and 
writer,  practised  at  the  bar  for  some  time, 
but  then  devoted  himseK  to  the  study 
of  music,  publishing  in  1820  his  critical 
review,  J)e  l^ Opera  en  France.  He  wrote 
also  a  Dictionnaire  de  ILmique  Moderne, 
besides  the  score  and  libretto  of  three  operas. 

B16,  Nicholas  du  (6.  1652,  d.  1730),  French 
general,  and  Marquis  of  Uxilles,  in  1672 
served  in  Holland,  and  afterwards  in 
Germany,  where  he  distinguished  himself 
by  his  obstinate  defence  of  Mayence  against 
the  Due  de  Lorraine.  In  1703  he  was  made 
a  marshal  of  France,  and  acted  as  minister 
plenipotentiary  at  Gertruydenberg  and 

Bleek,  Wilhelm  {d.  1875),  German  philo- 
logist, who  specially  devoted  himself  to  the 
study  of  the  South  African  languages.  In 
1854  he  accompanied  an  English  expedi- 
tion to  Jehadda  and  the  Niger,  and  next 
year  went  with  Bishop  Colenso  to  Natal. 
After  eighteen  months  he  went  to  Cape 
Town,  and  in  1861  was  appointed  keeper 
to  the  Grey  Library,  continuing  his  philo- 
logical investigations  among  the  loAver  grade 
tribes.  He  wrote,  among  other  works,  llie 
Latiguages  of  JFestern  and  Southern  Africa, 
Hottentot  J^ables  and  Tales,  and  A.  Compara- 
tive Grammar  of  South  African  Languages. 

Bleaker,  Ludwig  {h.  1815,  d.  1863),  a 
German  revolutionary,  who  played  a  lead- 
ing part  in  the  insurrections  of  1848.  He 
was  chosen  colonel  of  the  National  Guard 
at  Worms,  and  led  the  insurgents  in  the 
revolution  at  Baden.  He  took  Worms,  and 
engaged  the  Prussians  at  Bobenheim  and 
Baden ;  and  later  he  commanded  the  in- 
surgent forces  on  the  Neckar.  He  ultimately 
escaped  to  Switzerland,  and  afterwards  to 

Blessington,  Margaret,   Countess  of  (&. 

1789,  d.  1849),  novelist,  and  for  many 
years  a  leader  in  literary  society.  When 
quite  a  girl  she  was  married  to  a  Captain 
Farmer,  but  the  union,  which  was  a  most 
unhappy  one,  was  dissolved  in  1817  by  her 
husband's  death.  Next  year  she  married 
the  Earl  of  Blessington,  and  her  salons  in 
London  were  thronged  with  all  the  most 
distinguished  people  of  the  day.  In  1822 
she  went  abroad  with  her  husband,  and  did 
not  return  to  England  till  after  his  death  in 
1829.  Then  she  resumed  her  famous  reunions 
at  Gore  House,  where  she  resided  with 
Coimt  D'Orsay,  her  daughter's  husband. 
She  wrote  a  good  deal  at  this  time,  notably 
her  Journal  of  Conversations  with  Lord 
Byron,  of  whom  she  was  an  intimate 
friend.  In  1849  pecuniary  embarrassments 
compelled  her  to  leave  London  for  Paris, 
where  she  died  quite  suddenly. 

BUcher,  Steen  Steensen  (6.  1782,  d.  1848), 
Danish  poet  and  writer  of  romances.  He 
was  a  native  of  Jutland,  and  spent  most  of 
his  life  there  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties 
as  a  clergyman.  He  translated  The  Vicar 
of  Wakefield  and  published  two  volumes  of 
poetry,  besides  writing  his  Romances  of 
Jutland,  which  attained  great  popularity. 

Bligh,  WilHam  (6.  1753,  d.  1817),  British 
naval  officer,  remembered  as  commander  of 
H.M.S.  Bounty,  on  which  occurred  the 
memorable  mutiny.  The  ship  was  sent  out 
for  the  purpose  of  carrying  bread-fruit  plants 
from  Otaheite  to  the  West  Indies.  When 
the  vessel  was  three  days  out  from  Otaheite 
the  crew  mutinied,  and  turned  Bligh,  with 
eighteen  men,  adrift  in  the  long-boat.  After 
three  months'  severe  privations  the  casta- 
ways reached  the  island  of  Timor,  and  from 
thence  England.  Bligh  published  a  Narra- 
tive of  the  JIuting  on  board  H.M.S.  Bounty, 
which  attracted  much  notice.  He  was 
subsequently  appointed  governor  of  New 
South  Wales,  but  after  two  years  he  was 
sent  back  to  England  on  account  of  his 
tyrannical  government. 

Blind,  Karl  (&.  1826),  German  revolu- 
tionist, began  his  agitation  when  still  a 
student,  and  in  1847  was  imprisoned  for  a 
short  time.  He  took  part  in  the  rising  of 
1848,  and  then  fled  to  Alsace,  from  whence 
the  French  Government  sent  him  to  Switzer- 
land. He  joined  Struve  in  the  second  Black 
Forest  insurrection,  and  was  condemned  to  a 
long  term  of  imprisonment,  but  was  liberated 
by  the  people.  Being  banished  from  France, 
and  a  fugitive  from  Germany,  he  went  to 
Belgium,  and  afterwards  to  England,  where 
he  has  written  industriously  in  support  of 
his  poHtical  ideas.  It  was  Blind's  son-in- 
law  who  attempted  Bismarck's  life  in  1866. 

Blind,  Mathilde,  an  English  writer  of 
verse,  and  step-daughter  of  the  preceding. 




She  has  published  an  editiou  of  Shelley,  and 
a  translation  of  Strauss's  Old  Faith  and  the 
New,  besides  a  Life  of  George  Eliot,  and  a 
volume  of  poems  entitled  The  Frophecy  of 
St.  Oran. 

Blittersdorf,  Friedrich  Sandohn  Karl, 
Baron  von  {b.  1792,  d.  1S61),  Gennau 
statesman  of  Baden,  in  1818  he  was  charge 
d'affaires  at  St.  Petersburg,  and  in  1821  was 
retui-ued  to  the  Frankfort  National  Assem- 
bly as  deputy  for  Baden.  He  succeeded 
Baron  Tenkheim  as  foreign  minister,  but 
his  reactionary  policy  caused  his  speedy  re- 
tii-ement  from  the  oiRce,  and  after  the  1848 
revolution  he  retired  from  political  life. 

Blizard,  Sir  William  {h.  1748,  d.  1835), 
surgeon.  As  surgeon  of  the  London 
Hospital  he  estabhshed,  with  Dr.  Maclaurin, 
the  first  regular  medical  school  in  connection 
with  London  hospitals.  He  was  twice  pre- 
sident of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons. 

Blomfield,  Charles  James  (&.  1786,  d. 
1857),  Bishop  of  London  and  an  accom- 
phshed  Greek  scholar.  In  1819  he  was 
appointed  Rector  of  St.  Botolph's,  Bishops- 
gate  ;  in  1824,  Bishop  of  Chester;  and  in 
1828,  Bishop  of  London.  He  was  very 
actively  concerned  in  the  colonial  extension 
of  the  Church,  and  in  the  erection  of  new 
churches.  He  published  editions  of  several 
of  the  plays  of  ..Slschylus,  an  edition  of 
Callimachus,  and,  in  collaboration,  Fost- 
hunwus  Tracts  of  Forson. 

Blomfield,  Arthur  WilKam  (5.  1829), 
architect,  fourth  son  of  the  preceding. 
Among  the  many  examples  of  his  workman- 
ship may  be  mentioned  St.  Peter's  church, 
Eaton  Square,  the  chapel  at  Haileybury 
college,  and  St.  Saviour's,  Oxford  Street. 

Blondel.Prangois  (6. 1617,  d.  1683),  French 
diplomatist,  mathematician,  and  architect. 
He  was  employed  on  several  important 
missions,  and  was  made  a  councillor  of  state 
and  professor  of  mathematics  at  the  Royal 
College.  Among  his  architectural  works  in 
Paris  was  the  triumphal  arch  at  the  Porte 
St.  Denis. 

Blood,  Thomas  (h.  1628,  d.  1680),  Irish 
adventurer,  served  in  the  Royalist  army 
and  in  the  Parhamentary  army  as  well. 
He  formed  a  plot  for  the  assassination  of 
the  Duke  of  Ormond:  and  in  the  guise  of 
a  clergyman  he  endeavoured  to  steal  the 
crown  jewels  from  the  Tower. 

Bloomfleld,  Robert  (b.  1766,  d.  1823), 
English  poet,  at  the  age  of  eleven  worked 
on  a  farm  for  a  short  time,  and  then  came 
to  London.  An  omnivorous  reader,  he  soon 
appeared  in  print,  contributing  several  poems 
to  the  London  Magazine^  and  a  few  years 
later   be  produced   his   chief    piece.    The 

Farmer'' s  Bay.  Publishers  refused  the  poem, 
which  was  printed  by  private  means,  and 
which  immediately  commanded  a  large  sale. 
He  also  published  Rural  Tales,  Ballada,  and 
Song,s,  and  other  poems.  His  latter  days 
were  spent  in  great  destitution. 

Blount,  Sir  Henry  (6.  1602,  d.  1682), 
Euglish  traveller  and  writer,  spent  a  great 
deal  of  time  in  the  East  and  in  various 
quarters  of  the  Continent,  writing  an 
account  of  his  experiences,  which  gained 
great  populaxity. 

Blount,  Sir  Thomas  Pope  {h.  1649,  d. 
1697),  English  politician  and  writer  and 
son  of  the  preceding,  was  returned  to  Par- 
Hament  for  St.  Albans  and  Herefordshire, 
and  made  a  baronet  by  Charles  II.  His 
writings  treated  of  natural  histoiy  and 
poetry,  his  chief  work  being  Cenmra  Cele- 
hrioruin  Authorum. 

Blow,  John  (6.  1648,  d.  1708),  English 
musical  composer,  while  one  of  the  child- 
ren of  His 'Majesty's  chapel  showed  his 
genius  in  the  composition  of  several  anthems, 
and  later  in  life  his  compositions,  both 
secular  and  sacred,  were  very  numerous. 
He  succeeded  Purcell  as  organist  of  West- 
minster Abbey  and  composer  to  the  king. 

Bliicher,  Gerhard  Leberecht  von  (6.  1742, 
d.  1819),  Prussian  Field  Marshal  and  Prince 
of  Wahlstadt,  first  entered  the  Swedish, 
but  soon  passed  to  the  Prussian  army,  in 
which  he  served  during  the  Seven  Years' 
war.  He  went  through  the  Polish  cam- 
paign of  1772,  and  gained  rapid  promotion 
during  the  struggle  with  the  French  in- 
vaders begun  in  1792.  He  was  placed  in 
command  of  the  army  in  Silesia,  and  while 
carefully  refusing  battle  with  Napoleon  he 
defeated  Marshal  Macdonald  at  Katzbach. 
Soon  after  he  defeated  Bertrand,  and  con- 
tributed largely  to  the  victoiy  of  Leipzig. 
At  Auerstadt  he  behaved  with  great  gallan- 
try at  the  head  of  the  Prussian  cavalry; 
but  soon  afterwards  had  to  yield  to  superior 
forces,  and  was  sent  a  prisoner  to  Hamburg. 
In  the  campaign  of  1814  Bllicher  held  high 
command,  and  though  defeated  by  Napoleon, 
he  beat  Marshal  Mannont,  and  entered  Paris 
with  the  Allies.  Afterwards  he  visited  Lon- 
don with  the  allied  sovereigns,  and  was 
received  with  great  cordiality.  In  the 
Waterloo  campaign  he  commanded  the 
Prussian  army  in  Belgium,  and  was  severely 
defeated  by  Napoleon  at  Ligny.  However, 
by  out-manoeuvring  Grouchy  he  was  able 
to  arrive  at  Waterloo  in  time  to  decide  the 
victory  for  the  Allies  and  pursue  the  routed 
French  army.  He  then  retired  from  active 
service  and  died  four  years  later. 

Bluhme,  Christian  Albrecht  (6.  1794,  d. 
1866),  Danish  sta,tesman ;  educated  for  the 
legal   profession,   was    appointed  a  judge 


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in  1822,  and  in  1843  director-general  of  cus- 
toms and  commerce.  In  1851  he  became 
home  minister ;  in  1852  president  of  the 
Council,  and  in  1853  foreign  minister.  He 
excited  much  enmity  by  advising  the  neu- 
trality of  Denmark  during  the  Crimean 
war  and  was  impeached.  In  1861  he  became 
prime  minister. 

Blumenbach,  Johann  Friedrich  (&.  1752, 
d.  1840),  German  ethnologist,  took  a 
doctor's  degree  at  Gottingen  in  1775;  in 
1776  was  appointed  keeper  of  the  cabinet 
of  natural  history,  and  in  1778  professor 
of  medicine.  While  continuing  his  re- 
searches and  academic  labours  he  obtained 
a  world-wide  reputation  by  his  Randbook 
of  Comparative  Anatomy  and  Physiolo(jy. 
His  remarkably  fine  collection  of  human 
skulls  was  bought  by  the  government,  and 
is  now  at  Gottmgen  university.  He  first 
proposed  the  ethnological  division  of  the 
human  race  into  five  types.  He  left  many 
valuable  records,  and  among  his  pupils 
were  Huf eland  and  the  two  Himiboldts. 

Blumentlial,  Jacob  (&.  1829),  pianist  and 
composer ;  after  spending  some  time  in 
Hamburg,  Vienna  and  Paris  he  came  to 
London  in  1848,  and  was  appointed  pianist 
to  the  Queen.  He  has  composed  a  great 
deal  for  the  pianoforte,  but  his  best  and 
most  popular  compositions  are  his  songs, 
among  which  are  The  Message,  The  liequital, 
and  My  Queen. 

_  Blmnenthal,  Leonard  von  (6.  1810),  dis- 
tinguished Prussian  general,  was  sent  in 
1850  on  two  special  missions  to  England. 
In  the  Danish  war  he  rendered  brilliant 
service  as  chief  of  the  general  staff,  a  post 
which  he  again  filled  in  the  A.ustrian  war 
and  the  Franco -German  war. 

Boadicea  [d.  a.d.  62),  one  of  the  queens 
of  early  British  histor^^  Ha^^ng  been 
treated  with  great  iudignit}-  by  the  Romans, 
she  raised  an  army,  but  was  completely  de- 
feated by  Suetonius.  She  then  poisoned 

Bobadilla,  Francisco,  Spanish  knight,  was 
sent  as  a  commissioner  in  1500  to  inves- 
tigate the  State  of  Hispaniola,  founded  by 
Columbus.  Having  dismissed  Columbus, 
and  sent  him  to  Spain  in  fetters,  he  was  re- 
called, and  died  on  the  homeward  voyage. 

Boccaccino,  Boccaccio  (6.  1460,  d.  1518), 
Italian  painter,  a  native  of  Cremona,  who 
takes  a  very  high  rank  among  the  painters 
of  his  day.  His  son,  Camillo  {p.  1511,  d. 
1546),  was  also  a  painter. 

Boccaccio,  Giovanni  {b.  1313,  d.  1375), 
one  of  the  greatest  names  in  Italian  litera- 
ture. Residing  in  Najjles  as  a  yoimg  man, 
he  acquii-ed  the  friendship  of  Petrarch,  a 

friendship  which  has  become  historical.  In 
1353  he  published  his  Decameron  ;  and  later 
he  filled  the  chair  instituted  for  the  explana- 
tion of  Dante's  Dicine  Coined)/  at  Florence. 
He  wrote  a  commentary  on  the  first  seven- 
teen cantos  of  the  Inferno,  and  a  life  of  its 
author,  besides  many  prose  stories,  and 
much  verse  in  Italian  and  Latin. 

Boccage,  Manoel  Maria  Barbosa  de  (6. 
1771,  d.  1806),  Portuguese  poet  who  lived 
many  years  in  Goa,  and  achieved  a  very 
high  reputation  by  his  verse.  He  was  im- 
prisoned for  a  short  time  by  the  Inquisi- 

Boccanera,  Giulio,  naval  commander  in 
the  Spanish  service,  though  born  at  Genoa. 
In  1340  he  went  to  help  King  Alfonso  XI. 
of  Castile  against  the  Moors,  when  his  con- 
duct of  the  naval  operations  was  most  suc- 
cessful. In  1371,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IL 
of  Castile,  he  defeated  the  Portuguese,  and 
in  1372  the  English,  under  Lord  Pembroke, 
at  La  Rochelle. 

Boccanera,  Simone  {d.  1363),  brother  of 
the  preceding.  As  a  popular  champion 
against  the  nobles,  he  was  elected  Doge  of 
Genoa  in  1339,  but  he  was  forced  to  abdi- 
cate in  1344.  After  residing  in  exile  at 
Pisa,  he  returned  in  1356,  and  having  helped 
the  Duke  of  Milan  to  crush  the  insurgent 
nobles,  he  supplanted  the  duke's  authority, 
and  was  again  elected  Doge. 

Boccherini,  Luigi  (6.  1740,  d.  1806), 
musician  of  Italian  descent ;  in  1771  his 
compositions  and  performances  on  the  vio- 
loncello gained  him  a  high  reputation  in 
Paris ;  and  afterwards  he  received  a  post  iu 
the  Spanish  court.  Being  dismissed  from 
this,  the  remainder  of  his  life  was  spent  in 

Bochsa,  Robert  Nicholas  Charles  (6.  1789, 
d.  1856),  French  musical  composer  and 
harpist,  developed  his  genius  very  early,  and 
on  going  to  Paris  in  1806,  obtained  a  speedy 
recognition  of  his  gifts.  In  1817  he  came  to 
London,  and  met  with  equal  success,  though 
he  became  bankrupt  through  extravagance. 
For  some  years  he  was  director  of  the  aca- 
demy of  music,  and  later  of  the  king's 
theatre.    He  died  in  Australia. 

Bock,  Jerome  {b.  1498,  d.  1555),  German 
savant,  and  one  of  the  first  of  scientific 
botanists.  He  was  a  doctor  of  medicine 
and  a  Protestant  clergyman. 

Bockh,  August  {b.  1785,  d.  1867),  Gennan 
archaeologist  and  philologist;  in  1811  was 
appointed  to  a  chaii-  iu  Berlin  univer- 
sity, where  his  lectures  were  held  in  the 
highest  estimation.  Among  his  nmnerous 
works  were  The  FoUtical  Economy  of  the 
Athenians  and  Meteorological InvestigatioVi 


( 146 ) 


concerning  the  Weights,  Coins,  and  Measures 
of  Antiquity. 

Bocklin,  Arnold  (6.  1827),  Swiss  painter, 
after  some  years  spent  in  Paris,  Germany, 
and  Italy,  was  appointed  in  1858  one  of  the 
directors  of  the  Weimar  school  of  art.  In 
1861  he  returned  to  Kome,  and  after  that 
resided  in  Basel,  Munich,  and  finally  Flo- 
rence. In  spite  of  his  undoubted  genius, 
the  unconventionality  and  grimness  of  his 
works  have  greatly  militated  against  his 

Boczkai,  Stephen  {d.  1696),  Hungarian 
patriot,  w^ho  in  1604  secured  the  indepen- 
dence of  the  Transylvanian  Protestants  by  a 
revolt  against  Austria,  assisted  by  Turkish 
ai-ms.  He  was  crowned  King  of  Upper 
Hungary,  but  later  became  feudatory  to  the 
Austrian  throne. 

Bode,  Johann  Elert  (6.  1747,  d.  1826), 
German  astronomer  of  eminence,  who  was 
for  some  years  director  of  the  Berlin  Obser- 
vatory. His  life  was  spent  in  astronomical 
pursuits,  and  besides  the  record  of  his  im- 
portant observations  he  left  several  works. 

Bode,  Johann  Joachim  Christoph  ^. 
1730,  d.  1793),  German  musician  and  man 
of  letters;  of  the  humblest  origin,  by  dint 
of  his  own  mdustry  he  became  a  musi- 
cian and  a  composer,  and  then  turned  his 
attention  to  poetry  Having  mastered 
several  European  languages  he  adapted 
dramas  from  foreign  literatures  for  the  Ger- 
man stage.  He  published  translations  of 
many  European  classics 

Bodenstedt,  Frederick  Martin  (6.  1819), 
German  poet  and  writer ;  in  1840  he  went 
to  Russia,  when  he  published  German  trans- 
lations of  the  w'orks  of  several  Russian 
poets  ;  and  later,  spending  some  time  in 
Asia  Minor  and  Greece,  he  wrote  A  Thou- 
sand and  One  Days  in  the  £ast,  which 
proved  highly  popular.  In  1851  he  pub- 
lished Songs  of  Mirza  Schaffy,  a  series  of 
Oriental  poems  purporting  to  be  transla- 
tions. He  has  also  written  some  epics, 
lyric  poetry,  novels  and  translations  of 
IShakespeare.  He  was  appointed  professor 
of  Sclav  languages  and  literature  at  Munich. 

Bodichon,  Barbara  (6.  1827),  well-known 
water-colour  painter,  and  an  active  promo- 
ter of  women's  education,  was  largely  instru- 
mental in  obtaining  the  Married  Wo/nen^s 
Property  Act.  She  foimded  a  school  in 
London  for  the  education  of  artisans' 
daughters ;  and  she  helped  to  establish 
Girton  College.  The  daughter  of  Mr.  Ben- 
jamin Smith,  M.P.,  she  married  Dr.  Bodi- 
chon,  with  whom  she  went  to  Algeria. 

Bodley,  Sir  Thomas  (6.  1544,  d.  1612), 
founder  of  the  Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford, 

lectured  at  the  University  for  some  time, 
and  then  becoming  attached  to  the  court 
of  Queen  Elizabeth,  was  employed  on 
several  important  diplomatic  missions.  Dis- 
appointed at  failing  to  obtain  the  of&ce  of 
secretary  of  state,  he  forsook  politics.  He 
was  knighted  by  James  I.,  and  laid  the  fii"4.t 
stone  of  the  Bodleian  Library  in  1610. 

Boece,  or  Boyce,  Hector  (6. 1470,  d.  1536), 
Scottish  historian,  and  a  man  of  great 
learning.  After  being  professor  of  philoso- 
phy at  Paris,  he  became  principal  of  the 
Aberdeen  college.  He  wrote  a  history  of 
Scotland  in  Latin. 

Boehm,  Sir  Joseph  Edgar  (6.  1834,  d. 
1891),  an  English  sculptor  of  Gennan  origin, 
came  to  England  to  settle  in  1862.  In  1878 
he  was  elected  an  associate,  and  in  1882  a 
member  of  the  Royal  Academy;  ;  w'hile  in 
1881  he  was  appointed  sculptor  in  ordinary 
to  the  Queen.  His  works  are  very  numer- 
ous, and  include  Lord  John  Russell  in  West- 
minster Hall,  Thomas  Carlyle  on  the  Thames 
Embankment,  Lord  Laivrence  in  "Waterloo 
Place,  and  The  Duke  of  Wellington  at  Hyde 
Park  corner. 

Boerliaave,  Hermann  (6.  1668,  d.  1738), 
German  physician,  and  one  of  the  first 
authorities  of  his  time  on  botany  and 
chemistry.  In  1709  he  was  appointed  to 
the  chair  of  medicine  and  botany  at  Leyden 
university,  where  his  lectures  made  him 
famous ;  and  in  1714  he  was  made  rector  of 
the  university,  and  soon  afterwards  professor 
of  chemistry.  He  was  a  great  linguist  and 
mathematician,  and  the  author  of  numerous 
works,  including  Lnstitntiones  Medica.  In 
1729  he  retired. 

Boethius,  Anicius  Manlius  Torquatus 
Severinus  (6.  a.d.  455,  d.  524),  Latin  writer 
and  philosopher,  in  487  was  Consul  of 
Rome  imder  the  rule  of  Odoacer,  King  of 
the  Heruli ;  and  he  held  the  same  office  in 
510  and  522  under  Theodoric,  King  of  the 
Goths.  His  public  labours  went  side  by 
side  with  his  work  in  literature,  and  he 
translated  several  of  the  Greek  philosophers, 
besides  wTiting  treatises  of  his  own.  At  last 
he  lost  the  favour  of  Theodoric,  and  was 
imprisoned ;  during  which  time  he  wrote 
his  De  Consolatione  Philosophce. 

Boettcher,  Adolf  (6.  1815,  d.  1870), 
German  poet  of  considerable  repute,  trans- 
lated the  works  of  English  poets,  among 
others  of  Shakespeare,  Milton,  Pope,  and 

Boettcher,  Johann  Friedrich  (6.  1681,  d. 
1719),  German  chemist,  whose  labours,  led 
to  the  founding  of  the  famous  Dresden  ehiua 
factory,  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in 
searching  for  the  philosopher's  stone;  but 
the  Elector  Fredeiick  Augustus  of  Dresdeu 




made  him  apply  his  knowledge  of  chemistry 
to  the  conversion  of  the  Meissen  clay  iuto 

Bogardus,  James  (b.  1800,  d.  1875), 
American  inventor  of  great  fecundity,  who 
worked  for  some  time  as  a  watchmaker  and 
engraver  in  New  York.  Among  his  inven- 
tions were  the  king-flyer  for  cotton  spin- 
ning (1828)  ;  the  eccentric  mill  (1829)  ;  the 
dry  gas-meter  (1832)  ;  a  dynamo-meter, 
and  a  pyrometer  (1848).  In  1847  he  built 
the  first  structure  of  cast  iron  in  the  United 

Bogdanovitch,  Hyppolytus  Feodorovitch 
[b.  1743,  d.  1803),  Russian  lyrical  j)oet,  after 
going  to  Dresden  as  secretary  to  the  em- 
bassy, he  published  his  Dusheiika,  which 
attracted  much  attention.  He  wrote 
dramatic  pieces  as  well  as  poetry. 

Bolia  Ed-Din,  Abul-Hassan  Yusef  (b. 
1145,  d.  1232),  Arabian  historian  and  jurist, 
the  Sultan  Saladin  made  him  Cadi  of  Jeru- 
salem, and  he  wrote  the  life  of  his  patron, 
as  well  as  a  history  of  the  Crusades.  He 
founded  a  college  at  Aleppo. 

Bohemond,  Mark  {d.  1111),  a  famous 
Crusader  of  Norman  descent,  and  son  of 
Robert  Guiscard,  Duke  of  Apulia.  After 
serving  under  his  father  in  Illyria  and 
Greece,  he  was  ousted  from  his  inheritance 
by  his  brother.  Joining  the  Crusaders  with 
Tancred,  he  captured  Antioch,  after  a  siege 
of  seven  months.  He  established  himself  in 
the  town  as  prince,  and  his  descendants  re- 
tained the  position  for  ninety  years. 

Boieldieu,  Francois  Adrien  (6.  1775,  d. 
1834),  French  musical  composer,  born  at 
Rouen,  where  some  of  his  earlier  composi- 
tions were  produced,  went  to  Paris  about 
1796,  and  produced  his  opera  Le  Dot  de  Su- 
zette,  which  was  a  great  success.  In  1800  he 
wrote  the  Caliph  of  Bagdad,  which  gave  him 
a  European  reputation.  After  producing  Ma 
Tante  A  urore,  he  went  to  Russia,  and  was 
received  with  much  favour  by  the  Czar  ;  and 
returning  to  Paris  in  1811,  after  an  absence 
of  eight  years,  he  regained  his  prestige  in 
France  by  his  Jean,  de  Paris.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  several  other  operas,  and  in  1825 
by  La  l)ame  Blanche,  his  greatest  effort, 
which  was  received  with  the  greatest  en- 
thusiasm. He  only  produced  one  more 
opera,  Les  Deux  Nuits,  a  failure.  In  the 
revolution  of  1830  he  lost  his  pension,  but 
recovered  it  later  by  the  efforts  of  M.  Thiers. 

Boigne,  Benoit,  Count  de  (6.  1741,  d. 
1830),  French  soldier  of  fortune,  entered 
the  French  army  in  1768,  and  at  the  end  of 
two  years  entered  the  ser\ice  of  Catherine 
TI.  of  Russia,  fighting  against  the  Turks. 
Then  _  he  went  to  India,  and  received  a 
commission  in  a  native  regiment,  and 

finally  took  service  with  the  Mahadajee 
Sindia.  In  this  position  he  raised  and  dis- 
cipHned  to  a  high  state  of  efficiency  a  force 

I  of  30,000  men  with  200  pieces  of  artillery, 
and  at  the  same  time  administered  the  pro- 

I  vinces  devoted  to  the  army's  maintenance. 
In  1796  ho  retired  to  France  with  a  large 
fortune.  The  army  which  he  had  formed 
was  broken  up  in  1802  at  the  battle  of 
Assay e,  though  De  Boigne  had  always  ad- 
vised friendship  with  the  English. 

Boneau-Despreaux,  Nicolas  (6.  1636,  d. 
1711),  a  French  poet  of  high  rank,  after 
studying  law  and  theology,  gave  his  mind  to 
literature,  and  in  1660  produced  a  satirical 
poem  which  at  once  attracted  notice.  This 
was  followed  by  other  satires,  by  his  Ttoelve 
Epistles,  and  in  1674  by  his  Art  of  Poetry 
and  Lutrln.  These  works  secured  him  the 
society  of  the  best  literary  people  of  the 
day,  and  earned  a  pension  from  the  Crown. 
He  was  appointed  joint  historiographer 
with  Raciae. 

BoUeau,  GiUes  (6.  1631,  d.  1669),  brother 
of  the  preceding,  and  a  poet  of  considerable 
merit.  The  two  brothers  were  very  jealous 
of  each  other,  and  inspired  many  of  each 
other's  satii'ic  verses. 

Boisrobert,  Franqois  le  Metel  de  {b.  1592, 
d.  1662),  French  litterateur  and  wit, 
going  to  Rome,  won  the  favour  of  Pope 
Urban  VIII.,  who  gave  him  clerical  pre- 
ferment ;  and  he  was  a  familiar  associate 
of  Cardinal  RicheHeu.  He  wrote  dramas, 
poems,  and  stories,  and  is  believed  to  have 
been  instrumental  in  founding  the  French 

Boissonade,  Jean  Franqois  (&.  1774), 
French  writer,  scholar,  and  Hellenist,  was 
professor  of  Greek  at  the  Academy  of  Paris 
and  College  of  France,  and  refused  m.any 
lucrative  posts  for  the  sake  of  piirsuing  his 
learned  researches.  He  left  some  valuable 
contiibutions  to  philological  science. 

Boissy,  D'Anglas  (&.  1756,  d.  1826), 
French  statesman,  was  an  actor  in  the 
earher  scenes  of  the  great  revolution, 
sitting  in  the  States  General  and  the  Con- 
vention, of  which  he  later  became  secretary. 
He  was  instrumental  in  the  overthrow  of 
Robespierre,  and  behaved  with  great 
courage  when  the  mob  attacked  the 
chamber.  Later  he  was  suspected  of 
Royalist  sjrmpathies,  and  had  to  fiy  to 
England,  but  in  1802  he  was  elected  presi- 
dent of  the  Tribunate.  He  was  ennobled 
by  Louis  XVIII. ;  gave  his  adhesion  to 
Napoleon  during  the  Hundred  Days ;  and 
aclmowledged  Louis  on  his  restoration. 

Boissy,  Louis  de  [b.  1694,  d.  1758), 
French  poet  and  dramatist,  commanded 
considerable  contemporary  popularity,  but 




is  now  little  read.    His  principal  produc- 
tion was  L^ Homme  du  Jour. 

Boiste,  Pierre  Claude  Victor  (6.  1765,  d. 
1824),  French  man  of  letters,  who  is 
remembered  as  the  author  of  La  Diction- 
naire  Universelle  de  la  Langue  FrauQaise. 

Bojer,  Wenceslas  (6.  1800,  d.  1856),  dis- 
tinguished Austrian  naturalist  and  botanist, 
visited  Mauritius,  Madagascar,  and  Africa, 
sending  home  valuable  collections  of  botani- 
cal and  biological  specimens. 

Bojardo,  Matteo  Maria,  Count  of  Scan- 
diano  (6.  1434,  d.  1494),  ItaUan  scholar 
and  poet,  is  remembered  as  the  author  of 
Orlando  Innamorato,  a  poetical  romance, 
which  was  almost  the  first  really  literary 
work  of  its  kind.  He  was  a  finished  Greek 
and  Latin  scholar,  and  wrote  verse  in  Latin, 
besides  translating  the  History  of  Herodotus. 
He  held  public  posts  under  the  Duke  of 
Ferrara,  and  was  Governor  of  Reggio  at 
his  death. 

Boker,  George  Henry  (6.  1824),  American 
poet ;  his  first  published  poem  was  The 
Lesson  of  Life  (1847),  and  this  was  followed 
by  two  tragedies,  which  were  produced 
on  the  stage.  For  ten  years  he  was 
secretary  of  the  Union  League,  Phila- 
delphia, and  his  Poems  of  the  War  proved 
very  popular.  In  1869  he  went  as  U.  S. 
Minister  to  Constantinople.  He  published 
in  1882  an  elegy,  The  Book  of  the  Bead. 

Bokhari,  Abu-Abdallah  Mohammed  (h. 
810,  d.  870),  Arabian  doctor  of  Moslem  law, 
wrote  several  works,  and  spent  sixteen  years 
in  the  composition  of  his  Al-djami  Alsahy, 
which  is  regarded  with  great  reverence. 

Boleyn,  Anne  [h.  1507,  d.  1536),  Queen  of 
England,  and  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Bole}Ti 
of  Kent,  accompanied  Mary  Tudor  to 
France,  but  returned  to  England  after  the 
battle  of  Pavia,  and  was  appointed  by 
Henry  VIII.  a  maid  of  honour  to  Queen 
Catherine.  The  king  having  fallen  in  love 
Avith  her,  prevented  her  marriage  with  Lord 
Percy,  and  in  1532  created  her  Marchioness 
of  Pembroke,  taking  her  with  him  on  his 
\'isit  to  Francis  I.  The  proceedings  for  the 
divorce  of  Queen  Catherine  having  been 
delayed,  Henry  man-ied  Anne  Boleyn  pri- 
vately in  1533,  in  which  year  she  bore 
Queen  Elizabeth.  By  1536  the  king's 
passion  had  cooled,  and  Anne  Boleyn  was 
charged  with  criminal  misconduct.  Anne 
was  found  guilty  by  a  court  of  tw^enty- 
seven  peers,  and  beheaded  barely  three 
weeks  after  her  arraignment. 

Bolingbroke,  Henry  St.  John,  Viscount 
Q)  1678,  d.  1751),  philosopher  and  states- 
man, after  a  brilliant  career  at  Oxford, 
entered  Parliament  in  1701  as  a  Tory,  and 

soon  became  a  prominent  figure  in  the 
partj^.  In  1704  he  was  appointed  secretary 
at  war,  and  in  1710  he  became  foreign 
secretary,  and  received  the  title  of  Vis- 
coimt  Bolingbroke.  He  was  a  strong 
adherent  of  the  Stuart  dynasty,  and  when 
the  Hanoverian  line  was  established, 
Bolingbroke  was  dismissed  from  otfice. 
He  fled  to  France  ;  an  impeachment 
immediately  followed,  and  he  was  found 
guilty  of  high  treason.  He  then  became 
secretary  of  state  to  the  Pretender,  but  was 
dismissed  in  1715.  As  the  efforts  of  his 
friends  to  secure  his  pardon  from  George  I. 
were  unsuccessful,  he  lived  quietly  at 
Orleans,  writing  and  gardening.  In  1720  he 
married  a  niece  of  Madame  de  Maintenon, 
through,  whom  he  did  at  last  procure  his 
pardon.  He  returned  to  England  in  1723, 
but  was  not  allowed  to  sit  in  the  House  of 
Lords,  for  which  he  attacked  Walpole  with 
great  fierceness.  In  1735  he  returned  to 
France,  and  remained  there  for  seven  years, 
writing  his  Letters  on  the  Study  and  Use  of 
History,  and  his  Ldca  of  a  Patriot  King. 
His  Reflections  upon  JExUe  was  written 
during  his  earlier  residence  in  France. 

Bolivar,  Simon  (6.  1783,  d.  1830),  the 
founder  and  first  president  of  the  Kepubfic 
of  Columbia,  known  as  "  The  Liberator  of 
South  America. ' '  Born  in  Venezuela,  he  was 
educated  in  Madrid,  and  travelled  in 
Europe  and  the  United  States.  When  the 
revolt  against  the  Spanish  yoke  broke  out 
in  Venezuela,  he  joined  it,  but  had  to  fly. 
In  1813  he  returned,  and  gathering  a  force 
together,  defeated  General  Monteverde 
at  Caracas.  The  tide  then  turned,  and 
Bolivar  fled  to  Jamaica,  but  he  shortly 
returned,  and  after  varj-ing  fortune  in 
1819  won  the  battle  of  Bojaca,  resulting 
in  the  inauguration  of  the  Republic  of 
Venezuela  in  the  same  year,  to  which  was 
afterwards  united  New  Granada.  In  1822 
Bolivar  went  to  help  the  Peruvians  in  their 
struggle  for  liberty,  and  was  given  the 
chief  command.  After  a  long  campaign  he 
won  the  gi-eat  battle  of  Ayacucho.  Uppei 
Peru  was  constituted  a  separate  republic 
■with  the  title  of  Bolivia.  As  President  of 
Columbia  he  had  to  endure  much  factious 
hostility;  but  though  he  tendered  his 
resignation  more  than  once  it  was  never 
accepted,  the  supreme  power  being  con- 
firmed in  him  in  1828. 

Bologna,  Giovanni  da  (6.  1524,  d.  1608), 
Italian  sculptor,  spent  the  greater  part 
of  his  life  in  Florence,  in  which  most  of 
his  works  find  place.  The  Rape  of  the 
Sahines,  and  Mercury  are  his  best  known 
productions.  He  was  an  architect  also,  and 
designed  most  of  the  internal  decorations  of 
the  Florence  San  Marco. 

Bombelli,    Raffaelle,    mathematician    of 




Bologna,  who  lived  in  the  16th  century. 
He  wrote  a  work  on  algebra,  and  was  the 
first  to  attempt  the  extraction  of  the  cube- 
root,  and  the  solution  of  ' '  the  iiTeducible 
case  "  in  cubic  equations. 

Bon,  Louis  Audi-^  (&.  1758,  d.  1799), 
French  soldier,  after  having  served  m 
America,  commanded  a  battalion  of  the 
national  volunteers  with  much  success ;  and 
in  1795  disjilayed  admirable  generalship  in 
Italy.  In  1 798,  as  general  of  division,  he  went 
to  Egypt  with  Napoleon,  and  was  killed  in 
the  unsuccessful  assault  on  St.  Jean  d'Acre. 

Bonald,  Louis  Gabriel  Ambroise,  Vicomte 
de  (6.  1754,  d.  1840),  French  writer  and 
theorist,  at  the  outbreak  of  the  revolution 
he  went  to  Heidelberg,  where  he  wrote  his 
Theorie  du  Fmiroir  FoUtique  et  McHgieux. 
The  book  was  considered  so  reactionary  that 
the  Directory  proscribed  it.  In  1802  he 
published  his  Legislation  Primitif.  When 
Napoleon  was  proclaimed  Emperor  he  re- 
turned to  Paris  and  received  a  government 
appointment,  *and  as  a  deputy  under  the 
restored  Bourbons  he  was  so  pronouncedly 
Conservative  as  to  receive  a  title.  After  the 
1830  revolution  he  was  degi-aded,  and  retired 
from  public  life. 

Bonald,  Louis  Jacques  Maurice  de  (&. 
1787,/?.  1870),  fourth  son  of  the  preceding, 
Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Lyons,  was  a  man 
of  great  eloquence  and  devotion  to  the 
Church,  and  his  prefennent  was  rapid. 
Ordained  in  1811,  he  became  in  1817  Grand 
Vicar  and  Archdeacon  of  Chartres  ;  in  1823, 
Bishop  of  Puy;  in  1839,  Archbishop  of 
Lyons;  and  in  1841,  Cardinal.  He  was  a 
supporter  of  the  revolution  of  1848. 

Bonamy,  Charles  Auguste  (fc.  1764,  d. 
1830),  French  general,  entered  the  army 
as  a  volunteer,  and  after  seeing  much 
service,  gained  considerable  distinction  as 
chief  of  the  staff  to  Kleber  in  1795.  A 
charge  of  treason,  though  disproved,  kept 
him  in  retirement  for  two  years,  when  he 
went  to  Italy,  becoming  general  of  brigade. 
He  narrowly  escaped  disgrace  in  1799,  and 
in  1800  he  was  retired  by  Napoleon.  He 
served,  however,  in  the  Russian  campaign, 
and  behaved  with  the  greatest  gallantry. 
He  was  promoted  and  decorated  under  the 
restored  monarchy,  and  served  in  the  cam- 
paign of  1815. 

Bonapartes,  The.  The  family  to  which 
the  Emperor  Napoleon  I.  belonged  came 
from  Corsica.  The  father,  Carlo  Maria 
Bonaparte  [b.  1746,  d.  1785),  was  a  lawyer 
and  an  adherent  of  Paoli,  the  insurgent. 
The  mother,  Letizia  Ramolini  {h.  1750,  d, 
1836),  was  celebrated  for  her  beauty  ;  and 
with  the  title,  "  Madame  Mere,"  li,ved  in 
Paris  during  the  rule  of  Napoleon  :— 

(1)  Joseph  (6.   1768,  d.    1844),  the  eldest 

son,  practised  as  an  advocate,  and  married 
a  merchant's  daughter  at  Marseilles.  He 
was  commissary -general  to  the  army  in 
Italy  under  Napoleon,  and  in  1797  was 
sent  as  ambassador  to  the  Pope.  An  able 
diplomatist,  he  negotiated  the  treaties  of 
peace  at  Luneville  (1801),  and  at  Amiens 
(1802).  When  his  brother  was  proclaimed 
Emperor,  he  was  placed  upon  the  throne  of 
Naples,  but  being  a  merely  nominal  ruler, 
his  good  judgment  and  better  instincts  had 
no  play.  In  1808  he  was  transferred  to  the 
throne  of  Spain,  where  his  position  was  still 
more  unfortunate.  He  was  twice  compelled 
to  fly  from  Madrid,  and  finally  abandoned  the 
throne  after  the  battle  of  Vittoria.  He  was 
lieutenant-general  of  the  empire  during  the 
1814  campaigns  and  the  Hundred  Days;  and 
I  after  Waterloo  he  lived  for  some  years  in  the 
!  United  States  as  the  Comte  de  Survilliers. 
j  He  died  in  Florence,   and  left  his  highly 

interesting  Memoirs  and  Correspondence. 
I       (2)  Napoleon,  the  second  son.     [See  Na- 
I  poleon  I.] 

i       (3)  Lucien  (6. 1775,  d.  1840),  in  1795  became 
commissary  to  the  army  of  the  North.     In 
1798  he  was  elected  to  the  Council  of  the 
I  Five   Hundred,  and  played  an  important 
j   part  in  the  revolution  which  destroyed  the 
1  Directory  and  made  Napoleon  First  Cousid. 
I  After  becoming  minister  of  the  interior,  he 
j  went  as  ambassador  to  Madrid ;   but    his 
•  marriage  with   Mme.    Joubuthon   brought 
about  an  estrangement  between  him  and  the 
Emperor,   and    in   1804  he    retired   to  his 
estates  in  Italy,  as  Prince  of  Canino,  where 
he  cultivated  his  tastes  for  literature  and  the 
fine  arts.     After  the  peace  of  Tilsit  he  was 
offered  the  crown  of  Italy,  but  he  refused 
it ;  and  in  1810  set  out  for  the  United  States. 
Captured  by  a  British  cruiser,  he  was  kept  a 
prisoner  in  England  till  1814.   After  Water- 
loo he  induced  Napoleon  to  abdicate  in  favour 
of  his  son  ;  and  he  himself  retired  to  Italy. 
He  wrote  an  epic,  Charlemayne. 

(4)  Marie  Anne  Elisa  {b.  1777,  d.  1820), 
married  Felix  Pascal  Baciocchi,  and  was 
created  Princess  of  Piorabino  and  Lucca, 
and  Grand  Duchess  of  Tuscany.  She  retired 
from  France  in  1815,  and  died  at  Trieste. 

(5)  Louis  (6.  1778,  d.  1846),  the  father  of 
Napoleon  III.  He  served  in  the  Italian  and 
Egyptian  campaigns;  and  in  1802  he  was 
compelled  to  marry  Hortense  Beauharuais, 
from  whom  he  was  afterwards  separated. 
Under  the  empire  he  was  created  a  prince 
and  constable  of  France,  and  after  occuj^y- 
ing  Holland  he  was  proclaimed  king  of  the 
country.  He  became  extremely  popular 
with  the  people,  but  offended  the  Emperor, 
and  in  1810  he  abdicated,  the  country  being 
absorbed  in  France.  He  spent  most  of  his 
life  after  Napoleon's  banishment  in  Italy, 
and  wrote  several  books,  of  which  the  Docu- 
ments Historiques  is  the  most  important. 

(6)  Marie  Pauline.     [<SV^  Borghese,  ] 




(7)  Caroliue  Marie  Annonciade  (6. 1782,  d. 
1839),  married  Marshal  Murat  iu  1800. 

(8)  Jerome  (6.  1784,  d.  1860).  He  was 
given  a  commaud  in  the  navy,  and  while  on 
the  American  station  married  a  Miss  Pater- 
son,  a  marriage  wliich  he  was  forced  to  re- 
nounce by  the  Emperor.  In  180G  he  was 
made  king  of  Westphalia,  and  married  a 
daughter  of  the  King  of  Wurtemberg,  who 
became  the  mother  of  Prince  Napoleon.  In 
1812  he  proved  so  incapable  a  general  during 
the  Russian  campaign  that  lie  was  removed 
from  command  ;  but  he  commanded  a  divi- 
sion at  Waterloo.  After  Napoleon's  abdica- 
tion he  lived  in  exile,  until  1847,  when 
Napoleon  III.  made  him  a  marshal  of 
France  and  President  of  the  Senate. 

Of  the  second  generation : — 

(1)  Napoleon,  son  of  Louis.    \_See  Napoleon 

(2)  Napoleon,  Joseph  (6.  1822,  d.  1891), 
commonly  known  as  Prince  Najjoleon,  and 
son  of  Je'rome  Bonaparte.  His  early  life  was 
spent  in  travel,  but  after  the  1848  revolution 
he  was  elected  to  the  Assembly.  In  1849  he 
held  for  a  year  the  post  of  ambassador  at 
Madrid ;  and  in  1854  he  commanded  a  divi- 
sion of  the  anny  in  the  Crimea.  He  threw 
up  his  command  suddenly,  and  in  1858  be- 
came president  of  the  ministry  for  Algiers. 
In  1859  he  held  a  command  in  Italy,  and 
married  the  Princess  Clotilde,  a  daughter  of 
Victor  Emmanuel.  In  1861  he  created  a 
sensation  in  the  Senate  by  a  fine  oration  in 
support  of  democratic  principles,  provoking 
a  challenge  from  the  Due  d'Aumale.  His 
loudly-expressed  approval  of  the  Polish  re- 
volution brought  him  into  disgrace  with  the 
Emperor  more  than  once,  and  compelled  his 
resignation  of  the  presidency  of  the  Com- 
missioners for  the  Universal  Exhibition. 
After  the  fall  of  Napoleon  III.,  and  the 
death  of  Prince  Louis  Napoleon,  lie  was  re- 
cognised as  head  of  the  Napoleon  family. 
In  1883  he  was  imprisoned  for  a  pronuncia- 
mento,  and  in  1886  he  was  banished  from 
France,  and  died  in  exile. 

(3)  Charles  Lucien  Jules,  Piince  de  Canino 
(6.  1803,  d.  1857),  the  son  of  Lucien  Bona- 
parte, a  distinguished  naturalist,  in  1822 
married  his  cousin,  Zenaide,  the  daughter 
of  Jer6me  Bonaparte,  and  soon  after  went 
to  America,  where  he  devoted  himself  to 
the  study  of  science,  and  published  his 
valuable  American  Ornithology.  In  1828  he 
returned  to  Italy;  in  1833  he  published 
his  Italian  Fauna,  and  in  1847  he  succeeded 
to  the  title  of  prince.  He  was  for  a  short 
time  active  in  Italian  politics,  but  finally 
settled  at  Paris.  His  son,  Lucien  (6.  1828), 
is  a  cardinal. 

(4)  Louis  Lucien  {b.  1813,  d.  1891),  the 
second  son  of  Lucien  Bonaparte.  He  passed 
his  youth  in  scientific  and  linguistic  study.  In 
1848  he  was  elected  to  the  Constituent  Assem- 
bly as  deputy  for  Corsica,  but  the  election  was 

annulled.  In  1852  he  was  made  a  senator, 
and  in  1860  grand  officer  of  the  Legion  of 
Honour.  He  has  written  a  great  deal,  much 
of  his  work  being  translations. 

(3)  PieiTB  Napoleon,  Prince  {b.  1815,  d. 
1881),  third  son  of  Lucien.  After  getting 
into  disfavour  in  Italy  and  America,  he 
went  to  Paris  in  1848,  and  sat  in  the 
Assembly.  In  1849  he  served  in  Algeria, 
and  finally  settled  in  England. 

Of  the  third  generation  : — 

Prince  Louis,  better  known  as  the  Prince 
Imperial  {b.  1856,  d.  1879),  the  only  child  of 
Napoleon  III.  and  the  Empress  Eugenie. 
He  accompanied  his  father  at  the  opening 
of  the  Franco-Gennan  war,  but  after  Sedan 
he  came  to  England.  He  entered  the 
Woolwich  Military  Academy,  and  in  1879 
went  with  the  expedition  to  Zululand.  He 
was  killed  in  this  war,  a  small  body  of 
soldiers  with  whom  he  had  gone  out  having 
been  surprised  by  the  Zulus.  A  monument 
was  erected  to  his  memory  at  Chislehurst. 

Bonati,  Theodore  Massimo  (6.  1724,  d. 
1820),  Italian  physician,  mathematician,  and 
physicist,  filled  a  chair  at  Ferrara  university, 
executed  many  public  works  in  Italy,  and 
wrote  much  on  hydraulics  and  physics. 

Bonaventura,  Giovanni  de  Eidenza,  Saint 
(&.  1221,  d.  1274),  an  Italian  ecclesiastic. 
He  belonged  to  the  Franciscan  Order,  and 
was  professor  of  theology  at  Paris,  being 
known  for  his  erudition  as  "Doctor  Sera- 
phicus."  In  1256  he  was  made  general  of 
the  Franciscan  Order,  and  his  influence  in 
the  Church  was  so  great  that  in  1272  the 
cardinals  agreed  to  elect  to  the  Papal  Chair 
whomsoever  he  should  nominate. 

Bonchamp,  Artus  de  (6.  1759,  d.  1793),  the 
greatest  of  the  generals  of  the  Yendean 
army,  served  in  America,  and  then  re- 
tired from  the  army  ;  but  when  La  Vendee 
rose  against  the  republic  he,  as  a  territorial 
noble,  was  chosen  one  of  the  leaders.  He 
displayed  great  courage  and  military  ability 
in  this  position,  and  was  regarded  with  the 
greatest  confidence  and  affection  by  his 
troops.  He  was  mortally  wounded  at  the 
passage  of  the  Loire. 

Bond,  Edward  Augustus  (6.  1815),  prin- 
cipal librarian  of  the  British  Museum,  in 
1838  entered  the  Department  of  Manu- 
scripts in  the  British  Museum ;  in  1854  he 
was  appointed  assistant-keeper,  and  in  1866, 
keeper,  a  post  which  he  held  for  twelve 
years.  He  helped  to  found  the  Palseogra- 
phical  Society,  and  edited  for  it  Facsimiles 
of  Ancient  Manuscripts.  He  also  edited 
Giles  Fletcher's  Russia  for  the  Hakluyt 
Society;  Speeches  in  the  Trial  of  Warren 
Hastings  for  the  Government ;  and  the 
Chronica  3Ionasterii  de  Jlelsd  for  the  Rolls 
Series.     In  1 878  he  was  appointed  principal 




librarian  of  the  British  Museum,  and  made 
his  tenure  of  office  memorable  by  the  institu- 
tion of  many  admirable  reforms. 

Bond,  Wilham  Cranch  (6.  1789,  d.  1859), 
American  astronomer,  was  originally  a 
watchmaker,  but  gave  his  attention  to  as- 
tronomy after  seeing  the  ecUpse  of  1806. 
He  discovered  the  comet  of  isll;  and  in 
1838  he  was  appointed  by  the  govermnent 
astronomer  to  Captain  W  Ikes's  expedition 
to  the  South  Seas.  In  184U  he  was  ap- 
pointed director  of  Harvard  Observatory. 
He  has  recorded  important  observations  of 
Saturn ;  he  discovered  the  -satellite  of  Xep- 
tune,  and  was  the  first  to  apply  photo- 
gi'aphy  to  astronomical  observations. 

Bone,  Henry  (6.  1755,  d.  1834),  English 
paiater  on  enamel.  First  a  china  painter  in 
Plymouth,  he  came  to  London  in  1778,  and 
supported  himself  by  enamel  painting  for 
jewellers.  In  1 780  he  exhibited  at  the  Eoyal 
Academy,  and  at  once  achieved  a  reputa- 
tion. He  was  made  an  Academician,  and 
paiater  to  the  king. 

Bonheiur,  Rosa  (6.-1822),  Frencli  animal 
painter,  first  exhibited  in  the  Salon  in  1840, 
and  next  year  her  Sheep  and  Goats  attracted 
much  attention.  In  1855  she  exhibited  her 
Horse  Fair  in  England,  and  established  her 
reputation  in  this  country.  The  picture  is 
now  in  the  National  Gallery.  During  the 
siege  and  occupation  of  Pans  in  1871,  her 
house  was  respected  by  special  order  of  the 
Crown  Prince  of  Prussia. 

Boniface,  Saint  (£.  680,  d.  lob),  an  Eng- 
lish monk,  known  as  the  "Apostle  of 
Germany,"  abandoned  certain  and  distin- 
guished preferment  to  go  in  716  as  a  mis- 
sionary to  Germany.  Having  obtained 
authority  from  Pope  Gregory  II.,  he  Kved 
among  the  barbarous  tribes  for  many  years, 
and  finally  met  a  martyr's  death  near 

Boniface  VIIL,  Pope  (6.  1228,  d.  1303), 
succeeded  to  the  papal  chair  in  1294,  having 
induced  Celestine  Y.  to  resign :  and  he  at 
once  came  into  collision  with  Philip  the 
Fair,  King  of  France,  on  the  question  of 
the  taxation  of  the  clergy.  It  was  deter- 
mined to  try  Boniface  at  a  council  at 
Lyons,  when  he  issued  his  famous  bull 
Unam  Sanctum,  and  excommunicated  Philip. 
The  bull  was  publicly  burnt  in  Paris,  and  an 
emissary  was  sent  to*^  bring  Boniface  before 
the  council.  He  was  seized  and  treated 
with  great  indignity,  and  died  shortly  after. 

Bonner,  Edmund  (6.  1500,  d.  1569), 
Bishop  of  London,  was  first  noticed  by 
Wolsey.  and  Cromwell  afterwards  em- 
ployed him  on  missions,  preferrinsr  him  to 
the  see  of  Hereford  in  1538.  and  to  that  of 
London  in  1540.  In  Edward  VI. 's  reign  he 
was  imprisoned  and  deprived  of  his  oifice ; 

but  he  was  restored  by  Mary,  to  whose  re- 
ligious persecution  he  readily  lent  himself. 
He  refused  to  take  Elizabeth's  oath  of 
supremacy,  and  was  again  degraded  and 
imprisoned,  dying  in  the  Marshalsea. 

Bonnet,  Charles  (6.  1720,  d.  1793),  Swiss 
naturahst,  whose  observations  and  dis- 
coveries in  entomology  and  botany  were 
of  great  value,  and  who  left  works  which 
are  hell  in  high  estimation.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Eoyal  Society  of  London. 

Bonnivard,  Fran9ois  (6,  1496,  d.  1570),  a 
Frenchman  who  is  known  to  fame  for  liis 
efforts  on  behalf  of  the  liberties  of  Geneva. 
He  headed  the  resistance  to  Charles  III., 
Duke  of  Savoy,  but  in  1519  was  betrayed 
and  imprisoned  for  two  years.  Then  he 
again  resumed  his  leadership  till,  ia  1530,  he 
again  was  taken  prisoner,  and  remained  in 
the  Castle  of  Chillon  for  six  years,  when  he 
was  liberated  by  the  Bernese,  to  be  suitably 
honoiu'ed  by  the  citizens  of  Geneva. 

Bonnivet,  Guillaume  Gouffriere  de  (6. 
1488,  d.  1525),  Fi-ench  general,  won  the 
favour  of  Francis  I.  at  the  siege  of  Genoa 
and  the  battle  of  Spurs,  and  was  employed 
on  embassies  to  England  and  Spain.  It 
was  during  the  retreat  of  his  forces  from 
Milan  that  Bayard  was  killed.  Bonnivet 
was  slain  at  the  battle  of  Pa  via. 

Bonomi,  Joseph  (6.  1796,  d.  1878), 
distinguished  hieroglj'phic  draughtsman, 
studied  art  at  the  Royal  Academy,  where 
he  showed  great  ability  in  drawing  and 
sculpture.  In  1824  he  went  to  Egj-pt  and 
Nubia  with  Hay,  Lane,  and  Wilkinson,  and 
rendered  great  services  by  his  reproduction 
of  the  hieroglyphs.  In  1833  he  went  with 
Arundell  to  Sinai  and  the  Holy  Land,  and 
in  1842  he  acted  as  draughtsman  to  the 
Prussian  expedition  to  Egypt.  In  1861  he 
was  appointed  curator  of  Sir  John  Soane's 
Museum  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields. 

Bonpland,  Aim^  (6. 1773,  d.  1858),  French 
botanist,  who  served  at  one  time  as  a 
naval  surgeon,  became  the  friend  of 
Alexander  von  Humboldt  in  Paris,  and 
accompanied  him  on  the  great  expedition 
to  America.  He  afterwards  produced  two 
valuable  botanical  works,  besides  colla- 
borating with  Humboldt.  In  1816  he  went 
to  Buenos  Ayres,  and  became  professor  of 
natural  history  there.  In  1821,  in  at- 
tempting an  inland  expedition,  he  was  im- 
prisoned by  the  Director  of  Paraguay,  and 
did  not  recover  his  liberty  for  many  years. 
He  finally  settled  in  Santa  Anna. 

Boole,  George  (&.  1815,  d.  1864),  mathe- 
matician, earned  his  living  as  a  school- 
master while  following  up  his  mathematical 
studies,  and  in  1839  published  his  first 
paper,  on  Anahjtical  Formations,  in  the 
Cambridge   Mathemaiical    Journal.       This 




and  the  others  that  followed  secured  him 
a  reputation ;  and  in  1844  he  received  the 
Royal  Society's  gold  medal  for  a  paper  on 
A  General  Method  in  Analysis,  In  1847 
he  published  his  Mathematical  Analysis 
of  Logic,  and  in  1848  his  Calculus  of  Logic. 
In  1849  he  was  appointed  professor  at 
Queen's  College,  Cork;  and  in  1859  he  re- 
ceived the  Keith  Gold  Medal  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Edinburgh,  and  was  elected  a 
fellow  of  the  London  Royal  Society.  He 
continued  to  publish  valuable  memoirs  until 
his  sudden  death. 

Booth,  Barton  (6.  1681,  d.  1733),  Eng- 
lish tragedian  of  note,  who  deserted  the 
Church  to  follow  his  inclination  for  the 
stage.  He  first  appeared  in  Dublin,  and 
confinned  later  in  London  the  high  reputa- 
tion he  there  achieved.  His  great  part  was 
Cato  in  Addison's  tragedy  of  that  name. 

Booth,  Edwin  (6.  1833),  American  actor, 
and  the  son  of  Junius  Brutus  Booth.  He 
first  made  a  name  in  1851  in  his  imperson- 
ation of  Richard  III.,  and  it  is  by  his  re- 
presentation of  Shakespeare's  great  charac- 
ters that  he  is  best  known.  In  1881  he 
was  in  England,  and  played  at  the  Lyceum 
with  Irving  in  Othello^  the  parts  of  Othello 
and  Lago  being  alternated  between  them. 
He  retired  from  the  stage  in  1891. 

Booth,  Sir  Eehx  (6.  1775,  d.  1850),  an 
Enghsh  merchant,  who,  from  his  own  re- 
sources, equipped  and  maintained  Sir  John 
Ross's  second  expedition  for  the  discovery 
of  the  North-West  Passage. 

Booth,  John  Wilkes  (6.  1839,  d.  1865), 
third  son  of  Junius  Brutus  Booth,  was  the 
assassin  of  President  Lincobi.  He  was  an 
actor  by  profession  until  the  Civil  war  broke 
out,  when  he  sided  with  the  South.  He 
was  shot  by  his  pursuei-s,  after  committing 
the  murder  of  the  president. 

Booth,  Junius  Brutus  (6.  1796,  d.  1852), 
tragedian,  of  English  birth,  but  an  Ameri- 
can by  adoption,  appeared  with  great  suc- 
cess at  Covent  Garden  in  1814  as  Richard 
III.,  and  created  a  great  sensation;  but  a 
theatrical  riot,  provoked  by  the  rival  ad- 
mirers of  himself  and  Edmund  Kean,  caused 
his  withdrawal  from  the  stage  for  a  time. 
In  1821  he  went  to  America,  where  he  held 
the  first  place  as  tragedian.  He  revisited 
England  in  1825  and  1836. 

Booth,  William  (6.  1829),  ''General"  and 
organiser  of  the  Salvation  Army,  was  bom 
at  Nottingham,  and  became  a  minister  in 
the  Primitive  Methodist  Connexion.  In 
18fil  he  withdrew  from  that  body,  and  in 
1865  started  in  the  East  End  of  London 
"The  Christian  Mission,"  which  in  1878 
developed  into  the  Salvation  Army,  now 
possessing  stations  all  over  Great  Britain, 
America,  India,  and  the  Continent.     Many 

of  the  chief  posts  in  the  army  are  occupied  by 
the  members  of  the  Booth  family,  of  whom 
Mr.  Bramwell  Booth  is  the  chief.  Mrs.  Booth, 
to  whom  much  of  the  credit  for  the  success 
of  the  Salvation  Army  is  supposed  to  be  due, 
died  in  the  autumn  of  1890.  "General" 
Booth's  book,  Ln  Darkest  England  (1890), 
attracted  much  attention  and  provoked  a 
fierce  controversy. 

Bopp,  Franz  (6.  1791,  d.  1867),  philologist 
and  Sanscrit  scholar,  was  bom  at  Mainz, 
and  educated  in  Gennany.  Having  de- 
voted himself  to  the  study  of  Sanscrit, 
he  published  his  first  work.  On  the  System 
of  Conjugation  in  Sanscrit,  compared  tvith 
that  of  the  Greek,  Latin,  Persian,  and 
German  Languages,  which  is  regarded  as 
the  foundation  of  scientific  philology.  In 
1821  he  became  professor  of  Sanscrit  and 
comparative  grammar  at  Berlin.  He  pub- 
lished many  other  works,  his  greatest  being 
a  Comparative  Grammar  of  Sanscrit,  Zend, 
Greek,  Latin,  Lithuanian,  Old  Sclav,  Gothic, 
ayid  German  (1833-1852). 

Bordone,  Paris  Q).  circa  1500,  d.  1570), 
Itahan  painter  of  eminence,  a  pupil  of 
Titian,  excelled  as  a  portrait  painter. 

Borghese,  Marie  Pauline  Bonaparte,  Prin.^ 
cess  de  {h.  1780,  d.  1825),  second  sister  of 
Napoleon  I.  In  1801  she  married  General 
Leclerc,  with  whom  she  went  to  St.  Domin- 
go, and  displayed  great  devotion  during  his 
fatal  attack  of  yellow  fever.  In  1803  she 
married  Prince  Camillo  Borghese,  from 
whom  she  separated,  living  in  Italy  with  the 
title  of  Duchess  of*  Guastalla.  She  accom- 
panied Napoleon  to  Elba,  and  endeavoured 
to  go  with  him  to  St.  Helena. 

Borghesi,  Bartolomeo  {h.  1781,  d.  I860), 
Italian  antiquary,  in  1818  published  his 
Kuovi  Fiammento  dei  Fasti  Capitolini,  an 
exhaustive  work  on  ancient  Rome,  which 
achieved  for  its  author  a  European  repu- 
tation. The  study  of  Roman  archaeology 
occupied  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  though 
his  participation  in  the  Italian  revolution 
of  1821  caused  him  to  retire  to  San  Marino. 

Borgia,  Csesare  {b.  1476,  d.  1507),  Itahan 
master  of  statecraft  of  great  but  evil  fame, 
was  the  fourth  son  of  Pope  Alexander  VI., 
by  Rosa  Vanozza,  and  was  created  a  cardinal, 
though  he  divested  himself  of  the  office  in 
later  years  to  suit  his  purposes.  He  compassed 
the  death  of  his  brother  Giovanni,  who  was 
Duke  of  Candia,  in  order  to  gain  complete 
ascendency  in  the  papal  government ;  and 
in  1498,  having  been  sent  as  nuncio  1o 
Louis  XII.  of  France,  he  was  created  Duke 
of  Valentinois  and  married  the  daughter  of 
Jean  d'Albret,  King  of  NavaiTC.  After 
accompanying  Louis  XII. 's  Italian  cam- 
paign, he  conceived  the  idea  of  a  kingdom 
in  Central  Italy,  and  by  force,  treachery, 




and  murder  he  had  nearly  succeeded  in  ob- 
taining ascendency  througliout  the  Roman 
States,  when  the  death  of  his  father  de- 
prived him  of  his  great  source  of  power. 
He  was  sent  in  1504  a  prisoner  to  Spain  by 
Pope  Julius  II.,  but  escaped,  and  joined  the 
King  of  Navarre's  army  against  Castile.  In 
this  campaign  he  was  killed. 

Borgia,  Lucrezia  (b.  1 180,  d.  1523),  sister  of 
the  preceding,  and  like  him  the  possessor  of  an 
infamous  reputation.  Her  father  compelled 
her  twice  to  marriage  and  divorce  before  she 
became  the  wife  of  the  Duke  of  Bisceglia. 
After  her  third  husband  had  been  murdered 
by  Caesare  Borgia,  she  married  Alfonso  of 
Este,  and  passed  her  life  in  the  court  of 
Ferrara,  ciiltivating  literature  and  art. 

Boris,  Godonov  (d.  1605),  a  Russian  noble, 
brother-in-law  to  the  Czar  Feodor  Ivano- 
vitch,  on  whose  death  he  contrived  to  usurp 
the  throne.  His  rigorous  rule  provoked  a 
rebelhon,  and  Boris  poisoned  himself. 

Bom,  Bertrand  de  (6.  circa  1145,  d.  circa 
1209),  a  troubadour,  many  of  whose  songs 
still  exist.    Dante  gives  him  a  place  in  the 


Bom,  Ignaz  von  {b.  1742,  d.  1791),  Aus- 
trian mineralogist.  In  1770  he  became 
director  of  the  mint  and  mining  depart- 
ment at  Prague  ;  and  in  1776  Maria  Theresa 
commissioned  him  with  the  arrangement  of 
the  Vienna  natural  history  musemn,  where 
he  laboured  till  his  death. 

Bome,  Ludwig  {b.  1786,  d.  1837),  Ger- 
man political  writer  and  critic,  of  Jewish 
descent,  and  bearing  the  name  Lot  Baruch. 
He  became  a  professed  convert  to  Christian- 
ity. In  1818  his  theatrical  criticisms  in 
the  Frankfort  press  attracted  much  notice  ; 
and  in  1830  he  went  to  Paris,  at  the  out- 
break of  the  revolution,  writing  his  famous 
Briefe  aus  Paris,  which  gave  him  the  posi- 
tion of  leader  in  the  German  party  of 
revolution.  He  continued  to  wiite  in  ad- 
vocacy of  his  political  aspirations,  his  most 
brilliant  work  being  the  Menzel  der  Fran- 

Borromeo,  San  Carlo  {b.  1538,  d.  1584),  an 
Italian  ecclesiastic,  remembered  for  his  piety 
and  devotion,  cardinal  and  Archbishop  of 
Milan.  He  took  part  in  the  Council  of 
Trent,  and  helped  to  found  the  Vatican 
Academy.  His  efforts  for  the  reform  and 
better  instruction  of  the  priesthood  pro- 
voked an  attempt  on  his  life  by  the  Umiliati ; 
but  he  suppressed  the  order,  and  transferred 
their  wealth  to  the  hospitals,  to  which  he 
had  sacrificed  all  his  own  property.  During 
the  pestilence  he  devoted  himself  unflinch- 
ingly to  the  care  of  the  sufferers,  and  died 
shortly  after  from  over-exhaustion. 

Borro-w,  George  Henry  (Z*.  1803,  d.  1881), 

student  of  Gipsy  life  and  language,  aban- 
doued  the  law  for  literature,  and  among 
other  early  works  he  edited  the  Kcwgate 
Calendar.  In  1833  he  was  sent  by  the  Bible 
Society  to  St.  Petersburg,  and  later  to 
Spain,  whei-e  he  spent  much  time  among 
the  Gipsy  tribes.  In  1840  he  published  The 
Zincali,  dealing  with  the  Gipsy  language 
and  life  in  Spain ;  and  in  1843  he  published 
The  Bible  in  Spain,  which  proved  very 
popular.  In  1851  and  1857  appeared  his 
greatest  works,  Lavengro  and  The  Romany 
liye,  and  in  1874  his  Bomano  Lavo  Lit.,  a 
vocabulary  of  the  English  Gipsy  language. 

Borsieri  de  Kanifeld,  Giovanni  Battista, 
(6.  1725,  d.  1785),  a  celebrated  Italian  phy- 
sician, who  founded  the  school  of  clinical 
medicine  at  Pavia  university.  He  left 
many  valuable  works  on  medical  subjects. 

Bom,  Brian  (6.  926,  d.  1014),  a  famous 
Irish  king.  On  succeeding  to  the  throne  of 
Munster  he  drove  the  Danes  from  Limerick 
by  a  series  of  brilliant  victories,  and  after 
another  long  struggle  succeeded  in  being 
proclaimed  king  of  Ireland.  His  govern- 
ment was  as  wise  as  his  arms  were 
victorious.  He  was  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Clontarf ,  in  which  the  Danes  were  defeated. 

Bory  de  Saint-Vincent,  Jean  Baptiste 
Georges  Marie  (6.  1780,  d.  1846),  French 
naturalist  and  soldier,  in  1800  accom- 
panied Baudin's  expedition  to  Austialasia 
as  naturalist,  and  published  on  his  ie:um 
Essais  sur  les  lies  Fortunees  et  rAntiqice 
Atlantide,  and  his  Voyage  en  Afrique 
Then  he  entered  the  army,  and  saw  much 
active  service,  till  his  banishment  after 
Napoleon's  downfall.  He  edited  the  Nain 
Jaune  in  Brussels,  and  contributed  largely 
to  Les  Annales  Generales  des  Sciences  Physi- 
ques. In  1828  he  returned  to  France,  and 
commanded  a  scientific  expedition  to  the 
Morea ;  in  1830  he  was  appointed  chief  of 
the  Historical  bureau,  and  major-general 
of  engineers. 

Boscawen,  The  Hon.  Edward  (6.  1711,  d. 
1761),  British  admiral,  third  son  of  Lord 
Falmouth.  After  rendering  brilliant  service 
against  the  Spanish  and  French,  he  was  given 
command  in  1748  of  the  forces  sent  to  India. 
In  1758  he  commanded  the  nnval  force  that 
co-operated  with  General  Wolfe  in  America, 
and  in  the  following  year  he  defeated  a 
French  fleet  in  the  Mediterranean. 

Boscovitcli,  Rugiero  Giuseppe  [b.  1711, 
d.  1787),  Italian  Jesuit,  and  a  div^tinguished 
mathematician.  He  was  professor  of 
mathematics  at  Rome,  Pavia,  and  Milan, 
until  the  suppression  of  the  Jesuits,  when 
he  went  to  Paiis  and  was  appointed  director 
of  optics  to  the  navy.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Royal  Society,  and  wrote  among 
other  works,  Theoria  Philosophic  Nat ur alia. 




Bosquet,  Pierre  Franqois  Joseph  {b.  1810, 
d.  1861),  French  general,  in  183.5  distin- 
guished himself  in  Algeria,  and  obtained 
very  rapid  promotion.  He  went  to  the 
Crimea  as  general  of  division,  and  for  the 
part  he  played  at  Inkerman  he  was  thanked 
by  Parliament,  and  made  a  G.C.B.  In  1856 
he  was  created  a  senator  and  marshal  of 
Fi'ance.  He  died  from  the  effects  of  a 
wound  received  in  a  duel. 

Bossuet,  Jacques  Benigne  {b.  1627, 
d.  1704),  French  divine,  renowned  for  his 
eloquence  and  his  controversial  writings. 
After  entering  the  priesthood  at  an  early 
age,  he  became  attached  to  the  cathedi-al  at 
Metz,  and  gained  much  credit  by  an  able 
refutation  of  the  Protestant  catechism  of 
Paul  Ferri.  His  fame  as  a  pulpit  orator 
soon  procured  him  the  honour  of  preaching 
before  the  king  (Louis  XIV.),  and  in  1669 
he  was  ordained  Bishop  of  Condom.  He 
resigned  the  see  on  being  appointed  tutor  to 
the  Dauphin,  for  whose  benefit  he  wrote 
his  great  work,  Discours  sur  VHistoire  Uni- 
verselle.  In  1671  he  published  Expositions 
of  the  Doctrines  of  the  Catholic  Church  on 
Matters  of  Co)i'troversy,  which  had  a 
European  publicity.  In  1681,  the  Dauphin's 
education  having  been  completed,  Bossuet 
accepted  the  bishopric  of  Meux,  and  in  1688 
he  published  his  History  of  the  Variations 
of  the  Protestant  Churches.  At  this  time  he 
was  much  engaged  in  efforts  to  promote  the 
union  of  all  Christian  churches.  At  the 
general  assembly  of  the  Galhcan  clergy  in 
1682  Bossuet  took  up  a  strong  attitude  in 
favour  of  the  independence  of  the  Galilean 
Church,  and  against  papal  interference  in 
temporal  affairs ;  and  he  procured  the 
formal  adoption  of  these  views  by  the 
Assembly.  His  last  controversy  was  with 
Fenelon,  Archbishop  of  Cambray,  whom  he 
attacked  violently  for  defending  the 
Quietists  of  Port  Royal.  He  passed  the  rest 
of  his  life  in  his  diocese,  bearing  the  repu- 
tation of  the  greatest  orator  of  his  day. 

Bossut,  Cliarles  {b.  1730,  d.  1814),  French 
Jesuit,  and  a  famous  mathematician,  de- 
voted himself  especially  to  the  study  of 
hydrostatics  and  hydrodynamics,  and 
achieved  several  highly  valuable  results.  He 
was  appointed  professor  of  hydrodynamics 
at  Paris,  but  lost  his  position  during  the 
revolution.  Und^er  the  Empire  he  became 
examiner  at  the  Ecole  Polytechnique.  His 
works  are  very  numerous. 

BosweU,  James  {b.  1740,  d.  1795),  the 
friend  and  biographer  of  Dr.  Johnson,  was 
the  son  of  a  judge  of  the  Scottish  Court  of 
Session,  styled  Lord  Auchiuleck.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  Scottish  bar  in  1766,  after  he 
had  spent  some  time  in  continental  travel, 
during  which  he  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Paoli,   the  Corsican  patriot.      In   1768  he 

published    his    Account     of    Corsica,     and 

Memoirs  of  Pascal  Paoli.     In  1773,  having 

j  previously  made  Dr.   Johnson's  acquaint- 

I  ance,  he  was  admitted  to  the  Literary  Club, 

I  and  became  the  companion  of    the  great 

doctor,  whom  he  accompanied  on  his  tour 

in  the  Hebrides.     Having  finally  settled  in 

London  with  his  wife,  he  was  called  to  the 

English  bar  in  1785,  and  attempted  imsuc- 

cessfully  to  enter  Parliament.     His  Life  of 

Mamuel  Johnson,  was  published  in  1791. 

Bosworth,  Joseph  {b.  1790,  d.  1876),  En- 
glish clergyman  and  philologist.  From  1829 
to  1841  he  was  EngUsh  chaplain  in  Amster- 
dam and  Rotterdam,  where  he  gained  a  high 
reputation  as  an  authority  on  early  Eiiglish 
and  the  Low  German  dialects.  In  1857  he 
was  appointed  professor  of  Anglo-Saxon  at 
Oxford.  He  published  an  Anglo-Saxon 
Grammar  and  Dictionary . 

BothweU,  James  Hepburn,  Earl  of  (6. 
circa  1530,  d.  1577),  in  1567  murdered 
Darnley  and  carried  off  Queen  Mary  to 
Dunbar  Castle,  where  he  maiTied  her  on 
May  15th.  He  then  became  a  fugitive,  but 
was  captm-ed  and  imprisoned  in  Draxholm 
Castle,  where  he  died. 

Botta,  Carlo  Giuseppe  Guglielmo  (J. 
1766,  d.  1837),  Italian  historian,  studied 
medicine,  and  was  imprisoned  in  1792  as  a 

\  revolutionary.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
the  government  of  Piedmont,  set  up  by 
Napoleon,  but  before  the  Emperor's  over- 
throw he  devoted  himself  entirely  to  litera- 
ture.     He   wrote    The    History    of  Italy 

\  between  1789  and  1814,  and  a  History  of 
the  American  TFar  of  Independence. 

I      Botta,  Paolo  Emilio  {b.    1802,  d.    1870), 
j  archaeologist,  son  of  the  preceding.     When 
acting  as  French  Consul  at  Mosul,  in  As- 
syria, he  discovered  the  ruins  of  Nineveh. 

!  Bottesini,  Giovanni  (6.  1823,  d.  1889), 
Italian  player  of  the  double-bass,  and  com- 

Botticelli,  Alessandro  {b.  1447,  d.  1515), 
Italian  painter,  in  response  to  the  invitation 
of  Pope  Sixtus  rV.  went  to  Rome  and  exe- 
cuted some  fine  paintings  for  the  chapel  of 
the  Vatican.  On  returning  to  Florence  he 
became  a  devoted  follower  of  Savonarola. 

Botzaris,_  Markos  {b.  1790,  d.  1823), 
Greek  patriot,  was  engaged  in  the  abortive 
insurrection  of  1806,  then  joined  the  French 
Albanian  corps,  retiring"  to  the  Ionian 
Islands  in  1815.  In  1820  he  raised  a  force 
of  Suliotes,  and  carried  on  hostilities  with 
the  Turks  for  two  years,  when  he  was 
beleaguered  in  Missolonghi.  He  was  killed 
in  the  desperate  sortie  which  routed  the 
Tui'kish  besiegers. 

Boucliardon,  Edmoude  {b.  1698,  d.  1762), 
French    sculptor,   after  acquiring   a   high 


(  lo5  ) 


reputation  in  Paris  and  Rome,  was  com- 
missioned to  execute  the  tomb  of  Clement 
XI.  in  1733,  and  in  174G  he  was  appointed 
director  of  the  French  Academy. 

Boucher,  Franc^ois  (b.  1703,  d.  1770), 
French  painter  of  landscapes  and  figiures. 

Bouchotte,  Jean  Baptiste  Noel  {b.  1751, 
d.  1840),  French  revolutionist,  was  minister 
of  war  in  1793,  in  succession  to  Beurnonville. 

Boucicault,  Dion  {b.  1822,  d.  1890), 
actor  and  playwright.  His  first  work  for 
the  stage,  London  Assurance,  was  produced 
with  success  in  1841 ;  and  for  some  time 
after  that  he  devoted  himself  to  adaptations 
from  the  French,  such  as  Louis  XL.  and  The 
Corsican  Brothers.  In  1855  he  went  to 
America,  and  in  1860  produced  his  Colleen 
Bawn,  followed  by  Arrah-na-Fogue,  the 
Shaughrann,  and  many  others. 

Bouflers,  Louis  :^ran9ois.  Due  de  (b. 
1644,  d.  1711),  French  general  and  marshal 
of  France,  after  seeing  much  service  in 
Holland  and  the  Rhine  pi'ovinces,  defended 
Namur  in  1695  against  William  III.  with 
great  obstinacy.  In  1708  he  defended  Lille 
against  Prince  Eugene,  and  held  the  town 
in  spite  of  repeated  orders  to  surrender. 
For  this  service  he  was  created  Due.  He 
afterwards  served  in  Flanders  under  ViUars. 

Bouflers,  Stanislas,  Marquis  de  (b.  1737, 
d.  1815),  French  nobleman  distinguished  in 
many  capacities.  As  prior  of  the  Knights 
of  Malta  he  was  known  as  "I'Abbe"  and 
"le  Chevalier";  and  when  the  revolution 
came,  he  played  a  prominent  part  as  member 
of  the  Tiers  Mat. 

Bougainville,  Louis  Antoine  de  (b.  1729, 
d.  1811),  French  navigator,  sailed  round 
the  world  in  1766,  and  later  assisted  the 
American  revolutionists. 

Boughton,  George  Henry  (b.  1833),  artist, 
a  member  of  the  National  Academy  of  New 
York,  and  an  associate  of  the  Royal  Aca- 
demy since  1879.  Among  his  paintings  are 
The  Return  of  the  Mayflower,  Evangeline^ 
and  Milton  visited  by  Andrew  Marvell, 

Bouguer,  Pierre  {b.  1698,  d.  1758), 
French  mathematician,  distinguished  for  his 
scientific  work  in  connection  with  naviga- 
tion. In  1736  he  was  sent  to  Peru  with  a 
scientific  expedition. 

Bouguereau,  Adolphe  Guillaume  (6. 1825), 
French  painter.  In  1855  his  Trio)ni)he  du 
Martyre  was  bought  by  the  State,  and  pre- 
viously he  divided  the  honom-s  of  the  Grand 
Prix  du  Rome  with  Baudry.  Two  of  his 
laier  pictures  which  are  well  known  are  The 
Youth  of  Bacchus  and  the  Adoration  of  the 
Magi  and  the  Shepherds. 

Bouhier,  Jean  {b.  1673,  d.  1746),  French 
man  of  letters  of  great  versatility  and  wide 

information,  was  president  of  the  Parlia- 
ment of  Dijon,  and  was  elected  to  the 
Academy,  though  not  resident  in  Paris. 

Bouill6,  Fran9ois  Claude  Amour,  Marquis 
de  {b.  1739,  d.  1800),  French  general, 
when  he  was  only  seventeen  years  old  his 
gallantry  won  the  battle  of  Gramberg.  He 
served  in  America  during  the  War  of  Inde- 
pendence, and  was  appointed  commander  of 
Metz  under  the  Constituent  Assembly.  He 
endeavoured  to  effect  the  flight  of  the  king, 
and  failing,  tried  to  induce  Catherine  of 
Russia  and  the  Swedes  to  invade  France. 

Bouillon,  Frederic  Maurice  de  la  Tour 
d'Auvergne  {b.  1605,  6?.  1652),  elder  brother 
of  Turenne,  after  serving  in  Holland  under 
the  Prince  of  Orange,  joined  the  Comte  de 
Soissons  against  Richelieu,  and  defeated  the 
French  at  La  Marfee.  Then  he  entered  the 
French  service,  and  commanded  in  Italy; 
and  after  the  death  of  Louis  XIII.  he  com- 
manded the  Pontifical  troops.  He  joined 
in  the  war  of  the  Fronde,  and  part  of  his 
property  was  confiscated. 

Boulanger,  George  Ernest  Jean  Marie 
(6.1837,  d.  1891),  French  general  and  poli- 
tician, was  made  colonel  during  the  siege 
of  Paris,  general  of  brigade  in  1880,  and 
minister  of  war  in  1886.  He  achieved  great 
popularity,  and  was  elected  in  1889  by  the 
Nord,  Somme,  Charente  Inferieure,  and  a 
division  of  Paris.  A  threat  of  prosecution 
drove  him  into  exile,  and  he  committed 
suicide  at  Brussels. 

Boulogne,  Etienne  Antoine  de  {b.  1747, 
d.  1825),  French  prelate,  was  three  times 
sentenced  to  deportation  during  the  Reign 
of  Terror ;  but  in  1808  he  was  ordained 
Bishop  of  Troyes.  Napoleon  imprisoned 
him  in  Vincennes  for  a  short  time ;  he  de- 
livered the  funeral  oration  over  Louis  XVI., 
and  in  1817  he  was  appointed  Bishop  of 
Yienne  and  made  a  peer  of  France. 

Boulton,  Matthew  (J.  1728,  d.  1809),  the 
partner  of  James  Watt  in  the  Soho  Works, 
provided  the  monejr  for  Watt's  experiments 
mth  the  steam  engine. 

BourbaM,  Charles  Denis  Sauter  {b.  1816), 
French  general,  served  in  the  Ciimea,  and 
was  aide-de-camp  to  the  Emperor  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Franco-Prussian  war.  He 
shared  in  the  defence  of  Metz,  and  was 
given  command  of  the  wing  for  the  relief 
of  Belf ort,  his  failure  driving  him  to  attempt 
suicide.  As  commander  of  the  Lyons  dis- 
trict he  suppressed  the  Communist  rising 
of  1871. 

Bourbon,  Charles,  Due  de  {b.  1490,  d. 
1527),  commonly  known  as  "The  Con- 
stable," after  serving  in  Italy,  was  created 
Constable  of  France,  when  only  twenty -six 


(  156  ) 


years  of  age,  by  Francis  I.  He  was  left  in 
command  of  a  small  force  in  the  Milanese 
after  Francis'  successful  campaign  against 
the  Emperor,  and  succeeded  in  holding 
his  own.  Recalled  to  France  he  fell  into 
disfavour  owing  to  the  jealousy  of  the  king, 
and  entered  into  negotiations  with  Charles  V. 
to  operate  against  the  French.  Refusing 
the  concessions  offered  by  Francis,  he  fled  to 
Italy,  and  defeated  the  French  at  Biagrano. 
An  mvasion  of  France  did  not  succeed,  but 
he  contributed  to  the  victory  of  Pavia, 
when  Francis  was  taken  prisoner.  In  1527 
he  marched  an  army  of  13,000  Germans 
across  the  Alps  and  attacked  Rome,  but  was 
shot  just  as  his  troops  had  gained  the  day. 

Bourbon,  Louis,  Due  de  {b.  1279,  d.  1341), 
the  first  duke  of  the  family,  saved  the 
French  army  at  Courtray,  and  distinguished 
himself  in  the  English  wars. 

Bourdon,  Sebastian  {b.  1616,  d.  1671), 
French  painter;  his  reputation  was  estab- 
lished by  his  Crucifixion  of  St.  Fetcr,  in 
Notre  Dame,  which  he  produced  when 
only  twenty- seven  years  old.  Later  he  was 
appointed  first  painter  to  Queen  Christina 
of  Sweden. 

Bourgelat,  Claude  {b.  1712,  d.  1799), 
Frenchman  celebrated  as  the  founder  of 
veterinary  schools  in  France,  opened  his 
first  school  in  Lyons  in  1772. 

Bourgeois,  Sir  Francis  {b.  1756,  d.  1811), 
Englishman  of  Swiss  descent,  remembered 
for  his  bequest  of  paintings  and  money 
to  the  Dulwich  gallery.  A  painter  himself, 
he  was  appointed  to  the  court  of  the  King 
of  Poland. 

Bourget,  Paul  {b.  1852),  French  novelist, 
author  of  Un  Crime  d'Jimoiir,  Mensonges, 
and  other  works. 

Bourgoyne,  Louis,  Due  de  (b.  1682,  d. 
1712),  dauphin  of  France,  grandson  of 
Louis  XIV.,  and  father  of  Louis  XV.,  was 
remarkable  for  his  goodness  and  gentleness, 
and  showed  himself  an  able  general. 

Bouimont,  Louis  Auguste  Victor  de, 
Comte  de  Ghaisnes  {b.  1773,  d.  1846), 
French  general  and  a  marshal  of  France, 
entered  the  army  at  fifteen,  and  served  in 
the  Vendee  and  elsewhere.  He  was  im- 
prisoned by  Napoleon,  but  afterwards  fought 
under  him  with  distinction  in  several  cam- 
paigns. He  was  appointed  general  of  divi- 
sion in  1815,  but  deserted  on  the  first  day. 
The  Bourbons  confen-ed  many  honours  on 
him,  and  he  successfully  commanded  the 
Algerian  expedition  of  1830.  He  was  dis- 
missed from  command  on  the  revolution, 
and  endeavoured  unsuccessfully  to  raise  the 

Bourne,  Hugh  {b.  1772,  d.  1852),  English 
dissenting  minister,  who  in   1810   seceded 

from  the  Wesleyans,  and  founded  the 
Primitive  Methodist  Connexion.  In  1844 
he  went  to  America,  where  he  was  very 
successful  as  a  preacher. 

Boumon,  Jacques  Louis,  Comte  de  {b. 
1751,  d.  1825),  French  mineralogist,  emi- 
grated to  England  during  the  revolu- 
tion, and  became  a  member  of  the  Royal 
and  Geological  societies. 

Bournouf,  Eugene  {b.  1801,  d.  1852), 
distinguished  Orientalist  and  professor  of 
Sanscrit  at  the  College  of  France.  He  trans- 
lated much  Sanscrit  literature. 

Bourrienne,  LouisAntoineFaralet(6. 1769, 
d.  1834),  secretary  to  Napoleon,  whose 
memoirs  he  wrote. 

Bouvart,  Alexis  {b.  1767,  d.  1843),  French 
astronomer  and  mathematician  of  great  in- 
dustry, first  observed  the  perturbations  of 
the  planet  Uranus,  which  led  to  the  dis- 
covery of  the  planet  Neptiuie  in  1846. 

Bouvet,  Joachim  {b.  1662,  d.  1732),  one  of 
the  earliest  French  missionaries  dispatched 
by  Loms  XIV.  to  China,  remained  in  that 
country  from  1687  to  1697,  and  then  brought 
with  him  forty -nine  volumes  of  Chinese 
literature.  He  returned  to  China  in  1699, 
and  remained  there  till  his  death. 

Bowdich,  Thomas  Edward  {b.  1790,  d. 
1824),  English  traveller,  after  joining  the 
African  Company  he  was  sent  on  a  mission 
to  the  King  of  Ashantee.  His  record  of  the 
journey  attracted  much  attention.  In  1822 
he  returned  to  Africa,  and  died  in  Gambia 
of  fever. 

Bowditcli,  Nathaniel  {b.  1773,  d.  1838), 
American  mathematician,  entirely  seLf- 
taught,  spent  five  years  at  sea  as  a  young 
man,  and  published  his  Practical  Navic/a- 
tor.  Then  he  became  actuary  to  an  in- 
surance company  in  Boston,  and,  devoting 
his  leisure  to  scientific  pui-suits,  produced 
several  valuable  works,  especially  an  un- 
completed translation  of  La  Place's  Me- 
caniqiie  Celeste. 

Bowdler,  Thomas  (b.  1754,  d.  1825),  editor 
of  expurgated  editions  of  Shakespeare  and 

Bowen,  Sir  George  Ferguson  {b.  1821), 
colonial  governor,  in  1847  he  was  appointed 
president  of  the  university  of  Corfu,  and 
in  1854  government  secretary  of  the  Ionian 
Islands.  In  1859  he  was  named  governor  of 
Queensland ;  in  1867,  governor  of  New- 
Zealand  ;  in  1873,  governor  of  Victoria;  and 
later  of  Mauritius  and  Hong-Kong. 

Bowerbank,  James  Scott  {b.  1797,  d 
1877),  naturalist  and  microscopist,  early 
devoted  himself  to  science,  and  was  among 
the  founders  of  the  Zoological,  Palaeonto- 
graphical,  Microscopieal,  and  Ray  societies. 


( 157  ) 


In  1841  he  turned  his  attention  to  Sponrjiadce, 
forming  a  splendid  collection,  now  "in  the 
British  Museum,  and  pubhshing  in  1864  his 
Monograph  of  the  British  Bpongiadce. 

Bowles,  William  Lisle  {Jb.  1762,  d.  1850), 
EugKsh  clergyman  and  poet,  in  1789 
published  Fourteen  Sonnets,  which  attracted 
much  attention,  and  which  was  followed  by 
other  poetical  waitings  In  ISOo  he  became 
vicar  of  Bremhill,  Wilts.  He  provoked  a 
long  and  bitter  controversy  by  his  dicta  on 
poetry,  published  with  his  edition  of  Pope. 

Bowman,  Sir  William  {b.  1816,  d.  1892), 
oculist,  in  1842  gained  the  Royal  Medal  in 
physiology,  and  from  1845  to  1856  he  was  pro- 
fessor  of  physiology  and  morbid  anatomy  at 
•  lung's  College.  In  1877he  became  consulting 
surgeon  of  the  Royal  Ophthalmic  Hospital. 
He  has  written  several  medical  works,  in- 
cluding Lectures  on  the  Farts  concerned  in 
the  Operations  of  the  Eye,  Observations  on 
tlie  Artificial  Pupil,  and  in  conjunction  with 
Dr.  Todd,  The  Fhymlogical  Anatoimj  and 
Physiology  of  Man. 

Bowring,  Sir  John  {b.  1792,  d.  1872), 
linguist  and  an  active  participator  in  public 
affairs.  For  some  years  he  edited  the  Edin- 
burgh Review,  and  published  songs  and 
ballads  in  translation  of  many  European 
tongues,  besides  treatises  on  licmunerative 
Prison  Labour  and  African  Slaver  if.  He 
was  member  of  Parliament  for  Clyde  from 
1835  to  1837,  and  for  Bolton  from  1841  to 
1849._  In  the  last  mentioned  year  he  was  I 
appointed  British  Consul  at  Canton,  and 
later  plenipotentiary  to  China,  and  governor 
of  Hong  Kong.  In  1855  he  negotiated  a 
commercial  treaty  with  the  King  of  Siam. 

Bowyer,  Sir  George  {b.  1811,  d.  1883), 
barrister  and  public  man,  wrote  The  Cardinal 
Archbishop  of  Westminster  and  the  Xew 
Hierarchy,  in  defence  of  the  Pope's  distri- 
bution of  England  into  Catholic  sees.  He 
was  M.P.  for  Dundalk  from  1852  to  1868,  and 
for  county  Wexford  from  1874  to  1880. 

BoxaU,  Sir  William  {b.  1800,  d.  1879), 
English  painter,  and  director  of  the  National 
Gallery  from  1865  to  1874.  He  was  elected 
a  Royal  Academician  in  1863. 

Boyce,  William  {h.  HIO,  d.  1779),  English 
composer  of  church  music,  etc.,  popularly 
known  by  his  song  LLearts  of  Oak. 

Boydell,  John  {b.  1719,  d.  1804),  eminent 
EngHsh  engraver,  is  known  not  only  for 
his  own  engravings,  such  as  his  Views  in 
England  and  Wales,  but  for  the  series  of 
engravings,  which  he  issued  through  many 
years,  of  the  best  pictures  done  by  the  best 

Boyer,  Alexis  (6.  1757,  d.  1833),  French 
surgeon,    picked    up    his   first   knowledge 

of  surgery  in  a  barber's  shop,  but  by 
attendance  at  the  schools  of  anatomy 
he  received  an  appointment  at  La  Char  it  e, 
and  later  became  second  surgeon  at  the 
Hotel  Lieu.  Napoleon  created  him  premier 
surgeon  and  baron  of  the  empire,  and  he 
was  consulting  surgeon  to  Louis  XVIII. 
and  his  two  successors. 

Boyer,  Jean  Pien-e  {b.  1776,  d.  1850), 
president  of  the  repubhc  of  Hayti,  a 
mulatto  by  birth,  took  part  in  the  revolu- 
tion of  1793,  succeeded  Petion  as  president, 
and  ui  1822  took  possession  of  St.  Domingo. 
His  tyranny  alienated  the  support  of  the 
people,  and  his  conduct  of  affairs  with 
France  resulted  in  the  destruction  of  Port- 
au-Prince  by  a  French  fleet.  Finally  he  was 
compelled  to  fly  the  island. 

Boyle,  Charles,  Lord  Orrery  and  Baron 
Boyle  (6.  1676,  d.  1753).  His  pubHcation  of 
an  edition  of  The  Letters  of  Phalaris  pro- 
voked a  famous  controversy  with  Bentley, 
m  which  many  of  the  scholars  of  the  day 
were  engaged.  He  served  under  the  Duke 
of  Ormonde  in  Flanders,  and  was  committed 
to  the  Tower  under  George  I.  for  a  Jacobite 

Boyle,  Richard  {b.  1566,  d.  1643),  Earl  of 
Cork,  an  Enghshman  by  birth,  went  to  Hve 
m  Ireland  in  1588.  After  the  rebellion  he 
w^as  made  clerk  of  the  council  of  Minister ; 
and  years  of  active  service  to  the  Crown 
were  rewarded  by  a  peerage.  Later  he 
became  Lord  High  Treasurer  of  Ireland,  and 
during  the  1641  rebellion  displayed  the 
greatest  activity  in  its  suppression. 

Boyle,  Robert  {b.  1626,  d.  1691),  youngest 
son  of  the  preceding,  a  distinguished  man 
of  science,  was  an  early  member  of  the 
Royal  Society,  and  besides  conducting 
chemical  and  physical  research,  studied 
Oriental  languages  in  order  to  be  better  able 
to  expound  the  Scriptures.  He  instituted 
the  "Boyle  Lectures"  on  Christian  evi- 
dences ;  and  promulgated  the  gaseous  law 
known  as  "Boyle's  law." 

Boyle,  Roger,  Lord  BroghiU  (*.  1621,  d. 
1679),  son  of  the  first  Earl  of  Cork,  gained 
the  complete  confidence  of  Cromwell  by  his 
behaviour  against  the  Irish  rebels,  and  was 
made  a  privy  councillor  and  president  of  the 
council  in  Scotland.  For  his  services  in 
Ireland,  Charles  II.,  on  the  Restoration, 
made  him  Earl  of  On-ery,  lord  president  of 
Munster,  and  a  lord  justice  of  Ireland. 

Brabourne,  Edward  Knatchbull-Huges- 
sen.  Lord  {b.  1829),  poHtician,  sat  for  Sand- 
wich from  1857  to  1880,  when  Mr.  Gladstone 
raised  him  to  the  peerage.  As  a  commoner 
he  was  a  Liberal,  but  in  the  House  of  Lords 
he  has  generally  voted  mth  the  Tories.  He 
is  the  author  of  several  highly  popular  fairy 


(  1-^8  ) 


Brackenbury,  Henry  {h.  1837),  Britiai 
general,  fought  in  the 'Indian  Mutiny,  and 
in  1870  was  sent  to  the  Franco-German  war 
by  the  British  National  Society  for  Aid  to 
the  Sick  and  Wounded.  He  served  with 
Wolseley  in  Ashantee,  and  afterwards  in 
Natal;  and  commanded  a  division,  imder 
General  Earle,  in  tlie  Nile  Expedition  of 
1884-5.  He  has  written  A  Aarrative  of  the 
Ashantee  War  and  The  Nile  Column. 

Braddock,  Edward  (b.  16%,  d.  1755), 
British  general,  served  in  the  Peninsula  and 
Germany,  and  in  1754  was  appointed  to  the 
command  of  the  forces  in  Virginia.  In  1755 
he  led  an  expedition  against  Fort  Du  Quesne, 
where  his  troops  feU  into  au  ambush  and 
were  routed,  and  himself  killed. 

Braddon,  Mary  Elizabeth  (b.  1837), 
popular  novelist,  after  contributing  to  the 
provincial  press,  succeeded  m  getting  a 
comedy.  Loves  of  Arcadia^  accepted  at  the 
Strand  theatre.  In  1861  she  produced  a 
volume  of  poems,  Garibaldi,  and  then  turn- 
ing to  fiction,  published  rapidly  Lady 
Lisle,  Lady  Aiidley^s  Secret,  Aurora  Floyd, 
and  Henry  Dunbar.  These  books  established 
her  as  one  of  the  most  popular  novelists  of 
the  day,  and  later  works,  which  she  has 
published  in  large  number,  have  not  dimin- 
ished her  reputation. 

Bradford,  John  {d.  1555),  English 
martyr,  was  converted  by  Latimer  to  the 
reformed  faith,  and  became  chaplain  to 
Edward  VI.  His  eloquent  advocacy  of  the 
Protestant  faith  brought  on  him  an  im- 
prisonment of  eighteen  months  under  Mary, 
and  death  at  the  stake  at  Smithfield. 

Bradford,  William  {b.  1588,  d.  1657),  one 
of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers.  In  1621  he  suc- 
ceeded Carver  as  governor  of  New  Plymouth. 
He  w^rote  a  IListory  of  the  Flymouth  Fkntta- 

Bradlaugh,  Charles  (b.  1833,  d.  1891), 
politician,  after  working  in  several  humble 
capacities,  enlisted  in  the  army.  In  1853 
he  entered  a  solicitor's  office;  and  then  he 
achieved  a  great  influence  with  working 
men  as  a  Radical,  and  an  antagonist  of 
the  Christian  religion.  His  lectures  in  the 
Hall  of  Science,  London,  on  social,  political, 
and  religious  questions,  were  very  jDopular  ; 
and  in  1860  he  started  the  National  Fc- 
foriner,  against  which  a  futile  government 
prosecution  was  instituted.  In  1870  he 
secured  a  judicial  decision  in  favour  of 
afiirmation  in  coui'ts  of  law,  but  the  ex- 
penses of  the  trial  made  him  baiikrupt.  In 
1872  he  published  his  Lmpcachmcnt  of  the 
House  of  Brnnswi'-k,  and  the  question  of 
perpetual  pensions  always  formed  one  of 
his  favourite  subjects.  In  1880  he  was  re- 
turned for  Northampton  to  Parliament,  but 
refusing    to    take    the    oath,    he    was   not 

allowed  to  take  his  seat  until  after  the 
general  election  of  1885,  although  he  was 
repeatedly  returned  by  the  constituency. 
Afterwards  he  earned  a  high  reputation  in 
the  House  of  Commons,  and  though  a 
thorough  Radical,  opposed  the  advocates 
of  socialism.  In  1889  he  visited  India,  his 
interest  in  Indian  affairs  having  always 
been  pronounced. 

Bradley,  James  {b.  1692,  d.  1762),  Eng- 
lish astronomer,  took  orders,  but  in  1721, 
being  appointed  Sylvian  professor  of  as- 
tronomy at  Oxford,  he  devoted  himself 
entii-ely  to  science.  He  discovered  the  aber- 
ration of  light  and  established  the  formula 
for  the  law  of  refraction,  and  in  1742  was 
appointed  astronomer-royal. 

Bradshaw,  John  {b.  1602,  d.  1659), 
Enghsh  lawyer  and  a  prominent  Parlia- 
mentarian diiring  the  Civil  vrar,  presided 
over  the  commission  w^hich  tried  Charles  I., 
and  was  appointed  lord  president  of  the 

Brady,  Henry  Bowman  {b.  1835),  Eng- 
lish zoologist,  who  for  many  years  was  a 
pharmaceutical  chemist  at  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.  His  special  work  has  been  in  con- 
nection with  the  minute  forms  of  inverte- 
brate life,  and  he  has  written  A  Monoyraph 
of  Carboniferous  and  Permian  Foraminifera., 
and  The  Foraminifera  of  the  Challenger 

Brag-g,  Braxton  {b.  1817,  d.  1876),  Ameri- 
can general,  served  in  the  Mexican  war,  and 
at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  war  was  given 
a  command  in  the  Confederate  aiTny.  He 
achieved  a  series  of  victories  in  the  Mis- 
sissippi campaign,  but  was  at  last  defeated 
by  Grant. 

Brahe,  Tycho  {b.  1546,  d.  1601),  Swedish 
astronomer,  in  his  observatory  at  Huen  he 
made  the  observations  on  which  he  founded 
his  planetary  system.     He  died  at  Prague. 

Brahms,  Johannes  (b.  1833),  German 
musical  composer.  Schumann  early  ex- 
pressed the  highest  opinion  of  Brahms' 
genius,  but  for  many  years  he  was  not 
appreciated  in  Germany.  In  1861  he  went 
to  Vienna,  where  he  acquii-ed  a  high  re- 
putation, and  held  several  important  musical 
jiosts.  In  1868  he  composed  the  Bcntschcs 
Fequiem,  which,  after  the  Franco-German 
war,  was  performed  all  over  Germany,  and 
since  then  his  compositions  have  been  very 
highly  valued. 

Bramah,  Joseph  (b.  1748,  d.  1814), 
English  locksmith  and  machinist,  the  son  of 
a  Yorkshire  farmer.  Coming  to  London, 
he  invented  his  famous  lock,  which  for 
sixty -seven  years  resisted  all  attempts  to 
pick  it.     In  1795  he  invented  the  hydraulic 




press  ;  1797,  his  beer  pump  ;  and  in  1806, 
at  the  invitation  of  the  governor  of  the 
Bank  of  England,  he  invented  a  machine 
for  printing  the  numbers  and  date-lines  on 
bank  notes. 

Bramliall,  John  {b.  1594,  d.  1663),  bishop 
of  the  English  Chui-ch.  In  1634  he  was 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Derry,  and  his  in- 
sistence on  the  rights  of  the  Church 
caused  him  to  be  summoned  before  the  Star 
Chamber  in  1637.  Later  he  was  imprisoned 
in  Ireland  by  the  Parliament,  but  was  re- 
leased by  the  king.  After  the  restoration 
he  was  created  Archbishop  of  Aimagh. 

Brand,  Sir  John  Henry  {h.  1823,  d.  1888), 
president  of  the  Orange  Free  State,  to 
whicli  position  he  was  elected  in  1863.  His 
tenure  of  office  proved  beneficial  for  the 
republic.  During  the  Transvaal  war  Pre- 
sident Brand  preserved  the  strict  neutrality 
of  his  state,  and  acted  as  mediator  at  the  con- 
ference of  1881,  when  peace  was  concluded. 

Brande,  William  Thomas  {b.  1788,  d. 
1866),  chemist,  in  1813  became  professor  of 
chemistry  at  the  Royal  Institution,  and  in 
1818  he  was  awarded  the  Copley  medal  of 
the  Royal  Society. 

Brantome,  Pierre  de  Bourdeilles,  Seigneur 
de  {b.  circa  1540,  d.  1614),  historian,  left 
valuable  Memoirs. 

Brasidas  (d.  422  b.c),  Spartan  general, 
relieved  Megara  in  424.  and  defended  Am- 
phipolis,  where  he  was  killed. 

Brassey,  Thomas  {b.  1805,  d.  1870),  rail- 
way engineer.     He  constructed  several  of  | 
the   important   railways  in    Great  Britain,  I 
the  French  Western  Railway,  and  others  in 

Brassey,  Thomas,  Baron  {b.  1836),  a  pro- 
minent politician.  For  many  years  he 
represented  Hastings  in  Parliament,  and 
has  occupied  positions  in  the  Admiralty 
in  Mr.  Gladstone's  governments.  He  was 
raised  to  the  House  of  Lords  in  1886. 

Bravo,  Xicolas  {b.  1790,  d.  circa  1854), 
Mexican  general,  was  prominent  during  the 
revolution,  and  was  at  the  head  of  the 
provisional  government  which  succeeded  on 
Iturbide's  downfall ;  in  1827  he  was  ban- 
ished by  Guen-iero  ;  and  in  1829  he  again 
headed  the  administration.  In  1833  he  was 
defeated  by  Yittoria,  and  retired  to  the 
United  States. 

Bravo -Murillo,  Don  Juan  {b.  1803,  d. 
1873),  Spanish  politician,  after  La  Granja's 
revolution  became  a  leader  of  the  Con- 
servative Opposition.  He  fled  to  France  in 
1840  during  Espartero's  dictatorship,  but 
returned  in  1847  and  became  head  of  the 
government.  His  reactionary  policy  com- 
I>elVcl  his  resignation  in  1852. 

Bray,  Anna  Eliza  {b.  circa  1790,  d.  1883), 
novelist  and  writer,  in  1826  published  her 
lirst  liistorical  novel,  De  Foix,  which  was 
followed  by  others  of  the  same  class. 
She  also  wrote  a  Life  of  Handel,  and  some 
historical  sketches.  She  was  twice  married  ; 
in  1818  to  Thomas  Stothard,  and  in  1825  to 
the  Rev.  E.  A.  Bray. 

Brazil,  Emperors  of— 

(1)  Pedro  I.,  de  Alcantara  {b.  1798,  d. 
1834),  eldest  son  of  John  VI.  of  Portugal, 
was  taken  to  Brazil  by  his  father  on  the 
French  invasion  of  Portugal  in  1807.  In 
1821  he  was  left  as  Regent,  and  in  1822  was 
proclaimed  emperor  of  an  independent 
Brazil.  His  reign  was  marked  with  revolu- 
tion and  discontent,  and  he  was  compelled 
to  abdicate  in  1831  in  favour  of  his  son. 

(2)  Pedro  II.,  de  Alcantara  {b.  1825), 
successor  of  the  preceding  ;  in  1861  Brazil 
became  involved  in  a  quarrel  with  England, 
which  lasted  for  several  years;  and  in  18f5 
Brazil  joined  the  alliance  against  Paraguay. 
In  1872  the  emperor  secured  the  passage  of 
an  Act  providing  for  the  emancipation  of 
slaves,  which  disaft'ected  many  loyal  sup- 
porters, and  in  1889  a  revolution  broke  out 
which  expelled  him  from  the  throne,  and 
set  up  a  republican  government. 

Breckenridge,  John  Cabell  {b.  1821,  d. 
1875),  American  politician,  in  1851  entered 
Congress,  and  in  1856  was  elected  vice-presi- 
dent under  Buchanan.  In  1860  he  was  a 
candidate  for  the  presidency  in  the  Southern 
interest,  but  was  defeated  by  Lincoln ;  and 
having  denounced  Lincoln's  address  as  a 
declaration  of  war,  he  was  expelled  from  the 
House  of  Representatives.  He  was  givpn  a 
command  in  the  Confederate  anny. 

Bremer,  Frederika  (^.  1801,  d.  1865), 
Swedish  novelist,  many  of  whose  works 
have  been  translated  into  English,  and 
widely  circulated  in  Great  Britain  and 
America.     Her  Sketches  of  Every  Lay  Life 

and   The  H Family  first  brought  her 

into  notice ;  and  besides  her  numerous 
stories,  she  has  written  accoimts  of  travel 
in  Europe  and  America. 

Brennus,  the  celebrated  chief  of  the  Gauls 
who  captured  Rome  about  B.C.  390,  and 
compelled  a  ransom  of  1,000  pounds  of  gold, 
throwing  his  sword  into  the  scale  with  the 
words  "  r^  victisy 

Brentano,  Clemens  {b.  1778,  d.  1842), 
German  poet  of  the  romantic  school,  and  the 
brother  of  "Bettina"  (q.v.),  eloped  with 
the  wife  of  Professor  Mereau,  and  settling 
in  Heidelberg,  became  associated  with  Yon 
An^im.  in  a  remarkable  collection  of  German 
folk-songs  and  ballads.  He  continued  to 
produce  romances  and  poems  rapidly,  till 
he  was  seized  with  religious  mania  about 




Breteuil,  Louis  Auguste,  Barou  de  (6. 
1733,  d.  1807),  French  statesman,  was 
employed  by  Louis  XV.  on  many  important 
diplomatic  missions,  and  in  1783  Louis  XVI. 
appointed  him  governor  of  Paris  and 
minister  of  state.  After  the  1789  insur- 
rection he  succeeded  Neckar  as  head  of 
the  government,  but  he  "withdrew  from 
France  after  the  fall  of  the  Bastille. 

Brett,  John  {b.  1830),  English  landscape 
and  sea-piece  painter  of  great  merit,  was 
elected  an  associate  of  the  Koyal  Academy 
in  1882.  His  Britannia's  Realm  (1880)  was 
bought  by  the  Chantry  Bequest. 

Brett,  Sir  Piercy  (b.  1710,  d.  1781),  Bri- 
tish admiral,  served  with  Anson  in  his 
voyage  to  the  South  Seas,  and  in  1745,  as 
commander  of  the  Lion,  fought  a  desperate 
action  of  nine  hours  with  a  French  line-of- 
battle  ship  conveying  the  Pretender  to 
Scotland.    He  was  knighted  in  1753. 

Breughels,  The,  a  family  of  Dutch  pain- 

(1)  Pieter  the  elder,  known  as  *'The 
Droll"  {b.  1510  or  1530,  d.  1569). 

(2)  Pieter  the  younger,  known  as  "  The 
Infernal"  (*.  1559,  d.  1637). 

(3)  Jan,  son  of  Pieter  the  elder,  and 
known  as  "Velvet"  {b,  1569,  d.  1625). 

Brewer,  John  Sherren  {b.  1810,  d.  1879), 
English  clergyman  and  historian;  in  1858 
appeared  the  first  volume  of  his  edition  of 
the  Mo)iumenta  Franciscana,  followed  by 
other  reprints  of  mediaeval  classics ;  from. 
1862  till  his  death  he  was  engaged  on  his 
great  work,  the  Calendar  of  Letters  and 
Papers,  Foreign  and  Domestic,  of  the  Reign 
of  LLenrg  VLLL.^  which  is  of  the  greatest 
historical  value. 

Brewster,  Sir  David  {b.  Yl%\,  d, 
physicist,  in  1808  became  the  editor  of  the 
Edinburgh  Encydopeedia,  and  attracted 
much  attention  by  his  investigations  into 
the  phenomena  of  light.  He  invented 
the  kaleidoscope,  invented  or  improved 
many  optical  instruments,  and  introduced 
polygonal  lenses  for  lighthouses.  In 
1819  he  was  presented  with  the  Eumford 
gold  and  silver  medals  by  the  Eoyal  Society 
for  his  discoveries  with  regard  to  the  polari- 
sation of  light,  and  in  1849  he  was  elected 
one  of  the  eight  foreign  associates  of  the 
Institute  of  France.  Besides  numerous 
scientific  works,  he  wrote  a  Life  of  Newton, 
Martyrs  of  Science,  and  More  Worlds  than 
One,  books  which  possess  a  high  hterary 

Briconnet,  Guillaume  {d.  1514),  French 
statesman  and  ecclesiastic,  induced  Louis 
XI.  to  undertake  the  conquest  of  Italy,  and 
was  appointed  by  that  monarch  Archbishop 
of  Rheims  and  prime  minister.     In  1491  he 

was  made  cardinal;  was  excommunicated 
by  Julius  I.,  but  was  restored  by  Leo  X., 
who  made  him  archbishop  of  Narbonue. 

Bridgeman,  Sir  Orlando  (*.  1606,/.  1674), 
English  judge,  rapidly  attained  distinction 
at  the  bar,  and  was  returned  to  the  Long 
Padiament  in  1640,  when  he  supported  the 
Royalist  party.  He  sided  with  the  king 
during  the  Civil  war,  and  after  the  Restora- 
tion was  made  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer 
and  a  baronet,  and  shortly  after.  Chief  Jus- 
tice of  Common  Pleas.  He  presided  at  the 
trial  of  the  regicides,  and  succeeded  Claren- 
don as  Lord  Keeper  of  the  Seals. 

Bridgewater,  Francis  Egerton,  Duke  of 
[Ij.  1736,  d.  1803),  youngest  son  of  the  first 
duke,  is  especially  remembered  for  his 
enterprise  in  the  construction  of  canals, 
notably  the  Bridgewater  Canal,  in  com- 
pleting which  his  resoui'ces  were  greatly 
strained.  However,  he  died  the  possessor  of 
great  wealth. 

Bridgewater,  Rev.  Francis  Henry  Eger- 
ton, 8th  Earl  of  {b.  1758,  d.  1829),  son  of 
Lord  Egerton,  Bishop  of  Durham.  From 
him  originated  the  celebrated  Bridgewater 
Treatises.  He  left  £8,000  for  the  %vriting 
and  publishing  of  1,000  copies  of  a  work  on 
the  i)ower,  wisdom,  and  goodness  of  God. 

Bridport,  Alexander  Arthur  Hood,  Vis- 
count {b.  1728,  d.  1814),  British  admiral  and 
brother  of  Lord  Hood,  after  fighting  several 
gallant  actions,  and  serving  under  Keppel 
and  Howe,  was  knighted  in  1788,  and  took 
part  in  the  famous  action  of  the  1st  June, 
1794.  In  1795  he  defeated  the  French  fleet 
off  Lorient,  and  in  1796  was  created  a  peer 
of  Great  Britain. 

Brienne,  Gauthier  {d.  1356),  Duke  of 
Athens  and  Constable  of  France,  having 
lost  his  duchy,  went,  in  1336,  to  Florence 
as  administrator  for  the  King  of  Naples. 
In  1339  he  fought  with  Philip  de  Valois 
against  the  English;  and  in  1341  defeated 
the  Pisans,  and  became  ruler  of  Florence. 
Having  been  expelled  from  the  city,  he  re- 
turned to  France,  and  was  killed  at 

Bright,  John  {b.  1811,  d.  1889),  orator  and 
statesman.  He  was  born  near  Rochdale  of 
a  Quaker  family,  his  father  being  engagad 
in  the  cotton -spinning  trade.  When  sixteen 
years  old  John  Bright  entered  his  father's 
business,  and  began  to  take  an  interest  in 
public  affairs.  He  first  met  and  became 
associated  with  Cobden  in  connection  with 
the  national  education  question,  after  return- 
ing from  a  visit  to  Eastern  Eui'ope ;  and  in 
1839  his  name  was  prominent  among  the 
committee  of  the  National  Anti-Corn  Law 
League,  which  sprang  up  at  that  time,  and 
his  devotion  to  the  cause  was  intensified  by 
the  grief  occasioned  by  the  death  of  his 


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wife  in  1841,  after  a  married  life  of  only  two 
years.  In  1843  he  was  returned  by  Durliam 
to  ParHameut,  aud  was  indefatigable  in  his 
efforts  for  the  repeal  of  the  corn  laws. 
The  movement  set  on  foot  by  Lord  Shaftes- 
bury for  the  limitation  of  factory  labour  to 
ten  hours  a  day  was  strongly  opposed  by 
Bright,  who  thereby  incurred  much  un- 
popularity. His  eloquence  was  next  turned 
to  Irish  and  Indian  questions ;  aud  in  regard 
to  Ireland  he  advocated  reform  of  the  land 
laws  and  disestablishment  of  the  Irish 
Church.  In  1849  he  married  a  second  time. 
The  parliamentary  session  of  1855  was 
rendered  memorable  as  the  occasion  of  some 
of  Bright's  finest  orations,  delivered  in 
denunciation  of  the  Crimean  war.  Illness 
compelled  him  to  go  abroad  in  1857,  when 
Palmerston  was  defeated  on  tlie  Chinese 
question.  In  the  general  election  which 
followed  Bright  was  defeated  at  Manchester, 
for  which  constituency  he  had  sat  since 
1847.  In  1857  he  was  elected  for  Birming- 
ham, and  remained  that  borough's  member 
till  his  death.  After  helping  to  defeat  Lord 
Palmerston  in  1858,  he  supported  strongly 
Lord  Derby's  measure  for  the  abolition  of 
the  East  India  Company  ;  and  on  the  out- 
break of  the  American  Civil  war  he  again 
excited  great  unpopularity  by  his  uncom- 
promising advocacy  of  the  cause  of  the 
North.  After  Mr.  Gladstone's  defeat  in 
1865  on  the  Keform  Bill,  Bright  conducted 
a  campaign  in  favour  of  reform,  and  ob- 
tained from  Mr.  Disraeli's  government  a 
measure  embodying  many  of  his  principles. 
Again  he  turned  to  the  questions  of  Irish 
disestablishment  and  land  reform,  and  was 
president  of  the  Board  of  Trade  in  Mr. 
Gladstone's  government  which  passed  the 
1870  Land  Act  and  the  Irish  Church  Dis- 
establishment Act.  For  two  years  he  retired 
from  public  life,  but  joined  Mr.  Gladstone's 
Ministry  in  1873,  and  from  then  until  his 
return  to  ofRce  with  the  Liberals  in  1880 
took  a  prominent  part  in  the  agitation  for 
the  disestablishment  of  the  English  Church. 
In  1886  he  opposed  Mr.  Gladstone's  Home 
Rule  policy,  and  became  the  great  strength 
of  the  Unionist  party,  his  influence  going  a 
very  long  way  towards  winning  the  general 
election  of  1886. 

Bright,  Richard  (b.  1789,  d.  1858), 
English  doctor,  physician  of  Guy's  Hospital, 
was  the  first  to  describe  the  affection  of  the 
kidneys  known  as  "Bright's  Disease" — a 
disease  to  which  he  himself  succumbed. 

Brindley,  James  (b.  1716,  d.  1772), 
English  engineer,  after  serving  as  a  farm 
labourer,  became  a  wheelwright,  and  also 
attained  a  reputation  as  a  practical  engineer, 
inventing  an  engine  for  the  draining  of  coal- 
mines. He  effected  many  improvements 
in  mill  machinery,  and  superintended  the 
construction  of  the  Duke  of  Bridgewater's 

canals.  His  last  work  was  the  construction 
of  the  Grand  Trunk  Canal  connecting  the 
Mersey  aud  the  Trent. 

Brinkley,  John  (b.  1763,  d.  1836), 
English  astronomer  aud  Regius  professor  of 
astronomy  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  iu 
1814  discovered  the  parallax  of  the  fixed 
stars,  aud  in  1826  he  was  ordained  bishon  of 
Cloyne.  ^ 

Brinvilliers,  Marie  Marguerite,  Marquise 
de  (6.  1630,  d.  1676),  French  criminal, 
poisoned  her  father,  brothers,  and  sister,  for 
which  crimes  she  was  tortured  and  executed. 

Brisbane,  Sir  Charles  {b.  1769,  d.  1829), 
British  admiral,  fought  in  many  of  the 
memorable  naval  engagements  with  the 
French  and  Dutch  at  the  close  of  the  last 
century,  and  in  1805  distinguished  himself 
by  a  brilliant  action  against  the  Spanish 
at  Havannah.  In  1807  he  sailed  into  the 
harbour  of  Cura^oa,  and  captured  the 
island.  In  1808  he  was  made  governor  of 
St.  Vincent. 

Brisbane,  Sir  Thomas  Macdougall  (b. 
1773,  d.  1860),  soldier  and  astronomer, 
served  with  the  army  in  Flanders,  the 
Peninsula,  the  "West  Indies,  and  North 
America,  and  In  1821  was  appointed  governor 
of  New  South  Wales.  His  administration 
was  able  aud  beneficial  in  a  high  degree. 
He  founded  a  large  observatory  in  Australia, 
and  received  the  Copley  medal  of  the  Royal 
Society  for  his  work  in  cataloguing  7,385 
stars.  On  returning  to  Great  Britain  he 
devoted  himself  to  astronomy,  and  succeeded 
Sir  Walter  Scott  as  president  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Edinburgh. 

Brisson,  Henri  (6.  1835),  French  states- 
man ;  in  1864  his  articles  in  the  Temps,  in 
opposition  to  the  second  empire,  gave  him 
considerable  reputation.  After  the  fall  of 
the  empire  he  became  deputy-mayor  of 
Paris,  but  soon  resigned  the  office.  In  1871 
he  entered  the  Chamber  of  Deputies,  and  in 
1879  became  its  president.  In  1885  he 
formed  an  administration  in  succession  to 
that  of  M.  Ferry,  and  was  succeeded  ia  1886 
by  M.  de  Freycinet. 

Brisson,  Mathurin  Jacques  (b.  1723,  d. 
1806),  French  physician  and  naturalist, 
was  professor  of  physics  at  the  College 
of  Navarre,  and  instructor  to  the  royal 
children.  He  wrote  several  scientific  works, 
and  was  employed  by  government  on  several 

Brissot-de-Warville,  Jean  Pierre  (b.  1754, 
d.  1793),  French  politician  and  political 
WTiter,  studied  law  in  the  same  office  as 
Robespierre,  and  gained  some  reputation 
by  his  Theory  of  Criminal  Laics.  He  was 
committed  to  the  Bastille  for  some  time,  and 
afterwards  fled  to  England  and  America. 


(  162  ) 


In  1789  he  returned  to  France,  and  edited 
the  Patriofe  Fraiirais,  and  ho  entered  the 
National  Assembly  as  representative  for 
Paris.  Falling  under  the  suspicion  of  the 
extremists,  he  was  guillotined  in  1793. 

BristOW,  Henry  William  {b.  1817),  dis- 
tinguished geologist,  in  1842  became  con- 
nected with  the  Geological  Survey  of 
England,  of  which  he  was  director  for  many 
years.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Royal  and 
Geological  Societies,  and  has  written,  anong 
other  works.  Geology  of  the  Isle  of  Wight, 
A  Glossary  of  Mhiera'loyy  inid  British  Sedi- 
mentary and'  Fossil )fv run ^  Strctn,  the  last  in 
conjunction  with  Mr.  Etheridge. 

Brock,  Thomas  {b.  1847),  E.A.,  sculptor, 
finished  the  O'Connell  monument  in  Dublin, 
begun  by  Foley,  and  has  executed  statues  of 
Richai-d  Baxter,  Robert  Raikes,  Sir  Rowland 
Hill,  and  the  bust  of  Longfellow  in  West- 
minster Abbey.  His  equestrian  group,  A 
Momoit  of  Peril,  was  purchased  by  the 
Royal  Academy,  to  which  he  was  elected  an 
associate  in  1883. 

Brockhaus,  Friederich  Arnold  {h.  1772,  d. 
1823),  a  German  bookseller,  founder  of  the 
greatest  publishing  firm  in  Germany.  He 
settled  in  Leipzig,  where  the  business  was 
earned  on  by  his  sons  Heinrich  and 

Brockhaus,  Hermann  {b.  1806,  d.  1877), 
son  of  the  preceding,  a  distinguished  Orien- 
tahst,  was  j^rofessor  of  Indian  literature 
at  Leipzig,  and  translated  several  of  the 
Sanscrit  classics. 

Brodhead,  Johu  Romeyn  {b.  1814,  d. 
1873),  AiTierican  historian,  in  1835  went 
to  the  Hague  as  charge  d\if aires,  when  he 
was  commissioned  by  the  Government  to  col- 
lect materials  for  a  history  of  Xew  York.  In 
1845  the  first  volume  of  the  work  appeared  ; 
and  in  184'j  Mr.  Brodhead  was  appointed 
secretary  of  the  Legation  in  London. 

Brodie,  Sir  Benjamin  Collins  {b.  1783,  d. 
1862),  surgeon,  for  many  years  was  surgeon 
to  St.  George's  Hospital,  where  his  lectures 
were  highly  valued.  In  1819  he  became 
anatomical  professor  to  the  Royal  College 
of  Surgeons;  and  in  1823  became  surgeon- 
in-ordinary  to  the  king.  Among  his 
numerous  works  were  Physiological  Papers 
and  Physiological  Inquiries. 

Broglie,AchilleLeonce  Victor  Charles,  Due 
de  (b.  1785,  d.  1870),  after  the  overthrow  of 
Napoleon  in  1815  joined  Guizot's  party  as 
a  member  of  the  Chamber  of  Peers,  and  in 
1832  he  became  Louis  Philippe's  foreign 
secretary,  and  retained  the  post  for  two 
years.  In  1836  he  was  for  a  short  time 
prime  minister,  and  after  the  1S4S  revolution 
was  a  strong  opponent  of  Louis  Napoleon. 

Broglie,  Albert,  Due  de  [b.  1821),  son 
of  the  preceding,  after  writing  several 
brilKant  historical  and  theological  works, 
became  iu  1S71  ambassador  to  London; 
but,  resigning  iu  the  following  year,  he 
became  leader  of  the  royahst  party  in  the 
Chamber.  His  efforts  were  devoted  to 
restoring  the  monarchy  in  France,  and  in 
1873  he  succeeded  in  placing  Marshal 
McMahon  in  the  president's  chair  instead  of 
Thiers,  while  he  himself  became  president 
of  the  council  and  foreign  minister.  He 
then  set  to  work  to  displace  republican 
officials  throughout  France,  and  carried  the 
prolongation  of  the  marshal's  presidency 
for  seven  years.  In  1876,  however,  his  plans 
were  upset  by  the  defection  of  the  Legiti- 
mists, and  he  had  to  resign.  In  1877  he 
again  became  head  of  an  administration,  but 
was  defeated  in  the  same  year,  and  was 
subjected  soon  after  to  a  vote  of  censure 
from  the  Chamber.  In  1885  he  was  rejected 
at  the  general  election. 

Broglie,  Victor  Maurice,  Comte  de  [b. 
1639,  d.  1727),  distinguished  marshal  of 
France,  who  served  in  most  of  the  cam- 
paigns of  his  day. 

Broglie,  Francois  Marie,  Due  de  (b.  1671, 
d.  1745),  son  of  the  preceding,  entered  the 
army  at  a  very  early  age,  and  from  1689  to 
1713  saw  constant  service  in  German3% 
Flanders,  or  Italy.  In  1733  he  commanded 
in  Ital}',  and  in  1741  commanded  the  army 
in  Bohemia,  where  he  was  shut  up  in 
Prague.  As  he  found  it  impossible  to 
defend  Bavaria,  he  withdrew  his  array,  for 
Avhich  he  was  exiled  to  his  estates. 

Brog-lie,  Victor  Francois,  Due  de  (b.  1718, 
d.  1804),  son  of  the  preceding,  served  iu 
Italy  and  in  Germany  before  he  wa? 
twenty,  and  in  1745  succeeded  to  the  title. 
Having  fought  throughout  the  Seven  Years' 
war,  in  1759  he  achieved  a  brilliant  victory 
against  Prince  Ferdinand,  for  which  he  was 
created  prince  of  the  empire.  As  com- 
mander-in-chief iu  Germany  he  defeated 
the  Prussians  at  Corbach,  and  in  1761  again 
defeated  Prince  Ferdinand  at  Fillinghausen. 
In  1762  he  was  recalled  and  exiled,  but 
restored  in  1764.  In  1789  he  was  com- 
pelled to  fly  from  France,  and  joined  in 
1792  the  Duke  of  Brunswick's  invasion  of 
Champagne.     He  died  in  Germany. 

Broglie,  Charles  Fran^-ois,  Comte  de  {b. 
1719,  f/.  1781),  brother  of  the  preceding,  for 
some  years  was  ambassador  at  Warsaw, 
and  then  served  under  his  brother  in 
Germany.  Later  he  was  appointed  director 
of  the  secret  ministry ;  and  was  then  exiled 
for  a  time.  He  Avas  again  exiled  before  the 
death  of  Louis  XV. 

Broglie,  Claude  Victor,  Prince  de  {b.  1757, 
d.   1794),  son  of  the  preceding,  joined  the 




popular  uiovemout ;  was  elected  to  the  States 
General,  and  was  for  a  time  president  of  the 
National  Assemblj'.  Appointed  coninrander 
of  the  army  of  the  Rhine,  he  was  recalled  in 
1792  for  refusing  to  acquiesce  in  the  king's 
deposition,  and  was  shortly  after  executed. 

Broke,  Sir  Philip  Dives  Vere  {b.  1776,  d. 
1841),  British  admiral,  memorable  as  the  hero 
of  the  naval  duel  between  the  Cnesupcakedind. 
the  IShaiiuon  during  the  war  with  America. 

Bronte,  Charlotte  {b.  1816,  d.  1855),  Eng- 
lish authoress,  the  eldest  of  the  three  Bronte 
sisters.  After  some  experience  as  a  gover- 
ness she  became  engaged  with  her  sisters  in 
the  writing  of  novels,  and  in  1846  published 
with  them  a  small  volume  of  poems  under  the 
names  of  Currer,  Ellis,  and  Acton  Bell.  In 
1847  she  published  the  well-known  story 
Jane  Et/re.  Its  success  was  instantaneous 
and  complete.  Although  adversely  and 
severely  criticised,  it  was  and  is  admitted 
to  be  one  of  the  most  remarkable  of  English 
novels.  Her  second  story,  Shirley,  w^as 
published  in  1849,  and  her  third  and  last, 
Villette,  in  1853.  Another  story.  The 
Professor,  which  had  been  refused  by  the 
publishers  before  Jane  Eyre  had  made  its 
authoress  famous,  was  published  after  her 
death.  In  June,  1854,  she  married  the  Eev. 
Mr,  Xicholls,  who  had  been  for  a  time  her 
father's  curate.  But  soon  after  her 
marriage  consumption,  which  had  carried 
off  her  sisters  and  brothers,  settled  on 
her,  and  she  died  in  her  fortieth  year. 

Bronte,  Emily  {b.  1818,  d.  1848).  At  the 
same  time  that  Charlotte  was  engaged  in 
writing  The  Professor,  and  the  younger 
sister  Aynes  Grey,  Emily  wrote  Wathering 
Heights,  which  was  accepted  and  published. 

Bronte,  Anne  {b.  1819,  d.  1849),  whose 
story  of  Agnes  Gre>/  was  succeeded  by  The 
Tenant  of  Wild  fell  Hall;  but  neither  of 
these  stories  is  in  any  way  remarkable. 
She  died  in  less  than  six  months  after 

Brooke,  Gustavus  Yaughan  {b.  1818,  d. 
1866),  tragedian,  when  only  fifteen  sq}- 
peared  in  Dublin  as  William  Tell,  and 
in  1848  made  a  great  success  in  London 
as  Othello.  In  1850  he  w^ent  to  New 
York,  where  he  was  enthusiastically  re- 
ceived, and  in  1854  to  Australia.  In  1866 
he  set  out  on  a  second  %4sit  to  Australia  in 
the  London,  in  the  wreck  of  which  vessel  he 

Brooke,  Henry  {b.  1706,  d.  1783),  an 
Irish  man  of  letters,  coming  to  London, 
married  in  his  twentieth  year  his  cousin, 
who  was  not  quite  fifteen.  He  did  not 
succeed  at  the  bar  ;  and  so  turned  to  litera- 
ture, producing  a  philosophical  poem,  Uni- 
versal Beauty,  in  1735.  He  was  taken  up  by 

the  literary  celebrities  of  the  day,  and  his 
next  work,  Gustavits  Vasa,  a  tragedy,  proved 
a  great  success,  having  been  interdicted 
from  representation  on  the  stage.  He 
retired  to  Ireland,  and  continued  to  write 
prolifically.  His  best- known  work  is  The 
Pool  of  Quality. 

Brooke,    Sir   James    {b.    1803,    d.    1868), 

known  as  the  Rajah  of  Sarawak,  at  the 

age  of  twenty-two  entered  the  service  of 

:   the  East  India   Company,   and  took  part 

'   in  the   first   Burmese    war.      In    1838    he 

.   went    to    Borneo    in    the   yacht    Royalist, 

and  aided  the  Sultan  to  reduce  the  Dyak 

j   tribes  of  Sarawak,  a  service  for  which  he 

'   was  made  Rajah  in  1841.     In  1847  he  was 

made   governor  of   Labuan,   purchased  by 

England  from  Borneo.     He  was  dej)rived  of 

his  governoiship,  however,   on  a  charge  of 

undue   severity,    though  acquitted    by    the 

royal  commission  at  Suigapore. 

Brooke,  Rev,  Stopford  Augustus  {p. 
1832),  preacher,  was  educated  at  Trinity 
College,  Dublin,  and  took  his  M.A,  in 
1868.  He  held  the  ministry  of  St,  James's 
chapel  from  1866  to  1875,  and  after- 
wards that  of  Bedford  chapel.  Blooms- 
bury,  and  in  1872  he  was  appointed  chap- 
lain^-in-ordinary  to  the  Queen.  In  1880  he 
seceded  from  the  Church  of  England.  He 
is  the  author  of  several  theological  works. 

Brooks,  Charles  William  Shirley  {b.  1815, 
d.  1874),  journalist,  was  appointed  editor  of 
Punch  in  1870,  and  he  wrote  Aspen  Court, 
The  Gordian  Knot,  and  other  works. 

Brougham     and    Vaux,    Henry    Peter, 
Lord    {b.    1778,    d.    1868),    statesman    and 
lawyer,  was  educated  at  the  High  School 
and  University  of  Edinburgh,  and  in  1800 
became    a    member    of    the    Scottish    bar, 
becoming  conspicuous  as  the  centre  of  the 
group    of    young    Whigs    then    in    Edin- 
!  burgh.     He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
Edinlmryh    Periew,    the     first    number    of 
I  which  appeared  in  October,  1802,  and  for 
I  many  years  he  continued  to  be  one  of  its 
;   largest  contributors.      Later  he  was  called 
i    to  the  English  bar,   and  in  1809   was  re- 
turned to  Parliament  for  the  smaU  Cornish 
\  borough  of  Camelford.     He  became  at  once 
'•  a    leading   orator    of    the  Whigs  and  the 
;  sjiecial  opponent  of  Canning  himself,  against 
i  whom  he  fought  a  famous  election  contest 
'  at  Liverpool.     The  greatest  achievement  in 
his  early  parliamentary  career  was  carrjiug 
I  through  the  bill  which,  by  making  the  slave 
I  trade  felony,  made  efYectual  Fox's  Act  for 
:  its  abolition.      As  a  lawyer,  his  successful 
defence  of  Leigh  Hunt  for  republishing  an 
article  on  flogging  in  the  army  brought  him 
into  the  first  rank  of  political  advocates.    He 
j  was  largely  influential  in  giving  prominence 
I  to   schemes   of  popular  education,   in   1823 
j  co-operated  with  Mr.  Birkbeck  in  founding 




mechanics'  institutes,  and  was  one  of  the 
most  prominent  amongst  those  who  es- 
tablished the  unsectarian  London  Uni- 
versity. From  1820  his  poHtical  importance 
continued  to  increase.  He  made  political 
capital  out  of  the  wrongs  of  Queen  Caroline, 
and  obtained  great  popularity  out  of  his 
conduct  of  her  case.  He  advocated  every 
motion  for  parliamentary  reforms,  and  in 
1822  brought  forward  an  attack  on  the 
influence  of  the  Crown.  His  famous  si:)eech 
in  1828  on  the  defects  of  the  common  law 
courts  and  the  law  of  real  property  brought 
him  into  prominence  as  a  law  reformer ; 
aud  in  1830  the  fall  of  the  Wellington 
ministry  was  precipitated  by  his  announce- 
ment that  he  would  introduce  a  Reform 
Bill.  In  Grey's  "Whig  ministry  he  became 
Lord  Chancellor  and  a  peer.  This  was  the 
culminating  point  of  his  career.  As  Lord 
Chancellor,  his  overbearing  manners,  cou- 
pled with  his  ignorance  of  equity  law,  made 
him  extremely  unpopular,  and  in  the  cabinet 
his  inordinate  vanity  and  reckless  incon- 
sistency made  it  impossible  for  his  colleagues 
to  work  with  liim.  The  Whig  ministry  was 
thrown  out  in  183'!,  and  on  its  return  after 
Peel's  failure  no  place  was  found  for  the 
late  minister.  For  many  years,  however,  he 
found  useful  scope  for  his  energies  as  a  law 
reformer,  and  in  literature.  He  was  the 
author  of  a  History  of  the  House  of  Lancaster, 
and  Sketches  of  the  Statesmen  of  the  Time  of 
George  III. 

Broughton,  William  Eobert  {b.  1763,  d. 
1822),  English  navigator,  took  part  in  Van- 
couver's expedition  of  1790,  and  in  1793 
undertook  a  voyage  of  discovery  in  the  Fro- 
vidence.  Having  passed  Japan,  he  was 
shipwrecked  ;  but  having  refitted  in  Can- 
ton, set  out  again.  He  published  ^  Voyage 
of  iJiscovery  to  the  Xorth  Pacific  Ocean. 

Brouwer,  Adi-ia  (fi.  1608,  d.  1640),  Dutch 
painter  of  scenes  of  low  life. 

Brown,  Ford  Madox  {b.  1821),  painter, 
by  many  has  been  regarded  as  the  leading 
light  of  the  pre-Raphaelite  school,  though 
he  was  not  the  first  to  adopt  its  methods. 
Among  his  best-known  works  are  Chaucer 
Reciting  his  I'oetry  at  the  Cotirt  of 
Edivard  the  Third,  which  now  decorates 
the  galleiy  at  Sydney,  and  Christ  Washing 
Peter'' s  Feet.  Later  in  life  he  spent  many 
years  in  Manchester,  decorating  the  Town 
Hall  of  that  city  with  a  series  of  brilliant 
designs  illustrative  of  its  history.  He 
married  the  sister  of  D.  G.  Rossetti. 

Brown,  John  [b.  1810,  d.  1882),  doctor  and 
author,  wrote  Fab  and  his  Friends,  Fet 
Marjoric,  and  other  works. 

Brown,  John  {b.  1800,  d.  1859),  American 
aboUtionist,  in  li^59  conceived  the  idea  of 

effecting  the  abolition  of  slavery  by  a 
general  negro  rising;  but  though  he 
seized  the  arsenal  of  Harper's  Ferry  (Oct. 
10th)  the  negroes  refused  to  stir,  and  he  was 
taken  aud  hanged. 

Brown,  Robert  {b.  1773,  d.  1858),  Scottish 
surgeon  aud  botanist,  was  appointed 
naturaUst  to  the  Investigator  in  the 
Australian  expedition  of  1801.     In  1810  he 

?ubhshed  the  results  of  the  voyage  in 
^rodromus  Flora  Novce  Hollandicc.  As 
librarian  to  the  Linnsean  Society  he  wrote 
many  works  of  value,  and  ultimately  became 
president  of  the  society. 

Brown,  Robert  {b.  1549,  d.  1630),  a  Puri- 
tan, known  as  the  founder  of  the  Brown  ists, 
in  1561,  while  at  Cambridge,  was  cited 
before  Archbishop  Parker  for  heterodoxy, 
and  before  he  died  he  was  imprisoned  thirty- 
two  times.  In  1580  he  accepted  a  ministry 
at  Norwich,  and  later  went  to  Holland.  In 
1585  he  returned  to  England,  and  suffered 

Brown,  Sir  Samuel  {b.  1776,  d.  1852), 
English  naval  officer,  is  remembered  for  his 
skill  as  a  mechanical  engineer,  and  made 
several  useful  inventions  in  bridges,  piers, 
and  chain  cables.  The  Brighton  Pier  and 
the  Tweed  Bridge  are  due  to  him. 

Brown,  Thomas  {b.  1778,  d.  1820),  a  cele- 
brated Scottish  metaphysician,  studying  in 
Edinburgh,  published  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
and  took  a  medical  degree  in  1803.  The 
first  work  which  attracted  much  attention 
was  his  Fxamination  of  Harness  Frinciples 
respecting  Gousation.  In  1810  he  became 
joint  professor  of  moral  philosophy  with 
Dugald  Stewart,  and  his  lectures  were 
highly  valued.  He  wrote  several  volumes 
of  verse,  which  were  well  received. 

Browne,  Charles  Farrer.  {See  Ward, 

Browne,  Edward  Harold  {b.  1811), 
theologian,  educated  at  Eton,  and  Em- 
manuel, Cambridge,  became  a  fellow  and 
tutor  of  his  college,  and  in  1857  Norresian 
professor.  He  was  made  Bishop  of  Ely  in 
1864,  and  when  Bishop  Wilberforce  died  was 
translated  to  the  see  of  Winchester,  and 
appointed  prelate  to  the  Order  of  the  Garter. 
Dr.  Browne  has  published  a  large  number 
of  works,  chiefly  on  theological  subjects. 

Browne,  Hablot  Knight  {b.  1815,  d.  1882), 
distinguished  artist  and  caricaturist,  known 
to  fame  as  "  Phi"^."  Apprenticed  to  a  me- 
chaiucal  engraver,  he  first  attained  success 
by  his  illustrations  of  Fickwick  (1837),  and 
from  that  time  continued  with  increasing 
popularity.  He  illustrated,  besides  several 
cf  Dickens' works,  nearly  all  Lever's  novels, 
and  some  of  Fielding  and  Smollett.  In  1867 
he  was  af